Looking Forward

There are two fronts on which biopersonality can make foreseeable advances: molecular genetics and brain imaging. The identification of specific genes with major effects related to personality, and the discovery of their roles in the intermediate biological mechanisms, will bring "consilience" between levels of biosocial phenomena. There have been some real problems in replicating the few gene-trait relationships found, but larger samples and better techniques may resolve these problems. Perhaps in the future we will even be able to identify genes of smaller effects. At present our best bet is to use "candidate" genes, identified as such through neurochemical theories or data on the physiological bases of the traits. Gene interactions are already being reported, and any study should investigate several genes putatively involved in order to investigate their interactions.

New methods of brain imaging can use experimental treatments, such as exposure to emotionally provoking stimuli, to examine differences in brain reactions in specific brain areas and assess the activations of specific neuro-transmitter systems. These methods have so far been largely limited to studies of psychopathology and cognitive function. There is no reason why personality variables cannot be used in normal control groups in psychopathology studies and studies of cognitive functions in persons without psychopatholo-gy.

Of course, it would be preferable if personality brain imaging studies could be conducted on large, randomly selected samples. One could reduce the necessary sample size by selecting groups with extreme scores on a single personality variable. But given the present state of knowledge, it would be foolish to put all of our eggs in the one trait basket. There are likely to be interactions of traits related to genes, as well as interactions of genes involved in traits. The best strategy is to use personality tests that assess the major dimensions of personality—whether there are three, four, five, or more of these. There is now too much reliance on the "Big Five" trait model. This particular model was developed from a lexical analysis of human language rather than an analysis of temperament or biobehavioral traits. At least, representative scales from several methods should be used to assess basic traits. A number of psychometric analyses have identified factors common to several major tests. Group testing is not expensive and is a worthwhile addition to any bio-behavioral study.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I acknowledge an intellectual debt to colleagues and friends who were sources of theoretical insights and research on sensation seeking in humans or animal models of this trait or related ones. On the theoretical side, I owe much to the late Hans Eysenck and Jeffrey Gray. Hans got me started on the idea of biological explanations of personality using genetic and psychophysiological methods. Jeffrey introduced me to the more fundamental neuropsychology of personality from a "bottom-up" viewpoint.

My colleague and friend at the University of Delaware, Jerome Siegel, extended the EP A-R paradigm from humans to cats and then rats, providing an important comparative dimension to the trait of sensation seeking. His last study on rats indicated genetic origins of differences in behavior and psychopharmacology of rat models for high and low sensation seeking. Another colleague and friend at the university, Michael Kuhlman, was an essential collaborator in the development of the alternative five-factor model and the questionnaire embodying it (the ZKPQ).

The biosocial research on sensation seeking and related constructs has been done by colleagues from both Europe and America, including Alois Angleitner, Burkhard Brocke, Juergen Hennig, Petra Netter, Thomas Rammsayer, and Paul Schmitz (Germany); Britt af Klinteberg, Lars Von Knorring, Lars Oreland, and the late Daisy Schalling (Sweden); Sybil Eysenck, Adrian Furnham, and Alan Pickering (United Kingdom); Jan Strelau (Poland); Vilfredo De Pascalis (Italy); Andrew Johnson, Robert Stelmack, and P. Vernon (Canada); and Samuel Ball, Michael Bardo, Ernest Barratt, Lewis Donohew, Richard Haier, Jeffrey Joireman, Gerald Matthews, and Rick Zimmerman (United States).

Chapters written by all of these scientists, describing their work, may be found in the recent festschrift edited by Robert Stelmack (2004). Others who have contributed significant biobehavioral research include D. Boomsma, Jan Feij, and J. Orlebeke (The Netherlands), and F. Dellu, P. V. Piazza, W. Mayo, M. Le Moal, and H. Simon (France). The last-named group from France developed a new biobehavioral animal model for sensation seeking.

REFERENCES

Ahern, F. M., Johnson, R. C., Wilson, J. R., McClearn, G. E., & Vandenberg, S. G.

(1982) Family resemblance in personality. Behavior Genetics, 12, 261-280. Ballenger, J. C., Post, R. M., Jimerson, D. C., Lake, C. R., Murphy, D. L., Zuckerman, M., et al. (1983). Biochemical correlates of personality traits in normals: An exploratory study. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 615-625. Bergh, C., Eklund, T., & Soderstein, P. (1997). Altered dopamine function in pathological gambling. Psychological Medicine, 27, 473-475. Blanco, C., Orensnz-Munoz, L., Blanco-Jerez, C., & Saiz-Ruiz, J. (1996). Pathological gambling and platelet MAO activity: A psychobiological study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 119-121. Boomsma, D. I., de Geus, E. J. C., van Baal, G. C. M., & Koopmans, J. R. (1999). A religious upbringing reduces the influence of genetic factors on disinhibition: Evidence for interaction between genotype and environment on personality. Twin Research, 2, 115-125. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1993). Genetic and environmental influences on adult personality. In J. Hettema & I. J. Deary (Eds.), Foundations of personality (pp. 15-44). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Brain, P. F. (1983). Pituitary-gonadal influences on social aggression. In B. B. Svare (Ed.), Hormones and aggressive behavior (pp. 1-26). New York: Plenum Press. Bratko, D., & Butkovic, A. (2003). Family study of sensation seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1559-1570.

Brocke, B., Beauducel, A., John, R., Debener, S., & Heilemann, H. (2000). Sensation seeking and affective disorders: Characteristics in the intensity dependence of acoustic evoked potentials. Neuropsychobiology, 41, 24-30.

Buchsbaum, M. S. (1971). Neural events and the psychophysical law. Science, 172, 502.

Cloninger, C. R. (1987). A systematic method for clinical description and classification of personality variants. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 573-588.

Daitzman, R. J., & Zuckerman, M. (1980). Disinhibitory sensation seeking, personality, and gonadal hormones. Personality and Individual Differences, 1, 103-110.

Dellu, F., Piazza, P. V., Mayo, W., Le Moal, M., & Simon, H. (1996). Novelty-seeking in rats: Biobehavioral characteristics and possible relationship with the sensationseeking trait in man. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 136-145.

Depue, R. A. (1995). Neurobiological factors in personality and depression. European Journal of Personality, 9, 413-439.

Deutch, A. Y., & Roth, R. H. (1999). Neurochemical systems in the central nervous system. In D. S. Charney, E. J. Nestler, & B. S. Bunney (Eds.), Neurobiology of mental illness (pp. 10-25). New York: Oxford University Press.

Ebstein, R. P., & Auerbach, J. G. (2002). Dopamine D4 receptor and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms and temperament in early childhood. In J. Benjamin, R. P. Ebstein, & R. H. Belmaker (Eds.), Molecular genetics and the human personality (pp. 137-149). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Ebstein, R. P., & Kotler, M. (2002). Personality, substance abuse, and genes. In J. Benjamin, R. P. Ebstein, & R. H. Belmaker (Eds.), Molecular genetics and the human personality (pp. 151-163). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., Umansky, R., Priel, B., Osher, Y., Blaine, D., et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 78-80.

Ellison, G. D. (1977). Animal models of psychopathology: The low-norepinephrine and low-serotonin rat. American Psychologist, 32, 1036-1045.

Eysenck, H. J. (1983). A biometrical genetical analysis of impulsive and sensation seeking behavior. In M. Zuckerman (Ed.), Biological bases of sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety (pp. 1-27). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences: Three major dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality, 58, 245261.

Fulker, D. W., Eysenck, S. B. G., & Zuckerman, M. (1980). A genetic and environmental analysis of sensation seeking. Journal of Research in Personality, 14, 261281.

Grace, A. A. (2002). Dopamine. In K. L. Davis, D. Charney, J. T. Coyle, & C. Nemeroff (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 119-132). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Hur, Y.-M., & Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1997). The genetic correlation between impulsivity and sensation seeking traits. Behavior Genetics, 27, 455-463.

Jinks, J. L., & Fulker, D. W. (1970). Comparison of the biometrical genetical, MAVA, and the classical approaches to the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 311-349.

Kaplan, J. R., Manuck, S. B., Fontenot, B., & Mann, J. J. (2002). Central nervous system monoamine correlates of social dominance in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Neuropsychopharmacology, 26, 431-443.

Kish, G. B., & Donnenwerth, G. V. (1972). Sex differences in the correlates of sensation seeking. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 42-49.

Klinteberg, B. (1996). Biology, norms, and personality: A developmental perspective. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 146-154.

Koopmans, J. R., Boomsma, D. I., Heath, A. C., & Lorenz, J. P. D. (1995). A multivariate genetic analysis of sensation seeking. Behavior Genetics, 25, 349356.

Kraft, M. R., Jr., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). Parental behaviors and attitudes of their parents reported by young adults from intact and stepparent families and relationships between perceived parenting and personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 453-476.

Leckman, J. F., Gershon, E. S., Nichols, A. S., & Murphy, D. L. (1977). Reduced MAO activity in first degree relatives of individuals with bipolar affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 601-606.

Lidberg, L., Modlin, I., Oreland, L., Tuck, J. R., & Gillner, A. (1985). Platelet monoamine oxidase and psychopathy. Psychiatry Research, 16, 339-343.

Limson, R., Goldman, D., Roy, A., Lamparski, D., Ravitz, B., Adinoff, B., et al. (1991). Personality and cerebrospinal monoamine metabolites in alcoholics and normals. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 437-441.

Loehlin, J. C. (1992). Genes and environment in personality development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Lukas, J. H., & Siegel, J. (1977). Cortical mechanisms that augment or reduce evoked potentials in cats. Science, 196, 73-75.

Major, L. F., & Murphy, D. L. (1978). Platelet and plasma amine oxidase activity in alcoholic individuals. British Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 548-554.

McCrae, R. R. (2004). Human nature and culture: A trait perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 3-14.

Murphy, D. L., Aulakh, C. S., Garrick, N. A., & Sunderland, T. (1987). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors as antidepressants: Implications for the mechanism of action of antidepressants and the psychology of affective disorders and some related disorders. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation of progress (pp. 545-552). New York: Raven Press.

Murphy, D. L., & Weiss, R. (1972). Reduced monoamine oxidase activity in blood platelets from bipolar depressed patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 1351-1357.

Neary, R. S., & Zuckerman, M. (1976). Sensation seeking trait and state anxiety, and the electrodermal orienting reflex. Psychophysiology, 13, 205-211.

Netter, P., Hennig, J., & Roed, I. S. (1996). Serotonin and dopamine as mediators of sensation seeking behavior. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 155-165.

O'Carroll, R. E. (1984). Androgen administration to hypogonadal and eugonadal men: Effects on measures of sensation seeking, personality and spatial ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 595-598.

Orlebeke, J. F., & Feij, J. A. (1979). The orienting reflex as a personality correlate. In E. H. van Holst & J. F. Orlebeke (Eds.), The orienting reflex in humans (pp. 567585). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Reist, C., Haier, R. J., De Met, E., & Cicz-De Met, A. (1990). Platelet MAO activity in personality disorders and normal controls. Psychiatry Research, 30, 221-227.

Ridgeway, D., & Hare, R. D. (1981). Sensation seeking and psychophysiological responses to auditory stimulation. Psychophysiology, 18, 613-618.

Saxton, P. M., Siegel, J., & Lukas, J. H. (1987). Visual evoked potential augmenting-reducing slopes in cats: 2. Correlations with behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 8, 511-519.

Schinka, J. A., Letsch, E. A., & Crawford, F. C. (2002). DRD4 and novelty seeking: Results of meta-analyses. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 114, 643-648.

Schuckit, M. A. (1994). Familial alcoholism. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Francis, H. A. Pincus, M. B. First, R. Ross, & W. Davis (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook (Vol. 1, pp. 159-167). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

Shekim, W. O., Bylund, D. B., Alexson, J., Glaser, R. D., Jones, S. B., Hodges, K., et al. (1986). Platelet MAO and measures of attention and impulsivity in boys with attention deficit and hyperactivity. Psychiatry Research, 18, 179-188.

Sher, K. J. (1993). Children of alcoholics and the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism: A biopsychosocial perspective. In J. S. Baer, A. Marlatt, & R. J. McMahon (Eds.), Addictive behaviors across the life span (pp. 3-33). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Siegel, J., Sisson, D. F., & Driscoll, P. (1993). Augmenting and reducing of visual evoked potentials in Roman High- and Low-Avoidance rats. Physiology and Behavior, 54, 707-711.

Smith, B. D., Perlstein, W. M., Davidson, R. A., & Michael, K. (1986). Sensation seeking: Differential effects of novel stimulation on electrodermal activity. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 445-452.

Stelmack, R. M. (Ed.). (2004). On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman. New York: Elsevier.

Strobel, A., Debener, S., Schmidt, D., Hunnerkopf, R., Lesch, K. P., & Brocke, B. (2003). Allelic variation in serotonin transporter function associated with the intensity dependence of the auditory evoked potential. American Journal of Medical Genetics: Part B. Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 118B, 41-47.

Thornquist, M. H., & Zuckerman, M. (1995). Psychopathy, passive-avoidance learning and basic dimensions of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 525-534.

Von Knorring, L., & Johansson, F. (1980). Changes in the augmenter-reducer tendency and in pain measures as a result of treatment with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor—zimelidine. Neuropsychobiology, 6, 313-478.

Von Knorring, L., Oreland, L., & Von Knorring, A. L. (1987). Personality traits and platelet MAO activity in alcohol and drug abusing teenage boys. Acta Psychi-atrica Scandinavica, 75, 307-314.

Von Knorring, L., & Pervin, C. (1981). Biochemistry of the augmenting-reducing response in visual evoked potentials. Neuropsychobiology, 7, 1-8.

Wang, S., Mason, J., Charney, D., & Yehuda, R. (1997). Relationships between hormonal profile and novelty seeking in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 41, 145-151.

Zuckerman, M. (1969). Theoretical formulations. In J. P. Zubek (Ed.), Sensory deprivation: Fifteen years of research (pp. 407-432). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Zuckerman, M. (1990). The psychophysiology of sensation seeking. Journal of Personality, 58, 313-345.

Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Zuckerman, M. (1995). Good and bad humors: Biochemical bases of personality and its disorders. Psychological Science, 6, 325-332.

Zuckerman, M. (1996). The psychobiological model for impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: A comparative approach. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 125-129.

Zuckerman, M. (2002). Personality and psychopathy: Shared behavioral and biological traits. In J. Glicksohn (Ed.), Neurobiology of criminal behavior (pp. 27-49). Boston: Kluwer Academic.

Zuckerman, M. (2003). Biological bases of personality. In I. B. Weiner (Series Ed.) and T. Millon & M. J. Lerner (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 5. Personality and social psychology (pp. 85-116). New York: Wiley.

Zuckerman, M., Ballenger, J. C., & Post, R. M. (1984). The neurobiology of some dimensions of personality. In J. R. Smythies & R. J. Bradley (Eds.), International review of neurobiology (Vol. 25, pp. 391-434). New York: Academic Press.

Zuckerman, M., & Cloninger, C. R. (1996). Relationships between Cloninger's, Zuckerman's, and Eysenck's dimensions of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 21, 283-285.

Zuckerman, M., Murtaugh, T. T., & Siegel, J. (1974). Sensation seeking and cortical augmenting-reducing. Psychophysiology, 11, 535-542.

Zuckerman, M., Simons, R. F., & Como, P. G. (1988). Sensation seeking and stimulus intensity as modulators of cortical, cardiovascular, and electrodermal response: A cross modality study. Personality and Individual Differences, 9, 361-372.

Zuckerman, M., Tushup, R., & Finner, S. (1976). Sexual attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality correlations and changes produced by a course in sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 7-19.

Zureik, J. L., & Meltzer, H. Y. (1988). Platelet MAO activity in hallucinating and paranoid schizophrenics. A review and meta-analysis. Biological Psychiatry, 24, 63-78.

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment