Hypoglycemia Holistic Treatment

Guide To Beating Hypoglycemia

Here's Just A Tiny Glimpse Of The Topics Covered: The 3 main types of hypoglycemia and which type you're most likely suffering from. How snacking on chocolate bars can actually make you Fat and worsen your condition! (If you thought those delicious dark brown bars were great energy- boosters.think again!) The No. 1 question most folks have when it comes to hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Why you should insist on a 6-hour Gtt and not a 5-hour one. ( Why it might not be a good idea to consult a doctor to confirm your hypoglycemia. Aside from taking a Gtt, what other methods can you use to determine whether or not you're suffering from this condition? Well, refer Chapter 4, Pgs. 23-26 to take a revealing 67-question test especially designed to find out if you've got the symptoms. An inspiring motivational exercise that will help you effectively banish all of your negative thoughts that prevent you from having peace of mind. 2 good reasons why you should keep a food journal. 3 powerful nutrients that limit the effect of glucose on your blood sugar level. This is vital to a hypoglycemic as it helps slow down the absorption of sugar in the food. The secret impulse that literally forces you to say 'yes' to a candy bar or chocolate whenever you feel the hunger pangs gnawing at you. 2 ingredients that are lethal to a hypoglycemic. 'Hidden sugars' you must know to avoid buying products that can easily worsen your condition. 8 essential rules of food planning that are crucial to your speedy recovery from hypoglycemia. Leave out one of them and it could hurt your chances of recovering. How to create a healthy food plan that's suitable for both vegetarian and non- vegetarian hypoglycemics. Most food plans only focus on non-vegetarians, but this one works great for everybody! Read more...

Guide To Beating Hypoglycemia Summary


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Hypoglycemia Syndromes

The most common neoplasms associated with hypoglycemia are tumors of mesenchymal origin, such as mesotheliomas, fibrosarcomas, neurofibromas, spindle cell carcinomas and leiomyosarcomas. The most common mechanism involved in hypoglycemia is abnormal production of a precursor molecule to insulinlike growth factor (IGF) II, which is bound to insulin and IGF receptors, thus causing suppression of growth hormone secretion 8 .

Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy

A 68-year-old diabetic man, following administration of 11 units regular insulin, suffered a hypoglycemic episode with a blood glucose concentration of 28 mg 100 mL for approximately 8 hours. During this episode, he became comatose and, without regaining consciousness, died 15 days later. Eosinophilic neurons and mild astrocytosis (HE) are present in the thalamus. The clinical presentation varies with the severity and duration of hypoglycemia. It ranges from headaches, perspiration, nervousness, and tremulousness through confusion, myoclonic jerks, and seizures, to decerebrate rigidity and coma leading ultimately to death. Those who survive a severe and prolonged hypo-glycemic episode usually are left with variable cognitive deficits and various neurologic symptoms and signs. Similarities and differences can be seen between the pathogenesis and pathology of hypoglycemic and isch-emic-hypoxic encephalopathies. In both conditions, the neurons are affected...


Because the placenta pulls glucose from the mother's blood for use by the fetus, pregnant women more easily develop hypoglycemia, particularly in the morning before breakfast or if meals are skipped during the day. Hypo-glycemia can produce lightheadedness, faint-ness, or headache. Also, skipping meals may increase levels of ketone bodies in the blood that can cross the placenta and adversely affect fetal development. Women should consume regular meals and snacks and avoid long periods of fasting while pregnant.

Diet Hypoglycemia

A diet plan to reduce reactive hypoglycemia should include The glycemic index measures a food's potential to rapidly elevate blood glucose. If vulnerable to reactive hypoglycemia, foods with a high glycemic index may stimulate insulin oversecretion and trigger low blood sugar. These foods should therefore be avoided in favor of foods with a low to moderate glycemic index.

Glutamate Is Potentially Toxic To Neurons Excitotoxicity

Despite its physiological role as a neurotransmitter, glutamate can be lethal to neurons upon intense exposure (4). Overactivation of glutamate receptors has been implicated in neuronal degeneration and loss in such acute conditions as hypoxia-ischemia, hypoglycemia, head injury, stroke, and prolonged epileptic seizures, as well as in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia (4). In most instances, neuronal cell loss is attributable to excitotoxicity, a term derived from its mediation by excitatory amino acid receptors.

Test Methodology 42 Ketones

Brandon has shown poor glycemic control with episodes of postprandial hyperglycemia and early-morning hypoglycemia by self-monitoring blood glucose technique. His parents reported early difficulties in motivating Brandon to comply with daily home monitoring of blood glucose and his treatment

Renal Tubular Acidosis

The patient's fixed alkaline pH, proteinuria, bicarbonate deficit, and electrolyte and mineral imbalances are typical of renal tubular acidosis. Given the age of the patient as well as the hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypoglycemia, the scenario is typical of renal tubular acidosis resulting from Fanconi's syndrome. In this case, treatment with large doses of bicarbonate, electrolytes, and minerals was used to help restore and maintain acid-base balance.

Why Cyclonxan Use For Kidney Patients

First Pass Metabolism Repaglinide

The major safety concern is severe hypoglycemia, with the longer-acting agents carrying a greater risk. In the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), the proportion of patients experiencing major hypoglycemic episodes was 1.0 and 1.4 per year with chlorpropamide and glyburide, respectively, as compared to 0.7 with diet and 1.8 with insulin therapy (82).Sulfonylureas are for the most part subject to hepatic metabolism, yielding less active or inactive metabolites that are then eliminated through the kidney. Patients with impaired hepatic or renal function risk severe hypoglycemia because of accumulation of active drug in circulation. As with insulin, gain in body weight is common. The University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP) study found an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with the treatment of type 2 diabetes with tolbutamide, although the methods used have been criticized. The UKPDS showed no increase in cardiac...

Structure Of Biguanides

Sar Sulfonylurea

Common structural features found in sulfonylurea, benzoic acid, and phenylalanine derived hypoglycemic agents. Figure 1.2. Common structural features found in sulfonylurea, benzoic acid, and phenylalanine derived hypoglycemic agents. 2.3.1 Biguanides. First introduced in the late 1950, metformin (Table 1.6) is best described as an antihyperglycemicagent because it does not normally cause hypoglycemia. It enhances insulin sensitivity and is not effective in the absence of insulin (118). Metformin lowers blood glucose levels in NIDDM patients by suppressing hepatic glucose output and enhancing peripheral glucose uptake, but the underlying mechairism(s) is not completely understood. Other biguanides produce similar effects, but concern over potential to cause lactic acidosis has largely led to their removal from the market. with metformin, with incidence estimated at 0.01 to 0.08 per 1000 patient-years. With met-therapy, lactic acidosis most often occurs in patients with...

Approach To Suspected Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis

Fortunately, in most cases of acute viral hepatitis, patients recover completely, so the treatment is generally supportive. However, fulminant hepatic failure as a result of massive hepatic necrosis may progress over a period of weeks. This usually is caused by infection by the hepatitis B and D viruses, or is drug-induced. This syndrome is characterized by rapid progression of encephalopathy from confusion or somnolence to coma. Patients also have worsening coagulopathy as measured by increasing prothrombin times, rising bilirubin levels, ascites and peripheral edema, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and lactic acidosis. Fulminant hepatitis carries a poor prognosis (the mortality for comatose patients is 80 ) and often is fatal without an emergency liver transplant.

Screening Models and Activity

Excellent accounts of various models are published6,25 for screening antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, anthelmintic, antitapeworm, antimalarial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antiallergic, antiarhythmic, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, diuretic adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, choleretic, anticholesteric, CNS, activities and toxicity.

Preimplantation Orders

Food is withheld for 6 to 8 hours before the procedure. Hydration is maintained by the establishment of an intravenous line, preferably with a large-bore cannula in a vein of the upper extremity ipsilateral to the intended implant site. This will facilitate the injection of contrast should difficulty be encountered in achieving venous access. In general, the patient is allowed to continue whatever medication he or she has been taking, with the obvious exception of anticoagulants, which are stopped prior to the procedure (see subsequent section). The dosage of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs may require temporary alteration.

Bioactivity of Marine Organisms

Ethanolic extracts of the Indian marine algae have been tested for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antifertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species screened 17 were found active. Six were diuretic, three hypoglycemic, three hypotensive, four exhibited antiimplantation activity. Cytokinin activity was observed in one, and one The brown algae Iyengaria stellata from Gujarat showed adrenergic activity Padina gymnospora from Gujarat exhibited hypoglycemic activity LD50 1000 (mg kg, in mice) Pocockiella variegata from Tamilnadu showed the CNS stimulant activity, LD50 1000 (mg kg, in mice), Sargassum cinereum, Malvan, Maharasthra, also showed CNS stimulant activity and Spatoglossum asperum from Anjuna, Goa, exhibited antiimplantation and hypotensive activities, LD50 1000 (mg kg, in mice). The brown algae Hydroclathrus clathratus from Dwarka, Gujarat, Sargassum wightii from Gulf of Manner, Tamilnadu, S. myriocystum from the same locality and...

Micronutrients Diabetes

Can enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce needs for oral hypoglycemics and or insulin.5-7 Reduces platelet aggregation and risk of thrombosis As a component of GTF, helps control blood glucose and decrease need for insulin or hypoglycemic drugs.1-3 Can be taken together with 5-10 g brewer's yeast

Answers To Case 40 Adrenal Insufficiency

Summary A 58-year-old woman presents with orthostatic hypotension, intermittent chronic abdominal pain, and constitutional symptoms such as fatigue and unintentional weight loss. She also has hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, acidosis. and hypoglycemia. All of this patient's clinical features are consistent with acute adrenal insufficiency. Although the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency is idiopathic autoimmune destruction, in her case, it may be due to adrenal metastases from breast cancer.

Uremic Encephalopathy

A 68-year-old diabetic man, following administration of 11 units regular insulin, suffered a hypoglycemic episode with a blood glucose concentration of 28 mg 100 mL for approximately 8 hours. During this episode, he became comatose and, without regaining consciousness, died 15 days later. Eosinophilic neurons and mild astrocytosis (HE) are present in the thalamus.

High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis

The goal of therapy is a glucose reduction of 80-100 mg dL h. Use of continuous low-dose intravenous infusion of insulin is recommended because it reduces episodes of hypoglycemia and hypokalemia, and it allows a more controlled reduction of serum glucose and osmolality. Intramuscular and subcutaneous routes can be used if tissue perfusion is adequate.

Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

AFLP develops during the third trimester. It presents with vague symptoms, such as malaise, nausea, and vomiting. Severe cases present with jaundice, coagulopathy, hypoglycemia, and hyperammonemia. When undiagnosed, AFLP may progressively worsen to coma and death. Biochemical changes include mildly to moderately elevated AT levels, prolonged prothrombin time, and decreased fibrinogen level. Liver histology reveals microvesicular fatty infiltration, predominantly in the central region. Most cases of AFLP are managed with supportive measures, including transfer to an intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation, and correction of abnormal coagulation times. Severe cases may require prompt termination of pregnancy. Some women have been reported to experience recurrent AFLP in subsequent pregnancies (33). The pathogenesis of AFLP remains unclear. Recent reports revealed that some women with AFLP are heterozygous for a defect in one of the enzymes (long-chain 3-hydroxyl-acyl CoA...

Guide To Further Reading

Atkinson M A, Eisenbarth G S 2001 Type 1 diabetes new perspectives on disease pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet 358 221-229 Boyle P J et al 1995 Brain glucose uptake and unawareness of hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 333 1726-1731 Clark C M Jr, Lee D A1995 Prevention and treatment of the complications of diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 332 1210-1217 Dornhorst A 2001 Insulinotropic meglitinide

Sulfonylurea Receptor ABCC8SUR

Sulfonylurea Insulin Secretion

Familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is characterized by unregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. The defect has been localized to chromosome 11p15.1-p14, a chromosomal region containing the ABCC8 (SUR1) gene and the KCNJ11 (Kir6.2) gene 187 . Subsequently, causal mutations in the ABCC8 gene have been described in PHHI families 188 (Tab. 3.2) however, no defects in the KCNJ11 gene have found so far. As described earlier in this chapter (see Section 3.3.3), ABCC8 and KCNJ11 form together an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Fig. 3.5). Under hyperglycemic Interestingly, polymorphisms in calpain-10, a related protease also proposed to be involved in the processing of ICA512, affect insulin secretion and have been linked to type 2 diabetes 189, 190 . Hypoglycemia decreases the intracellular ATP ADP ratio and causes opening of the ABCC8 KCNJ11 complex, which hyperpolarizes the plasma membrane and inhibits Ca2+ influx and thereby stops...

Impaired Insulin Action Insulin Resistance

Leptin The product of the ob gene serves as a signal that provides information about the size of the energy reserves to systems that are regulating feeding, substrate utilization, and energy balance. Therefore, leptin levels are higher in obese individuals and increase with overfeeding. Leptin-deficient (lep lep) and leptin receptor-deficient (db db) mice are obese and exhibit severe insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the lep lep mouse by leptin administration. To what extent the net hypoglycemic effect of leptin is direct and therefore independent of its weight-reducing effects remains to be elucidated. In animal models of obesity and T2DM, recombinant adiponectin was shown to work as an enhancer of insulin action in muscle and liver 61, 62 . The hypoglycemic effect was not associated with an increase in insulin levels. Endogeneous adi-

See also Regulation of Gluconeogenesis Reciprocal Regulation

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are catecholamines which, when released from presynaptic nerve endings, function as neurotransmitters (see here). When released from adrenal medulla in response to low blood glucose levels, epinephrine interacts with second-messenger systems in many tissues, with varied effects. In muscle, epinephrine activates adenylate cyclase, with concomitant activation of glycogenolysis and inhibition of glycogen synthesis.

Protection of Humans Against Diseases

The activities to be discussed in more detail are anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and adaptogenic, anticarcinogenic, hypoglycemic and blood lipid lowering, radioprotective, effect on the CNS, antiulcerogenic, hepatoprotective and the effect on smooth muscle. In addition to these activities a number of other activities are also reported in the literature, such as antioxidant (Maulik ei al., 1997), angioprotective effect (Nikolaevskii ei al., 1990), effect on the reproductive behaviour (Kantak and Gogate 1992) and antiwormal activity (Jain and Jain 1972).

Ethanol NAD Acetaldehyde NADH H

The NADH also favors reduction of oxaloacetate to malate in the reaction catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, making less oxalacetate available for gluconeogenesis. The resulting hypoglycemia can affect the part of the brain concerned with temperature regulation and the body temperature can fall by as much as 2 C. Thus, feeding alcohol to people suffering from hypothermia is counterproductive. Metabolically speaking, glucose would be far more effective in raising body temperature.

Approach To Diabetes Mellitus Definitions

Biguanides (metformin) act on the liver to decrease glucose output during gluconeogenesis. Secondary actions include improved insulin sensitivity in the liver and muscle and a hypothesized decrease in intestinal absorption of glucose. Metformin can lower the HGA t by 1.5-2 . The UKPDS showed a significant reduction in cardiovascular events, diabetes-related deaths, and all causes of mortality in those who used metformin. Other advantages include no potential hypoglycemia, reduced insulin levels, a potential weight loss, and a reduction in triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The efficacy, safety, and improved outcomes make it a popular first-line agent in type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas were the first oral agents available for type 2 diabetes. Their principal action is to function as insulin secretagogues that stimulate (i cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin. Advantages include a potential 2 reduction in HGA, once- or twice-a-day dosing, and relatively low...

Medical Causes Of Delirium

Electrolyte disturbances (most commonly hyponatremia or hypoglycemia), and withdrawal from alcohol or other sedatives. Regardless of etiology, delirium produces a profound disturbance of brain function, and all etiologies are serious and potentially fatal illnesses. Delirium must be approached as an acute medical emergency. A detailed history, aggressively pursued, is mandatory, and because the responses from these patients cannot be relied upon, information from family, friends, or other caregivers is essential. A thorough physical examination with emphasis on neurologic status, clarity of speech, level of awareness, attention span, facial droop, and weakness of an extremity must be established because such changes must be carefully and frequently assessed. Basic laboratory studies should focus on chemical abnormalities (glucose, creatinine, bilirubin, serum sodium levels) and evidence of hypoxia. The two threatening and potentially easily reversible conditions hypoxia and...

Ghb With Synthetic Glycogen For Cancerous Cells

Etiology of, 149, 149t tests for, 151-152, 164-169 hypoglycemia in, 168-169 lipid abnormalities in, 276, 277f, 279-282 lipoprotein abnormalities in, 276-285, hypoglycemia after, 168-169 lipemia and, 277 Fat. See Body fat Lipid(s) Fatty acids myeloma, 475 Hypoalbuminemia, 253 Hypoaldosteronism, 388-389, 388t Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, 287-288 Hypocalcemia, 74, 75, 416 Hypochromic anemia, 184 Hypocortisolism, 382-386, 386t Hypoglycemia, 168-169

Criteria For Diagnosis Of Diabetes Mellitus

Prevention of acute complications of hyperglycemia (e.g diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperosmolar hyperglycemia) or hypoglycemia The foundation of diabetes therapy is dietary and lifestyle modifications. Randomized trials show that even small amounts of weight loss can lower blood pressure and improve glucose control. Patients should be given instruction in nutrition and encouraged to change sedentary lifestyles. Exercise that the patient finds enjoyable and possible should be encouraged. However, most people with diabetes will eventually require medications, and most patients will eventually require a combination of at least two medications. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) followed almost 5000 patients over 20 years and compared intensive blood glucose control to conventional therapy in the prevention of macrovascular (coronary artery disease) and microvascular (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) complications. Intensive therapy, with an HbAlc

Other Carbohydrate Metabolic Disorders

There are other disorders that affect glucose and carbohydrate metabolism. Glyco-gen storage diseases often result in hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and ketosis. There are several types of glycogen storage diseases. Fructosuria is associated with lactic acidosis, ketosis, and the presence of reducing substances in excess. The laboratory plays a role in assessing these rare, but important, carbohydrate metabolic disorders. Glycogen storage disease type I is due to glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency causing ineffective glycogenolysis, hypoglycemia during fasting states, growth retardation, ketosis, lactic acidosis, and pronounced hepatomegaly due to accumulation of glycogen in liver and, to some degree, muscle. Determining insulin and glucagon levels as well as measuring glucose response after administration of epinephrine (the epinephrine tolerance test) may be helpful in obtaining a diagnosis.

Antitumor Immunity And Autoimmune Disease

Of human tumors, Speiser and coworkers 107 developed a double transgenic mouse model that expresses the transforming simian virus 40 tumor T antigen and the mock tumor-associated antigen glycoprotein (GP) of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) under the rat insulin promoter. These mice develop spontaneous insulinomas and, as a result, succumb to progressive hypoglycemia. Infection of these mice with the LCMV virus induces a strong CTL response that leads to rejection of the tumors and renders the mice normoglycemic. Surprisingly, however, the double transgenic mice did not develop chronic autoimmune insulinitis although not only the tumor cells but also normal ft cells were targets for CTLs 108 , The reason for this apparent tumor selectivity by the CTL response could be attributed to the transient nature of the CTL response, which abated after clearance of the LCMV infection despite the persistence of antigen expression by both the tumor and the B cells of pancreas. The...

Special Considerations for Type 1 Diabetes

For planned exercise, reduction in insulin dosage may be the preferred choice to prevent hypoglycemia. Additional carbohydrate may be needed for unplanned exercise. For instance, a 70 kg person would need between 10 and 15 g carbohydrate per hour of moderate physical activity.

Apoptosis Involvement In Neurological Disorders

Upr Target Gene

There is now a large body of evidence supporting the concept that apoptotic pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic neurological and psychiatric disorders (Mattson 2000). Chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure and membrane blebbing have been detected in neurons after focal and global cerebral ischemia, traumatic injury, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. However, during acute brain injury, it may depend on the severity of injury, temporal aspects as well as the intrinsic properties of a given neuronal population whether type I, type II or both types are activated in response to injury. In ischemic stroke, neurons in the core of the infarction, where oxygen supply is severely limited, are are believed to die by necrotic, caspase-independent cell death triggered by energy deprivation. In contrast, apoptotic,

Conclusion Of Cinnamon

Most studies are confined to in vitro and in vivo in small laboratory animals. The results are all encouraging. Cinnamon is mainly used as a food additive and flavouring agent. The antimicrobial and antioxidant actions protect food from oxidative spoilage and also from bacterial growth. Cinnamon is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Free radical scavenging inhibits tissue damage of the host cell. Another significant activity is the hypoglycemic effect of this herb. It reduces the blood glucose level and also modulates the enzyme aldose reductase, thereby preventing complications of diabetes such as retinopathy, neuropathy, etc. The hypocholesterolemic potential of cinnamon is also high. It reduces not only serum cholesterol but also triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and phospholipids. These findings are very significant because these factors are decisive in cardiac disorders. The results of studies on the antiulcerogenic effects have also yielded valuable...

Medical Examination Under Section 4 of the RTA

Whether the examination is carried out by a forensic physician in London or an emergency room physician in San Francisco, the aim of the examination is to exclude any medical condition other than alcohol or drugs as the cause of the driver's behavior. The differential diagnosis is wide and includes head injury, neurological problems (e.g., epilepsy, stroke, cerebral tumour, and multiple sclerosis), metabolic problems (e.g., hypoglycemia), hepatic or renal failure, and mental illness. The procedure should include introductory details, full medical history, and clinical examination. In Scotland, forensic physicians use form F97. Appendix 6 contains a form that has been found useful. Similar forms are not available in the United States, but there is nothing to prevent any emergency department in the United States from drafting and providing a similar document. Even if no special form is provided, most of the relevant material will have been (or at least should be) recorded in the...

CD36null Mice the Fasting Phenotype

Cd36 Null Mice

Fig. 1.5 Model of the CD36-null fasting phe-notype. Small up down arrows denote changes in comparison to fasted wild-type controls. In this model, the major defect is a dramatic increase in glucose uptake by oxidative muscles, compensating for the defect in FA oxidation. This occurs only with fasting and is likely induced by a drop in the energy charge of the cell subsequent to the initial drop in insulin. The resulting hypoglycemia causes a further decrease in insulin secretion and increased sympathetic activity, both of Fig. 1.5 Model of the CD36-null fasting phe-notype. Small up down arrows denote changes in comparison to fasted wild-type controls. In this model, the major defect is a dramatic increase in glucose uptake by oxidative muscles, compensating for the defect in FA oxidation. This occurs only with fasting and is likely induced by a drop in the energy charge of the cell subsequent to the initial drop in insulin. The resulting hypoglycemia causes a further decrease in...

TABLE 1616 Abnormal Postures in Comatose Patients

In decerebrate rigidity, the jaws are clenched and the neck is extended. The arms are adducted and stiffly extended at the elbows, with forearms pronated, wrists and fingers flexed. The legs are stiffly extended at the knees, with the feet plantar flexed. This posture may occur spontaneously or only in response to external stimuli such as light, noise, or pain. It is caused by a lesion in the diencephalon, midbrain, or pons, although severe metabolic disorders such as hypoxia or hypoglycemia may also produce it.

Amino And Organic Acid Disorders

Disorders of amino acid or organic acid metabolism are very rare. They typically involve an inherited deficiency or altered function of an enzyme or transport system that mediates the disposition of a particular amino or organic acid (Table 2). The oxidation of amino acids gives rise to ammonia, which is neurotoxic in high concentrations (50). Because the urea cycle functions in the disposal of ammonia, congenital deficiencies of the urea cycle cause hyperammonemia or elevated plasma glutamine (formed from ammonia Fig. 13). The urea cycle defects include carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, or-nithine transcarbamylase deficiency citrullinemia, and argininosuccinic aciduria. The severity of presentation is determined by the particular amino or organic acid abnormality, the duration of the accumulation, and the presence of other metabolic alterations (e.g., hypoglycemia). Dysmyelination, neuronal degeneration, and reactive gliosis are common in patients who die in the first few...

Polyglucosan Diseases

A newborn boy was severely jaundiced, and his feeding was difficult because of frequent vomiting. In early childhood, his development was very slow and, after a few years, became arrested. At 7 years of age, he was physically underdeveloped and severely mentally retarded. Bilateral cataracts were diagnosed a few years later. He suffered from hypoglycemic episodes, frequent convulsions, and status epilepticus. Galactosemia. A newborn boy was severely jaundiced, and his feeding was difficult because of frequent vomiting. In early childhood, his development was very slow and, after a few years, became arrested. At 7 years of age, he was physically underdeveloped and severely mentally retarded. Bilateral cataracts were diagnosed a few years later. He suffered from hypoglycemic episodes, frequent convulsions, and status epilepticus.

The Normal Adult Brain

During aging, the brain may be compromised more frequently than in adulthood by external abnormal conditions such as arterial hypoxemia, arterial hypoglycemia and arterial hypotension. These additional stressful events may be assumed to aggravate the changes normally occurring in cerebral oxidative energy metabolism and related metabolism. In profound arterial hypoxemia of short duration only, changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were more severe in aged than in adult animals pointing to insufficient compensation mechanisms during aging (Degrell et al 1983) and to increased vulnerability to anoxia. Recovery of the energy pool in the cerebral cortex after arterial hypoglycemia was found to be more markedly compromised in aged than in adult animals, as was the restoration of the cerebral

Measurement of symptoms

Most symptoms experienced during hypoglycaemia are considered to be generated either by the direct effects of low blood glucose on the brain (neuroglycopenia) or through activation of the autonomic nervous system. Both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous systems are activated, causing direct neural stimulation of end-organs, and the magnitude of the responses may be augmented by profuse secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla (McAulay et al. 2001).

Clinical Approach

To answer the first question, the most important investigation is the history of symptoms. If the patient has an acute or subacute onset of confusion or has a fluctuating level of consciousness, the most likely diagnosis is a delirium due to infection, intoxication, or adverse medication effects, or metabolic derangements such as hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, or hypoglycemia.

The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

In T1DM plasma insulin levels are low or absent and treatment with insulin is always necessary. Since it is not yet possible to mimic the normal function of a beta-cell, which precisely adjusts the rate of insulin secretion in response to biological needs, the treatment ofT1DM is complicated by episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Hypoglycemia can cause coma, and hyperglycemia increases the risk for diabetic complications in the form of eye disease, kidney disease, nervous system damage, and coronary artery disease and stroke 69 . intestine and therefore attenuate mealtime hyperglycemia 72 . Both biguanides and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) increase insulin sensitivity, although their mechanism and site of action are different. These agents may be used alone or in combination with each other or with insulin 73 . In the following we will focus on the TZDs, since they seem to be most promising to provide a long-term glycemic control. In addition, they are less likely than...

Biological Toxicological and Clinical Evaluation

The chapter deals with the methods of biological, toxicological and clinical evaluations of the extracts and or pure compounds from marine organisms. The screening models for evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, antihookworms, antitapeworms, antimalarial, antiviral and anticancer activities and problems of screening have been discussed. Besides, the methods of evaluation of analgesic, antiallergic, antiarrhythmic, antithrombotic, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, antihypertensive, diuretic, adaptogenic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, choleretic and anticholestatic activities have been described. Finally, evaluation of acute and regulatory toxicity and studies needed for clinical trials have also been discussed.


We have defined hypoglycaemia by translating it as 'low blood glucose concentration'. Clinically, episodes of hypoglycaemia are defined as either mild or severe. In mild hypoglycaemia the person experiencing the hypoglycaemia is subjectively aware (symptomatic) of the falling blood glucose concentration at a time when cortical function is sufficiently preserved for the person to recognise the situation and take appropriate action to restore their blood glucose by ingesting carbohydrate. Some authorities also describe a moderate form of hypoglycaemia in which such a symptomatic episode causes significant social disruption. Severe hypoglycaemia is defined as that in which the person experiencing it is too disabled to self-treat and has to be rescued by another person. Again, some authorities add a subdivision of severe hypoglycaemia in which either coma seizure occurs or in which parenteral therapy has to be administered (DCCT 1991).

Ion Channel

A recent study demonstrated a new DCM-causing mutant protein of sulfornylurea receptor-2 ( SUR2A sulfonylureas are widely used as oral hypoglycemic reagents in the treatment of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), a catalytic subunit of KATP ion channel protein (80). Cardiac KATP channels are composed of Kir6.2 and a regulatory subunit, SUR2A. One frameshift and one missense mutation were identified at the car-boxyl-terminus of SUR2A, and are predicted to distort ATP-dependent channel pore regulation. Kir6.2-null mice developed arrhythmia and sudden death following sympathetic stimulation, which was preventable with calcium-channel blockers. The aderenergic stimuli enhance cardiac performance by increased Ca2+ handling, both inward and outward flow, which appears defective in KATP-null hearts (81).

Diabetes Mellitus

Although confusion is a prominent feature in patients who are slipping into hyperglycemic coma, this condition is rarely seen in police custody. Questions relating to fitness for interview and the potential reliability of a detainee's confession are more likely to involve those with hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia are associated with irritability, anxiety, and panic in the early stages. As the episode develops, the individual becomes disinhibited and may exhibit childish or aggressive behavior that often mimics drunkenness. Disorientation and mental confusion are common and, in severe cases, the person may pass into a coma. Anybody suffering from hypoglyce-mia will prove to be a poor witness to events that occur during the episode. Most will have complete amnesia for the content of the attack and occasionally for an additional period before the attack occurred when their behavior will have appeared to be normal (96). The doctor should take a clear history of any hypoglycemic...

Clinical Features

The clinical presentation depends on the relative deficiency of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, ACTH excess, and other associated disorders. Acute adrenal insufficiency, or Addisonian crisis, may present with weakness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and tachycardia. Laboratory findings may include hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, azotemia as a consequence of aldosterone deficiency, and hypoglycemia and eosinophilia as a consequence of Cortisol deficiency. Patients with adrenal insufficiency may go into crisis when stressed by infection, trauma, or surgery. The clinical features may appear identical to those of septic shock the only clues that the cause is adrenal disease may be the hypoglycemia (blood sugar is often elevated in sepsis) and profound hypotension, which may be refractory to administration of pressors but is reversed almost immediately when steroids are given. Chronic adrenal insufficiency has nonspecific clinical features,...

Case Scenario

Transient Neonatal Hypoglycemia The Big Baby He is a big baby, isn't he his mother asked. Baby Morgan was delivered at Riverside Medical Center to a 33-year-old mother who had no prenatal history. Baby Morgan was indeed larger than normal. The nurses in the nursery noticed that Baby Morgan seemed lethargic and unresponsive. A whole blood glucose done in the nursery was 23 mg dL. Although neonatal blood glucose levels are usually lower than adult blood glucose levels, Baby Morgan's glucose level worried the nurses. Hypoglycemia in neonates may be caused by prematurity, maternal diabetes, and maternal toxemia. Upon questioning the mother, the physician learned that Mrs. Morgan had a history of delivering big babies and having sugar problems during pregnancy. Mrs. Morgan probably had developed gestational diabetes. The fetus of a mother with gestational diabetes oversecretes insulin. When the neonate is born, fetal hyperglycemia is ended. Since the fetal pancreas is accustomed to...

Cortisol By

Underfunctioning of the adrenal cortex is a chronic progressive disease, commonly due to idiopathic atrophy of the adrenal cortex. Primary hypocortisolism resides in the cortex of the adrenal gland, the primary endocrine organ. It is associated with increased levels of ACTH and decreased cortisol and UFC levels. Hypocortisolism is also called Addison's disease. Adrenal atrophy, or primary adrenal insufficiency, may be caused by autoimmune destruction, but destruction from neoplasm, tubercular granuloma, or metabolic defects may also cause adrenal gland failure, as may long-term use of certain medications such as ketoconozole, an antifungal medication. In the adult, this disease is characterized by insulin sensitivity hypoglycemia imbalances in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism and weakness. Other characteristics of hypocortisolism include increased urinary excretion of sodium, electrolyte imbalance, hypotension, dehydration, and potential for circulatory shock and cardiac...

Beta Blockers

Reduction of 2.1 in younger patients.39 This indicates that the use of beta-blockers in elderly patients is even more efficient than in younger patients.40 The number needed to treat in patients aged 65-75 years is 20 to avoid one death within 2 years.41 Despite these positive effects, elderly patients are less often treated with beta-blockers than younger patients. This is in part due to the fact that important contraindications for beta-blockers are more often encountered in elderly patients including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral arterial disease, and the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. Furthermore beta-blockers lead more often to hypotension, symptomatic bradycardia, and bronchospasm in elderly compared to younger patients. In patients older than 80 years there is no scientific evidence to use beta-blockers in secondary prevention.


Diabetes may affect the ability to drive because of loss of consciousness from hypoglycemic attacks or from complications of the disease itself (e.g., retinopathy causing visual problems or peripheral vascular disease causing limb disabilities). In January 1998, the British government introduced new restrictions on licensing of people with insulin-dependent diabetes (11). These In the United States, the situation varies from state to state, but in many states, individuals with diabetes are subject to restrictive licensing policies that bar them from driving certain types of motor vehicles (12,13). However, the risk of hypoglycemia differs greatly among insulin-requiring diabetics, and today most insulin-dependent diabetics use self-monitoring devices to warn them when their blood glucose levels are becoming too low. Thus, several states have dropped blanket restrictions and allow for case-by-case evaluations to determine medical qualifications for diabetics. In some states, physicians...

Diet Memory

Rosclerosis of the cerebral arteries that gradually reduce flow of nutrients and oxygen.9 Foods high in antioxidant nutrients (see pp.115) may reduce free-radical damage to brain cells and reduce risk of atheroscle-rosis.10 In older people decreased digestive function leads to poor absorption of certain nutrients from the diet. Even marginal deficiencies of several of the B vitamins - particularly thiamin, niacin, folate, and vitamin B12 -can impair mental function.911 Reactive hypoglycemia (see pp. 185), triggered by high intakes of refined carbohydrate and sugar, can also interfere with brain function. Brain levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is vital to memory, can be maintained by regular consumption of choline-rich foods, such as eggs, nuts, and cauliflower. Over time, regular consumption of a nutritious, well-balanced diet - low in saturated fat, alcohol, and salt, and rich in choline, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, and B vitamins - can help maintain optimum...

Diet Anxiety

In people susceptible to reactive hypoglycemia (see pp. 185), consumption of refined carbohydrates or sugar may trigger increased anxiety and, in rare cases, panic attacks.1 In individuals prone to nervousness and anxiety, consumption of caffeine can worsen their symptoms.2

Diet Stress

Many people make the mistake of relying on large amounts of sugar and coffee during times of stress. Although they may supply short bursts of energy, too much caffeine and refined carbohydrate ultimately worsens chronic fatigue and produces headaches, irritability, and concentration difficulties. Because control of blood glucose is more difficult during times of stress, it is important to minimize intake of refined carbohydrates, which may trigger periods of reactive hypoglycemia (see pp. 185).

Diet Alcohol

Further lowers nutrient absorption from foods. The liver is particularly vulnerable to alcohol - more than three drinks a day causes inflammation and accumulation of fat in the liver. This impairs liver function, reducing the ability to detoxify chemicals and drugs. Because the liver is important for blood sugar control, alcohol-induced liver damage can produce hypoglycemia, leading to fatigue, irritability, and concentration difficulties. Alcohol increases urinary losses of many minerals, including zinc, calcium, and magnesium.5 Because of these effects, a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and low-fat milk products should be carefully chosen.

Other Tests

Blood glucose, electrolytes, renal function tests, and drug screening are important to exclude hypoglycemia and metabolic and toxic encephalopathy. If the patient is on anticoagulant therapy, the prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet count should be measured and are required before considering thrombolytic therapy. Lumbar puncture is indicated if subarachnoid hemorrhage is considered and the CT is not diagnostic or if a CNS infection is possible.

The Private World

Contemporary behavior analysts include internal events as part of an organism's environment. This point is often misunderstood internal functioning like an upset stomach, full bladder, low blood sugar, and so on are part of a person's environment. Internal physical events have the same status as external stimuli such as light, noise, odor, and heat. Both external and internal events regulate behavior. Although this is so, behavior analysts usually emphasize the external environment. This is because external events are the only stimuli available for behavior change. The objective procedures of psychological experiments are giving instructions and observing how the person acts. From a behavioral view, the instructions are external stimuli that regulate both verbal and nonverbal behavior. Even when a drug is given to a person and the chemical alters internal biochemistry, the direct injection of the drug is an external event that subsequently regulates behavior. To make this clear,...


The disease presents soon after birth with prolonged jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatomegaly, and anemia. Untreated patients develop ocular, neurologic, visceral, and metabolic disorders hepatomegaly progressing to nodular cirrhosis kidney dysfunction hypoglycemic episodes and lenticular cataract. Mental retardation, seizures, extrapyramidal and cerebellar symptoms, and

End Uses

Besides flavouring, tejpat is used as a clarifier along with the products of Emblica officinalis fruits, and for tanning and dyeing leather (Anon, 1950). It is reported to have hypoglycemic, stimulant and carminative effects, and is used in Indian systems of traditional medicines to treat colic, coughs, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, rheumatism, irritation, boils, conjunctivitis and itching (Chopra etal., 1956 Chatterjee and Prakashi, 1991 Hussain etal., 1992). In Kashmir, the leaves are used as a substitute for pan or betel leaves. The strong flavour of tejpat is due to an alcohol soluble essential oil Indian Cassia Lignea oil (Anon, 1950), which is rich in eugenol, widely used in pharmaceutical preparations, perfumes for soap, cosmetics and as a flavouring agent in many kinds of foods, meats and sauces (Zutshi, 1982).


Identifying and avoiding triggering factors are important. These include stress (exertion, excitement, anxiety, fatigue, anger), food containing vasoactive amines (chocolate, cheese), food allergy, bright lights and loud noise, and also hormonal changes (menstruation and oral contraceptives) and hypoglycemia. These pr cipitants may initiate release of vasoactive substances stored in nerve endings and blood platelets. Many attacks, however, have no obvious trigger.

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