Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy

Orbital extracellular matrix exhibits a significant increase in tissue fractions of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in patients with thyroid-associated ophthal-mopathy (TAO) (151). Immunoglobulin G of patients with TAO markedly stimulates hyaluronan secretion from retrobulbar fibroblasts (152) and such patients exhibit significantly greater antibody values against hyaluronan (153). Lymphocytes on retrobulbar fibroblasts show a tendency for TAO patients' lymphocytes to enhance the synthesis of hyaluronan (154). Hyaluronan expression is also increased at the extraocular muscle level in patients with TAO (155).

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and cAMP increase the synthesis of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan by retroocular tissue fibroblasts (156,157). HMC-1, an established human mast cell line, can activate human orbital fibroblasts to produce increased levels of prostaglandin E2 and hyaluronan when co-cultured (158). Interleukin-lbeta (IL-lbeta) regulates the expression of HAS genes in orbital fibroblasts (159). Cytosolic Ca (2 + ) and PKC betall are involved in IL-lbeta-induced hyaluronan synthesis in cultured orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (160).

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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