References

1. Itano N, Kimata K. Mammalian hyaluronan synthases. IUBMB Life 2002; 54: 195-199.

2. Day AJ, Prestwich GD. Hyaluronan-binding proteins: tying up the giant. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:4585-4588.

3. Turley EA, Noble PW, Bourguignon LY. Signaling properties of hyaluronan receptors. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:4589-4592.

Ponta H, Sherman L, Herrlich PA. CD44: from adhesion molecules to signalling regulators. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2003; 4:33-45.

Rittig M, Lutjen-Drecoll E, Prehm P. Immunohistochemical localization of hyaluronan synthase in cornea and conjunctive of cynomolgus monkey. Exp Eye Res 1992; 54:455-460.

Usui T, Suzuki K, Kaji Y, Amano S, Miyata K, Heldin P, Yamashita H. Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40:563-567.

Asari A, Miyauchi S, Takahashi T, Kohno K, Uchiyama Y. Localization of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and CD44 in rabbit cornea. Arch Histol Cytol 1992; 55:503-511.

Eggli PS, Graber W. Ultrastructural distribution of hyaluronan in rat cornea. Exp Eye Res 1993; 56:693-699.

Lerner LE, Schwartz DM, Hwang DG, Howes EL, Stern R. Hyaluronan and CD44 in the human cornea and limbal conjunctiva. Exp Eye Res 1998; 67:481-484. Inoue M, Katakami C. The effect of hyaluronic acid on corneal epithelial cell proliferation. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1993; 34:2313-2315. Nishida T, Nakamura M, Mishima H, Otori T. Hyaluronan stimulates corneal epithelial migration. Exp Eye Res 1991; 53:753-758.

Sugiyama T, Miyauchi S, Machida A, Miyazaki K, Tokuyasu K, Nakazawa K. The effect of sodium hyaluronate on the migration of rabbit corneal epithelium. II. The effect of topical administration. J Ocul Pharmacol 1991; 7:53-64. Nakamura M, Hikida M, Nakano T. Concentration and molecular weight dependency of rabbit corneal epithelial wound healing on hyaluronan. Curr Eye Res 1992; 11:981-986.

Chung JH, Kim WK, Lee JS, Pae YS, Kim HJ. Effect of topical Na-hyaluronan on hemidesmosome formation in n-heptanol-induced corneal injury. Ophthal Res 1998; 30:96-100.

Chung JH, Fagerholm P, Lindstrom B. Hyaluronate in healing of corneal alkali wound in the rabbit. Exp Eye Res 1989; 48:569-576.

Molander N, Lindquist U, Stenevi U, von Malmborg A, Ehinger B. Influence of radial keratotomy on endogenous hyaluronan in cornea and aqueous humour. Refract Corneal Surg 1993; 9:358-365.

Drubaix I, Legeais JM, Robert L, Renard G. Corneal hyaluronan content during post-ablation healing: evidence for a transient depth-dependent contralateral effect. Exp Eye Res 1997; 64:301-304.

Nakamura M, Mishima H, Nishida T, Otori T. Binding of hyaluronan to plasma fibronectin increases the attachment of corneal epithelial cells to a fibronectin matrix. J Cell Physiol 1994; 159:415-422.

Nakamura M, Nishida T. Synergistic effects of hyaluronan and fibronectin on epithelial migration in rabbit cornea in vitro. Cornea 1999; 18:686-692. Sakuma M, Miyachi S, Sakamoto T. The effect of sodium hyaluronate on the expression of gelatinases in rabbit corneal epithelial wound healing. Jpn J Ophthalmol 2000; 44:475-481.

Yamagata M, Shinomura T, Kimata K. Tissue variation of two large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (PG-M/versican and PG-H/aggrecan) in chick embryos. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1993; 187:433-444.

Zhu SN, Nolle B, Duncker G. Expression of adhesion molecule CD44 on human corneas. Br J Ophthalmol 1997; 81:80-84.

23. Huang AJ, Li CH, Chen YW, Bourguignon LY. Co-expression of bcl-2 and CD44s in basal layers of human ocular surface epithelia. Adv Exp Med Biol 1998; 438: 527-531.

24. Yu FX, Guo J, Zhang Q. Expression and distribution of adhesion molecule CD44 in healing corneal epithelia. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39:710-717.

25. Asari A, Morita M, Sekiguchi T, Okamura K, Horie K, Miyauchi S. Hyaluronan, CD44 and fibronectin in rabbit corneal epithelial wound healing. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1996; 40:18-25.

26. Miyazaki T, Miyauchi S, Nakamura T, Takeshita S, Horie K. The effect of sodium hyaluronate on the growth of rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 1996; 12:409-415.

27. Gong H, Underhill CB, Freddo TF. Hyaluronan in the bovine ocular anterior segment, with emphasis on the outflow pathways. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994; 5:4328-4332.

28. Molander N, Ehinger B, Rolfsen W, Harfstrand A, Stenevi U. Histochemical identification of hyaluronan in the rabbit anterior segment during the healing period after extracapsular lens extraction. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1993; 71: 336-346.

29. Podskochy A, Fagerholm P. Cellular response and reactive hyaluronan production in UV-exposed rabbit corneas. Cornea 1998; 17:640-645.

30. Chung J, Park Y, Paek S, Chong Y, Kim W. Effect of Na-hyaluronan on stromal and endothelial healing in experimental corneal alkali wounds. Ophthal Res 1999; 31:432-439.

31. Isnard N, Legeais JM, Renard G, Robert L. Effect of hyaluronan on MMP expression and activation. Cell Biol Int 2001; 25:735-739.

32. Kaya G, Rodriguez I, Jorcano JL, Vassalli P, Stamenkovic I. Selective suppression of CD44 in keratinocytes of mice bearing an antisense CD44 transgene driven by a tissue-specific promoter disrupts hyaluronate metabolism in the skin and impairs keratinocyte proliferation. Genes Dev 1997; 11: 996-1007.

33. Tsonis PA, Goetinck PF. Expression of cartilage-matrix genes and localization of their translation products in the embryonic chick eye. Exp Eye Res 1998; 46: 753-764.

34. Chandrasekhar S, Kleinman HK, Hassell JR, Martin GR, Termine JD, Trelstad RL. Regulation of type I collagen fibril assembly by link protein and proteoglycans. Coll Relat Res 1984; 4:323-337.

35. Isnard N, Robert L, Renard G. Effect of sulfated GAGs on the expression and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in corneal and dermal explant cultures. Cell Biol Int 2003; 27:779-784.

36. Cursiefen C, Schlotzer-Schrehardt U, Kuchle M, Sorokin L, Breiteneder-Geleff S, Alitalo K, Jackson D. Lymphatic vessels in vascularized human corneas: immunohistochemical investigation using LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:2127-2135.

37. Lutjen-Drecoll E, Schenholm M, Tamm E, Tengblad A. Visualization of hyaluronic acid in the anterior segment of rabbit and monkey eyes. Exp Eye Res 1990; 51:55-63.

38. Rittig M, Flugel C, Prehm P, Lutjen-Drecoll E. Hyaluronan synthase immuno-reactivity in the anterior segment of the primate eye. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1993; 231:313-317.

Usui T, Amano S, Oshika T, Suzuki K, Miyata K, Araie M, Heldin P, Yamashita H. Expression regulation of hyaluronan synthase in corneal endothelial cells. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41:3261-3267.

Harfstrand A, Molander N, Stenevi U, Apple D, Schenholm M, Madsen K. Evidence of hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid binding sites on human corneal endothelium. J Cataract Refract Surg 1992; 18:265-269.

Forsberg N, Von Malmborg A, Madsen K, Rolfsen W, Gustafson S. Receptors for hyaluronan on corneal endothelial cells. Exp Eye Res 1994; 59:689-696. Schwartz DM, Jumper MD, Lui GM, Dang S, Schuster S, Stern R. Corneal endothelial hyaluronidase: a role in anterior chamber hyaluronic acid catabolism. Cornea 1997; 16:188-191.

Jumper JM, Chang DF, Hoyt CS, Hall JL, Stern R, Schwartz DM. Aqueous hyaluronic acid concentration: comparison in pediatric and adult patients. Curr Eye Res 1997; 16:1069-1071.

Molander N, Ehinger B, Stenevi U, Lindquist U, Lind L. Corticosteroid suppression of trauma-induced hyaluronan in rabbit cornea and aqueous. J Refract Surg 1995; 11:260-266.

Lee SB, Li DQ, Tan DT, Meller DC, Tseng SC. Suppression of TGF-beta signaling in both normal conjunctival fibroblasts and pterygial body fibroblasts by amniotic membrane. Curr Eye Res 2000; 20:325-334.

Fujihara T, Takeuchi T, Saito K, Tsubota K. Flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens on human conjunctival epithelial cells. Ophthal Res 1997; 29:103-109. Hollyfield JG, Rayborn ME, Tammi R. Hyaluronan localization in tissues of the mouse posterior eye wall: absence in the interphotoreceptor matrix. Exp Eye Res 1997; 65:603-608.

Rada JA, Achen VR, Perry CA, Fox PW. Proteoglycans in the human sclera. Evidence for the presence of aggrecan. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38: 1740-1751.

Rada JA, Achen VR, Penugonda S, Schmidt RW, Mount BA. Proteoglycan composition in the human sclera during growth and aging. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2000; 41:1639-1648.

Poole AR, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Coster L, Hassell JR. Mammalian eyes and associated tissues contain molecules that are immunologically related to cartilage proteoglycan and link protein. J Cell Biol 1982; 93:910-920. Hubbard WC, Johnson M, Gong H, Gabelt BT, Peterson JA, Sawhney R, Freddo T, Kaufman PL. Intraocular pressure and outflow facility are unchanged following acute and chronic intracameral chondroitinase ABC and hyaluronidase in monkeys. Exp Eye Res 1997; 65:177-190.

Lerner LE, Polansky JR, Howes EL, Stern R. Hyaluronan in the human trabecular meshwork. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38:1222-1228.

Crean EV, Tyson SL, Richardson TM. Factors influencing glycosaminoglycan synthesis by calf trabecular meshwork cell cultures. Exp Eye Res 1986; 43:

365-374.

Usui T, Nakajima F, Ideta R, Kaji Y, Suzuki Y, Araie M, Miyauchi S, Heldin P, Yamashita H. Hyaluronan synthase in trabecular meshwork cells. Br J Ophthalmol 2003; 87:357-360.

Binninger EA, Schachtschabel DO, Rohen JW. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans stimulate hyaluronic acid synthesis by cultured human trabecular-meshwork cells. Exp Eye Res 1987; 45:169-177.

56. Engelbrecht-Schnur S, Siegner A, Prehm P, Lutjen-Drecoll E. Dexamethasone treatment decreases hyaluronan-formation by primate trabecular meshwork cells in vitro. Exp Eye Res 1987; 64:539-543.

57. Duncan KG, Jumper MD, Ribeiro RC, Bailey KR, Yen PM, Sugawara A, Patel A, Stern R, Chin WW, Baxter JD, Schwartz DM. Human trabecular meshwork cells as a thyroid hormone target tissue: presence of functional thyroid hormone receptors. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1999; 237:231-240.

58. Wirtz MK, Bradley JM, Xu H, Domreis J, Nobis CA, Truesdale AT, Samples JR, Van Buskirk EM, Acott TS. Proteoglycan expression by human trabecular meshworks. Curr Eye Res 1997; 16:412-421.

59. Ueda J, Wentz-Hunter K, Yue BY. Distribution of myocilin and extracellular matrix components in the juxtacanalicular tissue of human eyes. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:1068-1076.

60. Stamer WD, Roberts BC, Howell DN, Epstein DL. Isolation, culture, and characterization of endothelial cells from Schlemm's canal. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39:1804-1812.

61. Jumper MD, Stern R, Lui GM, Formby B, Schwartz DM. Expression of CD44 isoforms in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells. Ophthal Res 1998; 30: 314-320.

62. Koralewska-Makar A, Sommarin Y, Bruun A, Molander N, Stenevi U, Ehinger B. Synthesis of hyaluronan by normal and wounded rabbit iris. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2000; 238:520-524.

63. Koralewska-Makar A, Molander N, Madsen K, Lind ML, Stenevi U, Ehinger B. Endogenous hyaluronan in the normal and traumatized rabbit iris. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1998; 76:391-395.

64. Koralewska-Makar A, Johnsson C, Bruun A, Stenevi U, Ehinger B. COX-2 inhibitors prolong trauma-induced elevations of iris hyaluronan. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2003; 19:385-395.

65. Koralewska-Makar A, Johnsson C, Bruun A, Stenevi U, Ehinger B. Effects of sympathetic denervation on the hyaluronan content of the anterior segment in the normal and traumatized rabbit eye. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2002; 80: 327-331.

66. Peterson PE, Pow CS, Wilson DB, Hendrickx AG. Localisation of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans during early eye development in the macaque. J Anat 1995; 186:31-42.

67. Saika S, Kawashima Y, Miyamoto T, Okada Y, Tanaka S, Yamanaka O, Ohnishi Y, Ooshima A, Yamanaka A. Immunolocalization of hyaluronan and CD44 in quiescent and proliferating human lens epithelial cells. J Cataract Refract Surg 1998; 24:1266-1270.

68. Ozeki H, Ogura Y, Hirabayashi Y, Shimada S. Suppression of lens stalk cell apoptosis by hyaluronic acid leads to faulty separation of the lens vesicle. Exp Eye Res 2001; 72:63-70.

69. Nishi O, Nishi K, Akaishi T, Shirasawa E. Detection of cell adhesion molecules in lens epithelial cells of human cataracts. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38: 579-585.

70. Khoo KM, Chang CF. Characterization and localization of CD38 in the vertebrate eye. Brain Res 1999; 821:17-25.

71. Schachtschabel DO, Berghoff K, Rohen JW. Synthesis and composition of glycosaminoglycans by explant cultures of human ciliary body and ciliary processes in serum-containing and serum-free defined media. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1984; 221:207-209.

Chan FL, Choi HL, Underhill CB. Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are colocalized to the ciliary zonule of the rat eye: a histo-chemical and immunocytochemical study. Histochem Cell Biol 1997; 107: 289-301.

Bishop PN, Takanosu M, Le Goff M, Mayne R. The role of the posterior ciliary body in the biosynthesis of vitreous humour. Eye 2002; 16:454-460. Zhao X, Pearson KE, Stephan DA, Russell P. Effects of prostaglandin analogues on human ciliary muscle and trabecular meshwork cells. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003;44:1945-1952.

Meyer K, Palmer J. The polysaccharide of the vitreous humor. J Biol Chem 1934; 107:629-634.

Brewton RG, Mayne R. Mammalian vitreous humor contains networks of hyaluronan molecules: electron microscopic analysis using the hyaluronan-binding region (G1) of aggrecan and link protein. Exp Cell Res 1992; 198:237-249. Bishop PN. Structural macromolecules and supramolecular organisation of the vitreous gel. Prog Retin Eye Res 2000; 19:323-344.

Bremer FM, Rasquin F. Histochemical localization of hyaluronic acid in vitreous during embryonic development. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39: 2466 -2469.

Azuma N, Tajima S, Konomi H, Hida T, Akiya S, Uemura Y. Glycosaminoglycan and collagen distribution in the developing human vitreous. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1998; 236:679-687.

Lapcik L Jr, Omelka L, Kubena K, Galatik A, Kello V. Photodegradation of hyaluronic acid and of the vitreous body. Gen Physiol Biophys 1990; 9:419-429. Akiba J, Ueno N, Chakrabarti B. Mechanisms of photo-induced vitreous liquefaction. Curr Eye Res 1994; 13:505-512.

Schwartz DM, Shuster S, Jumper MD, Chang A, Stern R. Human vitreous hyaluronidase: isolation and characterization. Curr Eye Res 1996; 15:1156-1162. Reardon A, Heinegard D, McLeod D, Sheehan JK, Bishop PN. The large chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan versican in mammalian vitreous. Matrix Biol 1998; 17:325-333.

Noulas AV, Theocharis AD, Feretis E, Papageorgakopoulou N, Karamanos NK, Theocharis DA. Pig vitreous gel: macromolecular composition with particular reference to hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans. Biochimie 2002; 84: 295-302.

Theocharis AD, Papageorgakopoulou N, Feretis E, Theocharis DA. Occurrence and structural characterization of versican-like proteoglycan in human vitreous. Biochimie 2002; 84:1235-1241.

Morris JE, Hopwood JJ, Dorfman A. Biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans in the developing retina. Dev Biol 1977; 58:313-327.

Eggli PS, Graber W. Ultrastructural association of hyaluronan with rat unmyelinated nerve fibres. J Neurocytol 1996; 25:79-87.

Threlkeld A, Adler R, Hewitt AT. Proteoglycan biosynthesis by chick embryo retina glial-like cells. Dev Biol 1989; 132:559-568.

Azuma N, Hida T, Akiya S, Uemura Y, Kohsaka S, Tsukada Y. Histochemical studies on hyaluronic acid in the developing human retina. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1990; 228:158-160.

90. Zako M, Shinomura T, Kimata K. Alternative splicing of the unique "PLUS" domain of chicken PG-M/versican is developmentally regulated. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:9325-9331.

91. Zako M, Shinomura T, Miyaishi O, Iwaki M, Kimata K. Transient expression of PG-M/versican, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in developing chicken retina. J Neurochem 1997; 69:2155-2161.

92. Tuttle R, Braisted JE, Richards LJ, O'Leary DD. Retinal axon guidance by region-specific cues in diencephalon. Development 1998; 125:791-801.

93. Inatani M, Honjo M, Otori Y, Oohira A, Kido N, Tano Y, Honda Y, Tanihara H. Inhibitory effects of neurocan and phosphacan on neurite outgrowth from retinal ganglion cells in culture. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2001; 42:1930-1938.

94. Inatani M, Tanihara H, Oohira A, Honjo M, Honda Y. Identification of a nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, neurocan, in developing rat retina. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40:2350-2359.

95. Li H, Leung TC, Hoffman S, Balsamo J, Lilien J. Coordinate regulation of cadherin and integrin function by the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan. J Cell Biol 2000; 149:1275-1288.

96. Duguid IG, Boyd AW, Mandel TE. The expression of adhesion molecules in the human retina and choroid. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1991; 19:309-316.

97. Chaitin MH, Wortham HS, Brun-Zinkernagel AM. Immunocytochemical localization of CD44 in the mouse retina. Exp Eye Res 1994; 58:359-365.

98. Rich KA, Figueroa SL, Zhan Y, Blanks JC. Effects of Müller cell disruption on mouse photoreceptor cell development. Exp Eye Res 1995; 61:235-248.

99. Nishina S, Hirakata A, Hida T, Sawa H, Azuma N. CD44 expression in the developing human retina. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1997; 235:92-96.

100. Esguerra M, Miller RF. CD38 expression and NAD+-induced intracellular Ca+ mobilization in isolated retinal Müller cells. Glia 2002; 39:314-319.

101. Hollyfield JG. Hyaluronan and the functional organization of the interphotor-eceptor matrix. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40:2767-2769.

102. Acharya S, Rodriguez IR, Moreira EF, Midura RJ, Misono K, Todres E, Hollyfield JG. SPACR, a novel interphotoreceptor matrix glycoprotein in human retina that interacts with hyaluronan. J Biol Chem 1998; 273:31599-31606.

103. Zako M, Iwaki M, Yoneda M, Miyaishi O, Zhao J, Suzuki Y, Takeuchi M, Miyake G, Ikagawa H, Kimata K. Molecular cloning and characterization of chick sialo-protein associated with cones and rods, a developmentally regulated glycoprotein of interphotoreceptor matrix. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:25592-25600.

104. Acharya S, Foletta VC, Lee JW, Rayborn ME, Rodriguez IR, Young WS 3rd, Hollyfield JG. SPACRCAN, a novel human interphotoreceptor matrix hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan synthesized by photoreceptors and pinealocytes. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:6945-6955.

105. Stramm LE. Synthesis and secretion of glycosaminoglycans in cultured retinal pigment epithelium. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1987; 28:618-627.

106. deS Senanayake P, Calabro A, Nishiyama K, Hu JG, Bok D, Hollyfield JG. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and secretion by the retinal pigment epithelium: polarized delivery of hyaluronan from the apical surface. J Cell Sci 2001; 114: 199-205.

107. Normand G, Hicks D, Dreyfus H. Neurotrophic growth factors stimulate glycosaminoglycan synthesis in identified retinal cell populations in vitro. Glycobiology 1998; 8:1227-1235.

108. Duncan KG, Bailey KR, Baxter JD, Schwartz DM. The human fetal retinal pigment epithelium: A target tissue for thyroid hormones. Ophthal Res 1999; 31:399-406.

109. Liu NP, Roberts WL, Hale LP, Levesque MC, Patel DD, Lu CL, Jaffe GJ. Expression of CD44 and variant isoforms in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 38:2027-2037.

110. Robey PG, Newsome DA. Biosynthesis of proteoglycans present in primate Bruch's membrane. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997; 24:898-905.

111. Gross-Jendroska M, Lui GM, Song MK, Stern R. Retinal pigment epithelium-stromal interactions modulate hyaluronic acid deposition. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992; 33:3394-3399.

112. Tate DJ Jr, Oliver PD, Miceli MV, Stern R, Shuster S, Newsome DA. Age-dependent change in the hyaluronic acid content of the human chorioretinal complex. Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111:963-967.

113. Docherty R, Forrester JV, Lackie JM, Gregory DW. Glycosaminoglycans facilitate the movement of fibroblasts through three-dimensional collagen matrices. J Cell Sci 1989; 92:263-270.

114. Kennel SJ, Lankford TK, Foote LJ, Shinpock SG, Stringer C. CD44 expression on murine tissues. J Cell Sci 1993; 104:373-382.

115. Gong H, Ye W, Freddo TF, Hernandez MR. Hyaluronic acid in the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve. Exp Eye Res 1997; 64:587-595.

116. Perides G, Asher RA, Lark MW, Lane WS, Robinson RA, Bignami A. Glial hyaluronate-binding protein: a product of metalloproteinase digestion of versican? Biochem J 1995; 312:377-384.

117. Perides G, Asher R, Dahl D, Bignami A. Glial hyaluronate-binding protein (GHAP) in optic nerve and retina. Brain Res 1990; 512:309-316.

118. Tona A, Bignami A. Effect of hyaluronidase on brain extracellular matrix in vivo and optic nerve regeneration. J Neurosci Res 1993; 36:191-199.

119. Schmalfeldt M, Bandtlow CE, Dours-Zimmermann MT, Winterhalter KH, Zimmermann DR. Brain derived versican V2 is a potent inhibitor of axonal growth. J Cell Sci 2000; 113:807-816.

120. Popp S, Andersen JS, Maurel P, Margolis RU. Localization of aggrecan and versican in the developing rat central nervous system. Dev Dyn 2003; 227:143-149.

121. Seidenbecher CI, Gundelfinger ED, Bockers TM, Trotter J, Kreutz MR. Transcripts for secreted and GPI-anchored brevican are differentially distributed in rat brain. Eur J Neurosci 1998; 10:1621-1630.

122. Sretavan DW, Feng L, Pure E, Reichardt LF. Embryonic neurons of the developing optic chiasm express L1 and CD44, cell surface molecules with opposing effects on retinal axon growth. Neuron 1994; 12:957-975.

123. Lin L, Chan SO. Perturbation of CD44 function affects chiasmatic routing of retinal axons in brain slice preparations of the mouse retinofugal pathway. Eur J Neurosci 2003; 17:2299-2312.

124. Pizzorusso T, Medini P, Berardi N, Chierzi S, Fawcett JW, Maffei L. Reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Science 2002; 298: 1248-1251.

125. Frescura M, Berry M, Corfield A, Carrington S, Easty DL. Evidence of hyaluronan in human tears and secretions of conjunctival cultures. Biochem Soc Trans 1994; 22:228S.

126. Miyauchi S, Morita M, Kuramoto K, Horie K. Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate in rabbit tears. Curr Eye Res 1996; 15:131-135.

127. Yoshida K, Nitatori Y, Uchiyama Y. Localization of glycosaminoglycans and CD44 in the human lacrimal gland. Arch Histol Cytol 1996; 59: 505-513.

128. Yue BY, Baum JL, Silbert JE. The synthesis of glycosaminoglycans by cultures of corneal stromal cells from patients with keratoconus. J Clin Investig 1979; 63: 545-551.

129. Fitzsimmons TD, Molander N, Stenevi U, Fagerholm P, Schenholm M, von Malmborg A. Endogenous hyaluronan in corneal disease. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994; 35:2774-2782.

130. Plaas AH, West LA, Thonar EJ, Karcioglu ZA, Smith CJ, Klintworth GK, Hascall VC. Altered fine structures of corneal and skeletal keratan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate in macular corneal dystrophy. J Biol Chem 2001; 276:39788-39796.

131. Bochert A, Berlau J, Koczan D, Seitz B, Thiessen HJ, Guthoff R. Gene expression in keratoconus. Initial results using DNA microarrays. Ophthalmologe 2003; 100: 545-549.

132. Knepper PA, Goossens W, Hvizd M, Palmberg PF. Glycosaminoglycans of the human trabecular meshwork in primary open-angle glaucoma. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996; 37:1360-1367.

133. Schachtschabel DO, Binninger E. Stimulatory effects of ascorbic acid on hyaluronic acid synthesis of in vitro cultured normal and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork cells of the human eye. Z Gerontol 1993; 26:243-246.

134. Knepper PA, Goossens W, Mayanil CS. CD44H localization in primary open-angle glaucoma. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39:673-680.

135. Knepper PA, Mayanil CS, Goossens W, Wertz RD, Holgren C, Ritch R, Allingham RR. Aqueous humor in primary open-angle glaucoma contains an increased level of CD44S. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43:133-139.

136. Lamari F, Katsimpris J, Gartaganis S, Karamanos NK. Profiling of the eye aqueous humor in exfoliation syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of hyaluronan and galactosaminoglycans. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 1998; 709:173-178.

137. Gartaganis SP, Georgakopoulos CD, Exarchou AM, Mela EK, Lamari F, Karamanos NK. Increased aqueous humor basic fibroblast growth factor and hyaluronan levels in relation to the exfoliation syndrome and exfoliative glaucoma. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2001; 79:572-575.

138. Fitzsimmons TD, Fagerholm P, Wallin O. Hyaluronan in the exfoliation syndrome. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 1997; 75:257-260.

139. Fagerholm P, Fitzsimmons T, Harfstrand A, Schenholm M. Reactive formation of hyaluronic acid after small and large lens injury. Acta Ophthalmol Suppl 1992; 205:58-64.

140. Hayasaka S, Shiono T, Hara S, Mizuno K. Lysosomal hyaluronidase in the subretinal fluid of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Am J Ophthalmol 1982; 94:58-63.

141. Zhang Y, Rauch U, Perez MT. Accumulation of neurocan, a brain chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, in association with the retinal vasculature in RCS rats. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44:1252-1261.

142. Kuhrt H, Hartig W, Grimm D, Faude F, Kasper M, Reichenbach A. Changes in CD44 and ApoE immunoreactivities due to retinal pathology of man and rat. J Hirnforsch 1997; 38:223-229.

Chaitin MH, Ankrum MT, Wortham HS. Distribution of CD44 in the retina during development and the rds degeneration. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1996; 94:92-98.

Chaitin MH, Brun-Zinkernagel AM. Immunolocalization of CD44 in the dystrophic rat retina. Exp Eye Res 1998; 67:283-292.

Krishnamoorthy R, Agarwal N, Chaitin MH. Upregulation of CD44 expression in the retina during the rds degeneration. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2000; 77: 125-130.

Singh S, Zheng JJ, Peiper SC, Mclaughlin BJ. Gene expression profile of ARPE-19 during repair of the monolayer. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2001; 239: 946-951.

Xu H, Manivannan A, Liversidge J, Sharp PF, Forrester JV, Crane IJ. Involvement of CD44 in leukocyte trafficking at the blood-retinal barrier. J Leukoc Biol 2002; 72:1133-1141.

Gregerson DS, Xiao J. Failure of memory (CD44 high) CD4 T cells to recognize their target antigen in retina. J Neuroimmunol 2001; 120:34-41.

Shen WY, Yu MJ, Barry CJ, Constable IJ, Rakoczy PE. Expression of cell adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor in experimental choroidal neovascularisation in the rat. Br J Ophthalmol 1998; 82:1063-1071.

Hiraoka M, Saito I, Tsubota K, Sugai S, Miyasaka N. Augmented expression of

CD44 splice variants in lymphoproliferative disorder of the lacrimal gland in

Sjogren's syndrome. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1997; 41:312-318.

Kahaly G, Forster G, Hansen C. Glycosaminoglycans in thyroid eye disease.

Thyroid 1998; 8:429-432.

Kahaly G, Stover C, Otto E, Beyer J, Schuler M. Glycosaminoglycans in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Autoimmunity 1992; 13:81-88. Kahaly G, Hansen CE, Stover C, Beyer J, Otto E. Glycosaminoglycan antibodies in endocrine ophthalmopathy. Horm Metab Res 1993; 25:637-639. Kahaly G, Stover C, Beyer J, Otto E. In vitro synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in endocrine ophthalmopathy. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1992; 127: 397-402.

Pappa A, Jackson P, Stone J, Munro P, Fells P, Pennock C, Lightman S. An ultrastructural and systemic analysis of glycosaminoglycans in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. Eye 1998; 12:237-244.

Imai Y, Odajima R, Inoue Y, Shishiba Y. Effect of growth factors on hyaluronan and proteoglycan synthesis by retroocular tissue fibroblasts of Graves' ophthalmopathy in culture. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1992; 126:541 -552. Imai Y, Ibaraki K, Odajima R, Shishiba Y. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on hyaluronan and proteoglycan synthesis by retroocular tissue fibroblasts in culture. Endocr J 1994; 41:645-654.

Smith TJ, Parikh SJ. HMC-1 mast cells activate human orbital fibroblasts in coculture: evidence for up-regulation of prostaglandin E2 and hyaluronan synthesis. Endocrinology 1999; 140:3518-3525.

Kaback LA, Smith TJ. Expression of hyaluronan synthase messenger ribonucleic acids and their induction by interleukin-1beta in human orbital fibroblasts: potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:4079-4084.

Wong YK, Tang KT, Wu JC, Hwang JJ, Wang HS. Stimulation of hyaluronan synthesis by interleukin-1beta involves activation of protein kinase C betaII in fibroblasts from patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. J Cell Biochem 2001; 82: 58-67.

161. Rada JA, Thoft RA, Hassell JR. Increased aggrecan (cartilage proteoglycan) production in the sclera of myopic chicks. Dev Biol 1991; 147:303-312.

162. Nickla DL, Rada JA, Wallman J. Isolated chick sclera shows a circadian rhythm in proteoglycan synthesis perhaps associated with the rhythm in ocular elongation. J Comp Physiol A 1999; 185:81-90.

163. Rada JA, Achen VR, Rada KG. Proteoglycan turnover in the sclera of normal and experimentally myopic chick eyes. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998; 39: 1990 - 2002.

164. Rada JA, Johnson JM, Achen VR, Rada KG. Inhibition of scleral proteoglycan synthesis blocks deprivation-induced axial elongation in chicks. Exp Eye Res 2002; 74:205-215.

165. Perveen R, Hart-Holden N, Dixon MJ, Wiszniewski W, Fryer AE, Brunner HG, Pinkners AJ, van Beersum SE, Black GC. Refined genetic and physical localization of the Wagner disease (WGN1) locus and the genes CRTL1 and CSPG2 to a 2- to 2.5-cM region of chromosome 5q14.3. Genomics 1999; 57: 219-226.

Chemistry and Biology of Hyaluronan H.G. Garg and C.A. Hales (editors) © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment