Info

Although we are not informed of John's resistance to viral infections, what laboratory information suggests he is likely able to mount a normal immunological response to viral infections Viral infections are increased in T-cell deficiencies. Because John has a normal number number function of T cells, he is not likely predisposed to viral infections. 4. John has a severe respiratory infection, which may be the result of impaired mucosal immunity. Which immunodeficiency disorder would predispose...

Hladr2 Hladr3

Systemic and multiorgan (NON organ specific) IC are formed in serum and trapped in basement membrane of glomeruli, skin endothelium, synovia of joints, kidney Anti-DS-DNA, anti-leukocyte, antibodies Anti-phospholipid antibody (also termed, lupus anti-coagulant) Polyclonal B-cell activation Etiology unknown Cell Mediated and Mixture of organ specific and systemic symptoms Immune Complexes Joint involvement lung, cardiac, skin, and CNS Rheumatoid factors IgM (or IgG IgA) to the Fc of IgG. These...

Innate Immune Responses to Pathogens

31 32 Genetic Defects in NADPH Oxidase Chronic Granulomatous Disease 42 45 45 This chapter introduces the innate immune system, along with the effector molecules and cells that participate in innate host defense. These cells and molecules function early following host challenge by pathogens. The innate system shows significant conservation in evolutionary terms. Cell-bound receptors present on cells of the innate defense system are conserved across evolution (so-called primitive pattern...

O

Activation of Complement Alternative Pathway Amplified production of complement Generation of complement fragments Generation of a membrane attack fragment C3b C5a and C3a complex (MAC) Mast cell or Basophil CR-3a Receptor Degranulation leads to the release of histamine and inflammatory mediators in the bone marrow, with the majority being released into circulation. Once neutrophils are released into circulation they have a half-life of 8 hours. A number of inflammatory cytokines generated in...

Hladp Hladq Hladr

Concept map for class I and class II MHC molecules. Class I MHC molecules are expressed on all nucleated cells, whereas class II MHC molecules are expressed only on professional antigen presenting cells. nucleated cells express class I MHC molecules, while only professional antigen presenting cells express class II MHC molecules. Thus, antigen presenting cells express both class I and class II MHC molecules. In humans the MHC, located on chromosome 6, is referred to as the HLA in...

Tumor Immunology

Tumors are growths that may be benign or malignant. Encapsulated tumors whose cells are well differentiated and resemble normal tissues are considered benign. At least some of the cells in malignant tumors are undifferentiated, with high proliferative potential causing persistent tumor growth. The tumor mass is not encapsulated, but has the capacity to invade adjacent tissue locally, and ultimately spread (metastasize) to distant sites. Malignancies are categorized according to the tissue from...

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency

Absence of adhesion molecules no interaction with endothelium Fig. 15.5. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency disorder prevents leukocyte endothelium interaction. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency is a disorder in which trafficking of leukocytes to sites of infection is impaired due to a deficiency in adhesion molecules on the leukocytes. Both fragments contribute to enhanced vascular permeability and often life-threatening edema, termed hereditary angioedema (Fig.15.6). Treatment involves infusion of C1...

B

Invasion of adjacent epithelial cells Phagocytosed Shigella organisms induce apoptosis of macrophages Fig. 11.7. Invasion by Shigella causes death of epithelial cells and apoptosis of macrophages. Shigella sp. bind to M cells and are endocytosed within these cells. They lyse the endosomal wall and escape into the M cell cytoplasm where replication occurs. Many of the organisms then spread laterally to infect adjacent epithelial cells. Organisms not infecting adjacent epithelial cells pass...

Tissue Damage

Activation of Factor XII of the ntrinsic Coagulation Pathway Factor XII (a) Converts Pre-kallikrein to Kallikrein Fig. 5.11. Tissue damage leads to increases in vascular permeability. Kallikrein is a protease acting on kininogen and C5 of the complement system. Hydrolysis of kininogen produces brady-kinin, while one of the products of C5 proteolysis is C5a, an anaphylatoxin. C5a binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells inducing degranulation and histamine release. Histamine alters...

Clinical Immunology in Practice

In Section II of this text we endeavor to address a discussion of the diseases which the clinical immunologist finds most familiar. While this section provides an integration of the knowledge the reader will have acquired from the previous chapters, we hope that any of these chapters can nevertheless themselves be read in isolation, with appropriate referral to the more relevant basic immunobiological chapters as the reader feels appropriate. There is one other important difference from the...

Preface

The primary purposes of this book are first, to introduce the reader to the fundamental components of the immune system and the basic concepts involved in understanding how those components interact to achieve host defense, and second to highlight how that understanding proves invaluable to diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of clinical disorders. In the introductory chapters attention is focused on the cells and factors which make up both the innate and acquired immune systems. While...

Graft

Host cell infiltration into the graft 1-7 days post transplant. Host cells, e.g., monocytes, neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, infiltrate the graft following alterations in vascular permeability and expression of adhesion molecules. Fig. 17.8. Host cell infiltration into the graft 1-7 days post transplant. Host cells, e.g., monocytes, neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, infiltrate the graft following alterations in vascular permeability and expression of adhesion...

C

C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) 101 C2b 95 Candida albicans 227 Candidiasis 229 Carrier effect 24 CCR5 52, 222 CD1 64 CD19 161 CD2 177 CD4 11, 52, 182 CD40 161 CD40 ligand 161 CD45 161, 180 CD79a b heterodimer 160 CD79a CD79b 130 CD8 52, 182 CD8+ T cells 52 CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) 12, 177 CD95 184 Chagas disease 257 Chediak-Higashi syndrome 324 Chemokine receptor 52 Chemokines 3, 31, 34 Chemotactic molecules 34 Chemotaxis 93 (CGD) 42, 205, 324 Chronic mucocutaneous...

Immunodeficiency Disorders

Dysfunction in components of either innate or adaptive immunity causes immunodeficiency disorders. These disorders are classified as either primary or secondary, depending on whether the dysfunction is inherited or acquired (Fig. 15.1). Inherited, or primary disorders, may arise from defects in either cellular or humoral components of immunity, with some defects being more common than others (Fig. 15.2). In the absence of medical intervention (e.g., gene therapy), primary disorders are...

Xeno

Classification of grafts according to the donor source. Isografts are grafts between identical twins allografts are grafts within a species xenografts are grafts across species. destroying malignant cells but also cells of the hematopoietic system. They then receive their own, autologous, bone marrow. No immune rejection (Host vs Graft, HvG or Graft vs Host, GvH) should occur. Sometimes a so-called syngeneic GvHD is seen (see later), the immunological basis of which remains unclear....

An Introduction The Immune System

The Immune General Innate Immune Cells That Function in Innate Immune 8 Cells That Function in Adaptive Immune 11 Tissues of the Immune System General 12 Tissues of the Immune System Primary Lymphoid 12 Tissues of the Immune System Secondary Lymphoid Tissues 14 Soluble Mediators of the Immune Molecules That Activate Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Monoclonal Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Oligoclonal Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Polyclonal Clinical Cases and Test At the...

Il1 201

IL-1 receptor antagonist 247 IL-10 203 IL-4 203 IL-8 201 Immune complex 89 Immunodeficiency disorders 315 Immunogen 22 Immunoglobulin A (IgA) 72 Immunoglobulin D (IgD) 73 Immunoglobulin deficiency with increased IgM 322 Immunoglobulin E (IgE) 76 Immunoglobulin G (IgG) 76 Immunoglobulin M (IgM) 77 Immunoglobulins 11, 20, 69 Inflammation 191 Innate immune system 2, 31 Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 296 Integrins 146, 196, 198 Interferon gamma (IFNy) 329 Invariant chain, (Ii) 61 Isografts...

Lymphocytes

CD4+ T Cell CD4+ T Cell CD8+Tcell y S b cell Plasma cell (Th1) (Th2) (CTL) J cell Fig. 1.4. Cells of the immune system. Cells of the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system are illustrated. Note that there are several types of cells in the various categories. Phagocytes are cells whose function is primarily phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is a defense mechanism by which microorganisms, especially bacteria and other extracellular microbes are engulfed and destroyed by phagocytes....

R

Various modes of vaccine administration. Vaccination may use (i) live organisms (ii) attenuated microbes (iii) killed microbes (iv) purified proteins prepared from the pathogen (v) recombinant proteins made using molecular biological techniques and (vi) naked DNA preparations. incorporating the antigen within a liposomal particle that is presented to APC. Less commonly used are products of bacterial cells (e.g., Bordetella pertussis, used in combination with tetanus and diphtheria...

Autoimmunity

General Tolerance Loss of Self Immunopathology of Autoimmune Disorders Autoreactive Antibodies 296 Immunopathology of Autoimmune Disorders Cell-mediated Immunity 299 Immunotherapy of Autoimmune Disease Immunotherapy of Autoimmune Disorders Cytokine Modulation 306 The autoimmune disorders are readily understood from discussions on the development and induction of antigen specific immunity (both B- and T-cell immunity). As noted in earlier chapters, the developing immune system produces...

Section I Essential Immunobiological Concepts

An Introduction The Immune The Immune General Innate Immune Adaptive Immune Responses Cells That Function in Innate Immune Cells That Function in Adaptive Immune Tissues of the Immune System General Tissues of the Immune System Primary Lymphoid Organs 12 Tissues of the Immune System Secondary Lymphoid Tissues 14 Soluble Mediators of the Immune Molecules That Activate Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Monoclonal Activators 22 Molecules That Activate Lymphocytes Oligoclonal...

F

Viral peptide Typical antigen recognition B. Direct Recognition of Graft Allo-class I MHC Fig. 17.13. CD8+ allo-recognition versus viral peptide recognition. CD8+ T cells recognize antigen (viral peptide) presented by infected cells expressing self-class I MHC. CD8+ T cells recognize allo-class I MHC directly if allo-class I MHC mimics self-class I MHC plus antigen. Most donor cells are targeted because all nucleated cells express class I MHC. importance than for CD4+ T cells. It has been...

Phagocytosis Cure Cancer

When the hyphae are too large for phagocytosis, activated neutrophils can still destroy them by secretion of an array of proteolytic molecules into the local microenvironment. Attachment of neutrophils to the hyphae ensures that the fungi are within range of these metabolites. In addition to their role in B-cell activation, cytokines secreted by activated CD4+ T cells play a significant role in immunity to Candida species. IFNy augments the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric...

Lipopolysaccharide Pneumococcal Polysaccharide

Concept map depicting monoclonal, oligoclonal, and polyclonal activators. There are three general classes of molecules that activate lymphocytes, those that activate a single clone (monoclonal activators) those that activate all clones (polyclonal activators) and those that activate several, but not all clones (oligoclonal activators). Proteins are more immunogenic than polysaccharides, which are more immuno-I genic than nucleic acids or lipids. When nucleic acids or lipids are...

Malt

Malt Immune System

Site of initial immune response depends on the route of antigen entry. The initial immune response is determined by the mode of antigen entry. The lymph node, spleen, and MALT serve as the initial site of the immune response for antigen that enters via the lymphatics, the blood, or the mucosal tissues, respectively. Fig. 1.7. Schematic illustration of a lymph node. Lymph nodes are encapsulated organs with both afferent and efferent lymphatics. The sinuses are lined with tiny apertures...

Clinical Concept

Antigen Presenting Cells Concept Map

Stomach prevents colonization of most bacteria. Once infectious agents have penetrated these physical and chemical barriers, nonspecific mechanisms of host defense are induced in an attempt to eliminate the intruders. Phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammatory cells, and antigen presenting cells are the principal cells that function in innate immunity Fig. 1.1 . In addition to the induction of cellular aspects of innate immunity, a system of serum proteins, the complement system, is...

Wheezing Through Lungs Very Poor Air Intake Pale Cool And Clammy And Low Blood Pressure

Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated immune responses that are detrimental to the host. They are generally classified, using a system devised by Gell and Coombs, according to the immune mechanisms involved in the response. Four types of hypersensitivity reactions, Types I to IV, have been designated. Regardless of the immune mechanisms involved, hypersensitivity reactions can be divided into two phases, a sensitization phase and an effector phase. Sensitization for Type I immediate...

C1inh Et Cannabis

Peter is a 16-year-old boy whom you see in consultation for repeated episodes of spontaneous swelling of the lips over the last three to five years. None has been of particular medical consequence until this morning, when he came to your Hospital's Emergency Department. In addition to the swelling of lips, Peter was also experiencing some difficulty swallowing and taking a deep breath. What is a potential problem here How would it be investigated How would it be treated The complaints of...