Pi 503270

New Jersey

Source: NCPRIS database, http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/search-grin.html; Laura Marek (NCRPRIS), personal communication. (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.)

Source: NCPRIS database, http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/search-grin.html; Laura Marek (NCRPRIS), personal communication. (For further details on individual accessions, see Section 8.14.2.)

2006, and therefore no longer available (Laura Marek, personal communication). When available, accessions are usually supplied in the form of seed, in a quantity of up to 100 seeds.

The Jerusalem artichoke material held by NCPRIS mainly comprises wild or weedy accessions originating from within the U.S. A great many of these were originally collected by the USDA sunflower unit and held in Bushland, TX, prior to being transferred to Ames in 1986. Therefore, the collection date for these accessions is noted as pre-1988 in the accessions listing below (Section 8.14.2). Because this material was collected as part of a program involving the genetic improvement of cultivated sunflower, the data held for some of these accessions have detailed information on the seeds, including morphology and seed oil analysis (http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/search-grin.html). More recently, plant-collecting trips (e.g., conducted by Gerald Seiler and colleagues of USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND) have extended the range of wild-collected H. tuberosus accessions held at Ames. A range of landraces from the U.S. and material from Canada and the Russian Federation are also held at Ames.

When material first arrives at NCRPRIS in Ames, it is given an Ames number, which acts as an initial accession number. At some point, the accession is converted to a Plant Introduction (PI) number, generally when relevant plant passport data are deemed adequate (Laura Marek, personal communication). Therefore, NCRPIS material has either an Ames or a PI number, but not both, in addition to an accession name. The wild and weedy accessions generally have 'TUB-' accession names, although some accessions still have their Ames numbers for accession names (Table 8.4).

One of the most comprehensive sources of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in North America is maintained and available from the Scatterseed Project, part of the Seed Savers Exchange Members Network (Decorah, IA), run by Will Bonsall, Box 1167, Farmington, ME 04938, U.S. This collection includes an impressive range of landraces, and obsolete and traditional cultivars from around North America (see Section 8.14.2).

8.13.3 Central and South America

Little or no H. tuberosus material is maintained in Central and South American countries. The Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria, Belcare, Buenos Aires, Argentina, holds three wild or weedy accessions of U.S. origin; CENARGEN/EMBRAPA, Brasilia, Brazil, reportedly has one accession; while the Facultdad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile, holds two old cultivar accessions collected in Chile (IPGRI, 2006). 'CR Special' (Argentina) is among the very few accessions in germplasm collections with a South American origin.

8.13.4 Germany, Austria, Slovenia, and Switzerland

In the past, the main repository for H. tuberosus (topinambur) genetic resources in Germany was at the Federal Centre for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants (BAZ), in Braunschweig, Germany (Frison and Servinsky, 1995). Although BAZ remains a major institute for plant breeding, the national germplasm collection for H. tuberosus has been moved to the Genebank of the Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung (IPK) in Gatersleben (Gatersleben, Germany). With 18 accessions listed in 1995 (Frison and Servinsky, 1995), Gatersleben held 115 accessions in 2006 after the movement of material from BAZ. All these accessions are maintained as tubers (Helmut Knuepffer, personal communication). In addition, the original 18 Gatersleben accessions are also in the in vitro collection and propagated by tissue culture (Joachim Keller and Khan, 1997). The complete listing of accessions held at Gatersleben is given in Table 8.5, with further details of individual accessions (including former Braunschweig BGRC numbers) given in Section 8.14.2.

A number of botanical gardens in Germany also hold a small amount of Jerusalem artichoke material, including gardens in Stuttgart, Bonn, Bayreuth, Frankfurt, Göttingen, Marburg, and Ülm (GBIF, 2006).

There are four institutes in Austria holding crop plant germplasm, two of them with Jerusalem artichoke accessions. The Research Station for Special Crops (Wies 88, Austria) makes available three cultivars of German origin: 'Bianka' (WIES-D16), 'RoZo' (WIES-D17), and 'Gute Gelbe' (WIES-D18). The Federal Office of Agrobiology Seed Collection (BVAL, Biologiezentrum Linz) maintains an Austrian accession ('BVAL-901') (Eurisco, 2003). Material from 38 wild H. tuberosus populations, collected between 2000 and 2003 from around Austria, is held by Biologiezentrum Linz (GBIF, 2006).

In Slovenia, the Agronomy Department (Oddelek za Agronomijo) at the University of Ljubljana (Ljubljana, Slovenia) holds 16 accessions of H. tuberosus, comprising 14 advanced cultivars and 2 landraces (Frison and Servinsky, 1995; IPRGI, 2006).

SAVE (Safeguard for Agricultural Varieties in Europe; St. Gallen, Switzerland) was reported as holding three accessions in 1995, but these were subsequently offered to Pro Specie Rara when the organization's show farm closed (Frison and Servinsky, 1995; Pavel Beco, personal communication). Pro Specie Rara (St. Gallen, Switzerland), a Swiss NGO, holds up to five accessions (IPGRI, 2006).

8.13.5 France and Spain

The diversity of Jerusalem artichoke clones has been recognized in France for many years (Meu-nissier, 1922; Tsvetoukhine, 1960). The national germplasm collection was first assembled at INRA-Rennes (Lefevre, 1941) and then moved to INRA-Clermont Ferrand, where it remained for about 15 years. In 2005, the collection was moved to the INRA breeding station at Montpellier (UMR DGPC), an institute actively involved in the study of cultivated and wild Helianthus genetic resources. The H. tuberosus (topinambour) collection comprises 140 cultivated clones and about 30 wild accessions (with sexual propagation). The cultivated clones in the INRA collection are propagated as tubers, in 100-l pots, with an artificial substrate (vermiculite) and mineral fertilization, and with two replications of each accession. This system effectively prevents clone mixing in the

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment