Fig. 9.2. Cell surface interactions during conjugate formation of a T cell and an antigen presenting cell. Several cell surface interactions, in addition to TCR/class II MHC, contribute to high affinity conjugate formation between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell.

IL-12 and IFNy, in contrast, selectively drive Th0 cells towards the Th1 developmental state and Type-1 cytokine secretion. IFNy is produced by Th0 cells and by IL-12-activated natural killer cells. Because activated dendritic cells and/or macrophages secrete IL-12, the influence of IL-12 on development may thus be indirect. It is likely that so-called Th1 and Th2 subsets actually merely reflect two extremes of Th cell differentiation because many T-cell clones have been identified that secrete different intermediate combinations of cytokines other than the patterns associated with either Th1 or Th2 subsets.

Controlling the response

Control of the immune response requires dampening of cytokine secretion. This is achieved in two ways: (i) loss of T-cell stimulation because the infectious

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