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Maximum protection is best achieved using live organisms as antigen, though there are obvious risks. Despite this, and in the absence of any safer alternative, in the Middle East parents often expose the buttocks of their children to sandfly holes, ensuring infection with cutaneous Leishmania species (an organism carried by sandfly vectors). Infection is self-limited and provides long-lived sterile immunity (without the risk of scarring on visible body areas, as occurs following natural...

Section I Essential Immunobiological Concepts

An Introduction The Immune The Immune General Innate Immune Adaptive Immune Responses Cells That Function in Innate Immune Cells That Function in Adaptive Immune Tissues of the Immune System General Tissues of the Immune System Primary Lymphoid Organs 12 Tissues of the Immune System Secondary Lymphoid Tissues 14 Soluble Mediators of the Immune Molecules That Activate Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Monoclonal Activators 22 Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Oligoclonal...

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Viral peptide Typical antigen recognition B. Direct Recognition of Graft Allo-class I MHC Fig. 17.13. CD8+ allo-recognition versus viral peptide recognition. CD8+ T cells recognize antigen (viral peptide) presented by infected cells expressing self-class I MHC. CD8+ T cells recognize allo-class I MHC directly if allo-class I MHC mimics self-class I MHC plus antigen. Most donor cells are targeted because all nucleated cells express class I MHC. importance than for CD4+ T cells. It has been...

Phagocytosis Cure Cancer

When the hyphae are too large for phagocytosis, activated neutrophils can still destroy them by secretion of an array of proteolytic molecules into the local microenvironment. Attachment of neutrophils to the hyphae ensures that the fungi are within range of these metabolites. In addition to their role in B-cell activation, cytokines secreted by activated CD4+ T cells play a significant role in immunity to Candida species. IFNy augments the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric...

Lipopolysaccharide Pneumococcal Polysaccharide

Concept map depicting monoclonal, oligoclonal, and polyclonal activators. There are three general classes of molecules that activate lymphocytes, those that activate a single clone (monoclonal activators) those that activate all clones (polyclonal activators) and those that activate several, but not all clones (oligoclonal activators). Proteins are more immunogenic than polysaccharides, which are more immuno-I genic than nucleic acids or lipids. When nucleic acids or lipids are...

Clinical Concept

Antigen Presenting Cells Concept Map

Stomach prevents colonization of most bacteria. Once infectious agents have penetrated these physical and chemical barriers, nonspecific mechanisms of host defense are induced in an attempt to eliminate the intruders. Phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammatory cells, and antigen presenting cells are the principal cells that function in innate immunity Fig. 1.1 . In addition to the induction of cellular aspects of innate immunity, a system of serum proteins, the complement system, is...

C1inh Et Cannabis

Peter is a 16-year-old boy whom you see in consultation for repeated episodes of spontaneous swelling of the lips over the last three to five years. None has been of particular medical consequence until this morning, when he came to your Hospital's Emergency Department. In addition to the swelling of lips, Peter was also experiencing some difficulty swallowing and taking a deep breath. What is a potential problem here How would it be investigated How would it be treated The complaints of...