Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

Keto Resource

Many people always desire to lose weight within a short period. Dieting is easy the first few days, but without a plan, one is subjected to peer pressure and can easily fall back on their program. Gaining weight is very easy for most people, but losing it is another task that needs patience as it does not happen overnight. The Keto 28 day challenge works towards helping individuals achieve their dreams by losing weight on shorter duration of time as compared to other diet plans. It focuses on making its users lose weight and become lighter. The reason why most people gain more weight even when they are on a new diet is the lack of a plan. Lacking a diet plan makes one to make bad choices when choosing the type of food to eat and the quantities that they take. It's time to take the 28 day Keto challenge to get back in shape and have that good and light body that you have always desired. The plan also makes an individual sleep better, wake up more rested, improve hair growth, and have more energy as compared to the earlier days without Keto. Read more...

Keto Resource Summary


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Biological Roles for Surface Carbohydrates and Potential Uses

Because polysaccharides represent the predominant structures on the bacterial cell surface, they are important in the interaction between the pathogen, host, and environment. To summarize the reports described in Subheadings 2.-4., C. jejuni carbohydrates are involved in many cellular functions, including assembly of the flagellar filament (73), which we now realize is a type III-like secretory apparatus necessary for the release of invasion colonization proteins (14,15), motility (73), assembly of the TFSS that affects DNA uptake and natural transformation (79), adherence and invasion in vitro (41,54,76), colonization, and disease in vivo (41,64,68,76-78), molecular mimicry of gangliosides (82), autoimmunity leading to GBS (48), maintenance of cell surface charge (41), serum resistance (41,53), antigenic (53,60,83) and phase variation (41,54,57,83,84). Considering the importance of glycoconjugates in C. jejuni biology and based on the hypothesis that glycoconjugates have evolved in...

Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material

Carbohydrates include both sugars and the polymers of sugars. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharides, or single sugars, also known as simple sugars. Disaccharides are double sugars, consisting ol two monosaccharides joined by a condensation reaction. The carbohydrates that are macromolecules are polysaccharides, polymers composed of many sugar building blocks. A disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. For example maltose is a disaccharide formed by the linking of two molecules of glucose (Figure 5.5a). Also known as malt sugar, maltose is an ingredient used in brewing beer. The most prevalent disaccharide is sucrose, which is table sugar. Its two monomers are glucose and fructose (Ffguire .5ta). Plants generally transport carbohydrates from leaves to roots and other nonphoto-synthetic organs in the form of sucrose. Lactose, the sugar present in milk, is...


Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as sources of energy. In addition, some carbohydrates serve as structural materials. Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms is 2 1. Simple carbohydrates, commonly referred to as sugars, can be monosaccharides if they are composed of single molecules, or disaccharides if they are composed of two molecules. The most important monosaccharide is glucose, a carbohydrate with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the basic form of fuel in living things. It is soluble and is transported by body fluids to all cells, where it is metabolized to release its energy. Glucose is the starting material for cellular respiration, and it is the main product of photosynthesis (see Chapters 5 and 6). Complex carbohydrates are known as polysaccharides. Polysaccharides are formed by linking innumerable monosaccharides. Among the most important polysaccharides are the starches, which are...

Lipids carbohydrates

Lipids form membranes inside and around the cell. Carbohydrates form complex tree-like molecules that become attached to the surface of proteins and cellular membranes. In both cases, the three-dimensional molecular structure is not unique, but the molecular assemblies are highly flexible. Thus, analyzing the molecular structure involves the inspection of a process in time. Molecular dynamics is the only available computer-based method for doing so. Compared with protein structures there are relatively few results on lipids and carbohydrates. The book does not detail this topic.

Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to treat epilepsy since the 1920s. The KD creates and maintains a state of ketosis as a result of changing the body's fuel from carbohydrates to fat. It is a treatment usually used in children with severe intractable epilepsy and has been found to be most effective for people with myoclonic seizures and minor motor seizures. It has also been helpful for people with tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures. Although the diet seems to work best in children ages 1-10 years, it has also been used in adults (Levy and Cooper 2003 Thiele 2003). There are two major types of this diet the classic diet and the medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet. The classic diet involves a ratio of 3 1 to 5 1 of fats to protein plus carbohydrates. The MCT diet patient usually obtains about 60 of their total calories from MCT oil. This diet, compared with the classic diet, allows more consumption of protein and carbohydrates. Ketogenic Diet and Bipolar Disorder...

Introduction to Carbohydrate Biotechnology

The study of carbohydrates has been neglected in favor of consideration of investigation of the properties and functions of the more obviously important classes of biochemicals, nucleic acids, and proteins. There are various reasons for this the concept of carbohydrates as relatively boring materials that are important as major food components and as structural molecules in cell walls but without subtlety of function, as well as the sheer difficulty of working with them. During the evolution of molecules the new availability of monosaccharides provided nature with a class of molecules that could be used as the building blocks for macromolecules of a complexity far in excess of that which can be achieved by polymerizing amino acids. With four (in pentoses) or five (in hexoses) hydroxyl groups available for reaction on each monomer, polymers with various degrees of branching are possible using only a single sugar as monomer, but some 25 different monomers actually occur in naturally...

Micronutrients in the Diets of Industrialized Countries

In the USA and Western Europe, agriculture and the food industry produce enough to feed the population and export large quantities of food. Despite this, many people are poorly nourished they are oversupplied with foods rich in fat, protein, sugar, and salt, and under-supplied with complex carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary surveys have repeatedly found that micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in the industrialized countries. For example

Vegetables and Fruits

Vegetables and fruits are the cornerstones of a healthy diet. They are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, and fiber. Some, such as peas and corn, are also good sources of protein. Moreover, vegetables and fruits are generally inexpensive, contain no cholesterol, have little or no fat, and are low in calories. A high intake of vegetables, particularly of the Brassica family (broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts) can sharply reduce the risk of cancer.10 These vegetables contain compounds that can help the body detoxify and clear potential carcinogens. In addition, fruits and vegetables are rich sources of antioxidant nutrients, such as beta carotene and vitamin C, that may also protect against cancer and heart disease.2122

Cereals Bread Wheat Bran and Wheat Germ

Whole grains are the best natural sources of complex carbohydrates and fiber. Populations eating large amounts of whole-grain products (e.g., Africa and Asia) have far fewer intestinal and bowel problems-such as constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis, and colon cancer-compared to Western populations consuming mainly refined carbohydrates.30

Physiological Effects Of Heme Oxygenase And Carbon Monoxide

HO-1 can be induced in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells by pro-atherogenic stimuli, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lipid metabolites, shear stress, and angiotension II (85). HO-1 also confers protection in animal models of arteriosclerosis, where it may be found in atherosclerotic lesions (86). HO-1 is highly upregulated in the endothelium, and in the foam cells of intimal lesions from humans and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (86). Induction of endogenous HO-1 by chemical treatment (hemin) reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL-receptor knockout mice fed high-fat diets, relative to untreated or SnPPIX-treated controls (87). The adenovirally mediated transduction of HO-1 into ApoE-deficient mice inhibited the formation of arteriosclerotic plaques relative to control mice (88). The mechanism by which HO-1 protects against arterioslcerosis may involve, in part, the inhibition of platelet aggregation by HO-derived CO.

Energy Values of Foods

Foods contain various amounts of organic oxi-disable substrates that can be utilised to yield energy. The best substrates are the same as those present in the cells of the human organism, i.e. protein, carbohydrates and fats, since the cellular apparatus is equipped with enzymes and other necessary components for the metabolism of these compounds. However, even compounds that are not naturally present in cells, such as alcohol, may be utilised for energy production since they can be metabolised by existing, or inducible enzymes.

History of the Energy Value of Foods

Rubner measured the heats of combustion of a number of different proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in a bomb calorimeter and also studied the heat of combustion of urine passed by a dog, a man, a boy, and a baby. He realised that the heat of combustion of protein in a bomb calorimeter was greater than its caloric value in the body because the body oxidises proteins only to urea, creatinine, uric acid, and other nitrogenous end-products, all of which can be further oxidised 5 . food. The comparison gave very good agreement between the data and indicated average factors of 4.0, 8.9 (later rounded off to 9.0), and 4.0 for protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively. These factors, which Atwater intended only for use in calculating calories deriving from proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in mixed diets, came to be widely used for calculating the available energy value of individual foods. These factors also form the basis for the energy value of foods reported in the Food Composition...

Energy Values from the Food Composition Tables

For carbohydrates, a value of 3.75 Kcal g, when expressed as monosaccharides (corresponding to the physical value), is used. In the case of disac-charides, because the molecular weight of a monosaccharide is higher than that of a disaccha-ride molecule, a factor of 1.05 is applied and the energy value is 3.75 x 1.05 3.94 Kcal g. In the case of starch, the factor is 1.10 and the energy value is 4.125 Kcal g 8 . Together, the monosaccharides + disaccharides + starch represent the available carbohydrates. Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums, and resistant starch* (collectively referred to as dietary fibre or unavailable carbohydrates) are not considered to have energetic value. However, unavailable, unaltered carbohydrates reach the colon, where they can be fermented by the local microflora, which consist of several genera of anaerobic microorganisms. These utilise dietary fibre to produce pyruvic acid, an important metabolic intermediate from which short-chain fatty acids (SCFA),...

Origin and Nutrient Determinants

There are two energetic aspects of the food intake effect the first, and major one, is the obligatory expenditure in order to digest, absorb, distribute, and store the nutrients ingested the second is the facultative expenditure inducing additional heat production by activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) 5 . The amount of energy required for handling incoming food is related to the type and the quantity of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins ingested. Fat is the least 'expensive' in terms of DIT, since it requires relatively little hydrolysis and has a fairly direct pathway to storage tissue (3-4 of ingested calories). Protein is the most 'expensive' for DIT, requiring expenditures up to 30 of the inherent energy for processing, which includes removal of nitrogen, synthesis of urea, and gluconeogenesis (on average,

Biochemical Mechanisms

Although the causes of DIT are not very clear, the mechanisms perhaps responsible for adaptive thermogenesis may be related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and utilisation. In animal tissues, six different pathways for ATP production have been identified two through anaerobic glycolysis of carbohydrates, one involving oxidative decarboxylation of carboxylic chetoacids, and three associated with electron transport to molecular oxygen. The energy required for ATP synthesis varies with the substrate considered, according to their different caloric value per 100 g, and to the yield in ATP per 100 g. The energy needed to produce 1 mol of ATP is therefore less for carbohydrates than for fats and proteins (Table 1). Table 1. Factors related to the energy available from ingested fats, carbohydrates and proteins. (Adapted from 4 ) Table 1. Factors related to the energy available from ingested fats, carbohydrates and proteins. (Adapted from 4 ) Carbohydrates

Nonnutrient Dietary Components

Non-nutrient substances, i.e. those other than carbohydrates, fats and proteins, are present as minor components of foods and may have an effect on DIT examples of non-nutrient substances include caffeine, spices, and nicotine. A thermogenic stimulating effect has been found in green tea, attributed to its caffeine and catechin polyphenols content. Since the latter is capable of inhibiting the enzyme that degrades noradrenaline (catechol-o-methyl transferase) and caffeine inhibits transcellular phos-phodiesterases (enzymes that break down nora-

Isotope Labeled Proteins from Hydrolyzates of the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

In a complex or rich medium, the cells grow, as the name suggests, on a complex mixture of amino acids and or carbohydrates. Amino acid interconversions, and thus the potential for isotope scrambling in selectively labeled samples, are here reduced to a minimum. Unlabeled fermentations are usually performed in complex media (i.e. yeast extract-containing LB for E. coli), since protein yield and cell density are here considerably higher than in minimal media. The same is desirable for isotope-labeled fermentations, but the limited availability and or high price of commercial amino acid sugar mixtures in the required isotope composition often impose fermentations on a single carbon source.

CD36 SHR and Insulin Resistance

Until recently, evidence for an in vivo role for CD36 in FA metabolism was indirect and relied on the pattern of tissue distribution and on alterations in CD36 expression with metabolic or pathologic states. CD36 expression is increased, for example, in mice fed a high-fat diet and in animal models of genetic obesity and diabetes 47-52 . In 1999, Aitman et al. suggested, based on genetic linkage studies, that CD36 deficiency may underlie defects of FA metabolism and insulin responsiveness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which is a well-studied rodent model of human syndrome X 107 .

Alternative Approaches To Studying Cellulose Synthesis In The Secondary Cell Wall

While it is clear that CesA proteins are integral parts of the CSC, the function of other genes isolated on the basis of their cellulose deficient phenotype is less clear. The cellulose deficient mutants acw1, rsw2 and irx2 are all alleles of korrigan. This mutant was originally isolated on the basis of its elongation defect, and is affected in the gene encoding a membrane bound endo-P(1-4)-glucanase. There is, however, no direct evidence that this protein is part of the cellulose synthase complex. Mutation of a gene encoding a novel plasma membrane protein of unknown function (Pagant et al. 2002), also causes a cellulose deficient phenotype, but its function remains unclear. The problems in identifying genes involved directly in cellulose synthesis are highlighted by work on cyt1, rsw3 and knf mutants (Lukowitz et al. 2001 Burn et al. 2002 Gillmor et al. 2002). All mutants exhibit a severe phenotype consistent with a dramatic reduction in cellulose content. The defects are caused by...

Ligandbased Vascular Targeting

To achieve selective targeting of the tumoral vasculature, antibodies, small molecular compounds, or other molecules must be directed towards abnormally expressed or overexpressed proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids, so-called markers of angiogenesis. Membrane proteins on tumoral ECs, if present in sufficient abundance and if specific enough, are likely to be ideal targets for diagnostic or therapeutic intervention because of their accessibility from the bloodstream. The following section of this review focuses on the proteomic technologies available to study differentially expressed membrane proteins on ECs. In vitro and in vivo model systems are presented, which have been applied for the investigation of tumoral and normal vasculature.

Photosynthesis How Plants Make Food

The sun is the ultimate source of the calories we consume because sunlight provides the energy required for the synthesis of food made by the plants other organisms consume. Plants transform light energy into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide (an atmospheric molecule) and water into energy-rich carbohydrates. Plants then use carbohydrates to supply energy to their cells. In other words, plants make their own food. In fact, plants are so effective at converting light energy into chemical energy that they produce enough energy to store it as starch. Other organisms, such as humans, harvest this excess energy. Carbohydrate Metabolism Carbohydrates are broken down in the mitochondria. The equation for this is It takes longer to digest complex carbohydrates than simpler sugars because complex carbohydrates have more chemical bonds to break. Endurance athletes will load up on complex carbohydrates for several days prior to a race...

Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis

Response Injury Hypothesis

Atherosclerotic plaques was controversial with much emphasis placed on the vascular smooth muscle cell. Although other authors had described monocytes in atherosclerotic lesions, this paper carefully studies the progression of atheroma at different time points and characterizes the lesion composition. Yorkshire pigs were fed a normal chow or high-fat chow and sacrificed at 6, 12, 15 and 30 weeks after the initiation of diet. At 15 weeks following high-fat chow, lesions were always of a foam cell nature, confined to the intima, with no evidence of medial cell involvement in the intima or engorgement of smooth muscle cells with lipid. Monocytes were identified using various histo-logical criteria. At 30 weeks following high-fat diet, fibrous lesions were described as fibrous caps overlying necrotic lipid cores. Gerrity hypothesized, based on this and earlier studies from his group, that blood-derived monocytes adhere to the endothelium, which is not necessarily associated with...

Carbonfixing reaction

Glucose and other carbohydrates are synthesized in the carbon-fixing reaction of photosynthesis, often called the Calvin cycle for Melvin Calvin, who performed much of the biochemical research (see Figure 5-3). This phase of photosynthesis occurs in the stroma of the plant cell. Glucose can be stored in plants in several ways. In some plants, the glucose molecules are joined to one another to form starch molecules. Potato plants, for example, store starch in tubers (underground stems). In some plants, glucose converts to fructose (fruit sugar), and the energy is stored in this form. In still other plants, fructose combines with glucose to form sucrose, commonly known as table sugar. The energy is stored in carbohydrates in this form. Plant cells obtain energy for their activities from these molecules. Animals use the same forms of glucose by consuming plants and delivering the molecules to their cells.

The Carbohydrate Monounsaturated Fat Balance

Carbohydrate and monounsaturated fat together should provide 60-70 of energy intake. The metabolic profile of the patient and the need for weight loss should be considered when determining the proportion of carbohydrate and monoun-saturated fat intake. Indeed, high-carbohydrate diets increase postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides and, in some studies, decrease plasma HDL cholesterol level when compared to isocaloric high-monounsaturated fat diets. On the other hand, high-monounsaturated fat diets may

Targeting Drugs to the Liver

The most commonly used hepatocyte-spe-cific receptor is the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Molecules with carbohydrates that terminate with galactose are recognized and internalized by this receptor. This subject is reviewed by Fiume et al. (492) several examples follow. Adenine arabinoside monophosphate (ara-AMP, vidariabine-MP) has been conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA) and used to treat patients for 1 and 4 weeks in separate studies. It was administered at a dose equivalent to 1.5 mg ara-AMP kg day, a dose that is 10- to 20-fold lower than is used for free ara-AMP. At this dose it was as effective as fiee ara-AMP at the higher concentration. However, with the free drug, by 4 weeks of treatment, neurotoxic and other side effects appeared these side effects were absent with

Bread Grains and Other Starches

At the base of the pyramid are bread, cereal, rice, and pasta. These foods contain mostly carbohydrates. The foods in this group are made mostly of grains, such as wheat, rye, and oats. Starchy vegetables (like potatoes, peas, and corn) and dry beans also belong to this group because they have about as much carbohydrates in one serving as a slice of bread. Starchy vegetables and dry beans also provide vegetable proteins. All grains and starches contain carbohydrates. However, their glycemic index (a measure of the glycemic effect of the type of carbohydrate) may be different according to the type of food and the cooking preparation. For instance, mashed potatoes have a higher glycemic index than unmashed potatoes and pasta al dente has a lower glycemic index than overboiled pasta.

Clinical Correlation

Testinal system diffuse into the hepatocytes via sinusoidal membranes, where metabolic processes involving proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and detoxification occur. The central veins receive the sinuosoidal flow of fluids, which eventually move to the hepatic vein for outflow to the venous circulation. Lymphatic vessels also play a role in removing fluids from the liver. Small bile ducts, or biliary canaliculi, are also a part of the lobule and are responsible for carrying the bile out of the liver and eventually to the common bile duct and duodenum.2 Hepatocytes are highly organized cells with active organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, mitochondria, and microtubules. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of hepatic drug metabolism, drug detoxification, bilirubin conjugation, and cholesterol synthesis. The rough endo-plasmic reticulum with ribosomal complexes is the site for albumin, enzyme, coagulation factor, and other protein...

Tracers for the study of triglyceriderich lipoprotein kinetics Chylomicrons

Chylomicrons are large lipoprotein particles that are formed by the small intestine during fat absorption. The amount of lipid fuel that traverses the circulation in the form of chylomicrons obviously varies with dietary fat consumption. In individuals on high-fat diets, however, it can equal or exceed FFA flux (Miles et al. 2004). The triglyceride transported in chylomicrons is metabolised by LPL, which is widely distributed in tissues but is most abundant in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (Eckel 1989). Nascent chylomicrons have a short residence time in the circulation, with a half life of approximately five minutes (Park et al. 2001). Chylomicron half life is prolonged at higher chylomicron triglyceride concentrations (Park et al. 2001).

Influence of Qualitative Modification of Dietary Fats

An important question is whether individuals with MetS will benefit from a shift to relatively more unsaturated fats. Indeed, the risk that very high-carbohydrate diets may accentuate athero-genic dyslipidemia may be reduced by isocalori-cally substituting a higher intake of unsaturated fats. However, recent small clinical trials indicate that improvement of atherogenic dyslipidemia by increasing unsaturated fat consumption is relatively small when compared with standard dietary recommendations.17

Influence of Carbohydrate Type and Content

The optimal types and amounts of carbohydrates in the diet remain controversial.18 It is now well established that low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets not only lower HDL and raise triglycerides but also generally produce higher postprandial glucose and insulin responses. However,metabolic consequences of carbohydrates depend not only on their quantity but also on their quality. The glycemic response of a given carbohydrate load depends on the food source, which has led to the development of the glycemic index, ranking foods by their ability to raise postprandial blood glucose levels.19 In addition, effects on blood glucose and lipid metabolism by carbohydrate-rich foods depend on fiber content and type. Controlled feeding studies have found benefits of whole grains on insulin sensitivity and glucose and lipid metabolism compared with refined grains. In addition, several epidemiological studies found that diets rich in whole grains may protect against CVD, stroke, and type 2 diabetes....

Protein Metabolism in Diabetes Mellitus

Proteins are one of the major body fuels however, despite the large size of the protein pool, only about 15-20 of daily calorie consumption is accounted for by protein oxidation, while fat accounts for about 30 and carbohydrates for 50 or more. There is no 'storage' form for amino acids - in contrast to glycogen and triglycerides, which are the storage forms for glucose and free fatty acids, respectively. Body proteins are not a fuel reservoir in themselves instead, protein molecules have specific roles in maintaining organ structure and function. Both the synthesis and the degradation of proteins are metabolically expensive relative to other fuels, i.e. glycogen and triglycerides. Glycogen synthesis requires 3 ATP per glucose added, and one of these ATP is recovered during glycogenolysis. Triglycerides synthesis requires only 2 ATP per fatty acid molecule added. Formation of just one peptide bound requires at least four high-energy phosphates that are not

Targeted Drug Delivery

One approach to improve bioavailability is targeted drug delivery, avoiding over dosage-toxicity 13 and consequential inflammatory response 14, 15 . Targeted delivery aims to achieve perfection by delivering the right amount at only the site of disease or injury. One of the prime aspects of a competent targeted-drug delivery system is the selection of an appropriate delivery profile 2 . The delivery profile is usually a plot of the concentration of drug delivered from the vehicle with respect to time. The drug delivery profile is characteristic of the type of drug, the type of drug vehicle, and the physiological factors at the delivery site. For instance, pore size, thickness, geometry, drug loading, temperature, surface roughness, bio-degradation, etc. of the drug vehicle determine the amount of drug that is released, thus controlling the profile of delivery. Drugs can be classified into organics, carbohydrates, surfactants, polymers, lipids, fats, amino acids, peptides, and proteins...

Xanthan and Other Microbial Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides (carbohydrates) produced through the fermentation of bacteria, and including such products as xanthan, dextran, and gellan, are used in applications ranging from blood products and food stabilizers and thickeners to lubricating agents for heavy industry. The first commercial microbial polysaccharide, dextran, which occurs naturally in honey, sugar cane, and a variety of partially fermented foods, is used in wound dressings, filtration, and to extend plasma the clear, liquid component of blood.

Nutrients Deficiency and Diarrhoea

Under physiological conditions, each nutrient is absorbed at a specific site of the small intestine. The majority of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are normally absorbed within the first 150 cm of small bowel. Folic acid, calcium, magnesium, iron, vitamin C, and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are also absorbed in the proximal intestine. Thus, resection of the proximal intestine means a reduction in the absorption area for these nutrients. In addition, the loss of intestinal lactase, sucrase-isomaltase, and a-dextrinase, resulting from resection of the proximal bowel, induces carbohydrates malabsorption. Of the disaccharidases, lactase levels are the most prone to decrease, resulting in luminal hyperosmolarity. Bacterial fermentation of lactose leads to large amounts of lactic acid, which further induce osmotic diarrhoea 51 .

Thermodynamics of Bioreactions

It is important to note that a large negative value of AG does not necessarily imply that a chemical reaction will proceed at a measurable rate. Thus, the free energy change of the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate by ATP is large and negative, but this reaction does not occur just by mixing glucose and ATP. Only when the enzyme hexokinase is added does the reaction proceed. Similarly, most biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, are thermodynamically unstable to hydrolysis, but their spontaneous hydrolysis is insignificant. Only when hydrolytic enzymes are added do the hydrolysis reactions proceed at a measurable rate. Despite their importance in accelerating a reaction, enzymes do not change the AG for the reaction. As catalysts they can only speed up the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium, but they do not allow a reaction with a positive AG to proceed.

Nutritional Support

The objective of nutritional support in patients with liver cirrhosis is to provide adequate calories, protein, and other nutrients to ensure the availability of synthetic and energy substrates to hepatocytes without inducing hepatic encephalopathy (Table 6) 76, 77 . In general, cirrhotic patients without encephalopathy require no restriction of protein, but a diet high in complex carbohydrates and calories and supplemented with multivitamins, calcium,

Methods Development

To generate a stragedy for methods development, the first step is to review the pharmaceutical literature including vendor catalogs 24 . The salient features from the literature and pharmacopeia methods are listed in the last chapter. Specific methods, as those for pharmaceutical impurities 14, (466) , colorants 70 , and preservatives 71 have been complied. Numerous mobile-phase systems have been advocated for the assay of pharmaceuticals 3,52,72,73 . The Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography 27 should be referred to when methods are being sought for specific drug classes such as amino acids, antibotics, carbohydrates, steroids, and hydrophilic and lipophilic vitamins. A thin-layer chromatographic atlas for plant drug analysis is also useful 74 .

Mw 144 C6h7o2k Mw 150

Addition of the ingredients in the correct order is essential to avoid production problems. The normal order starts with the presence of around 30-50 of final product volume of process water to which preservatives other than sulphur dioxide are first added. This volume should be as large as possible to allow the addition of carbohydrates and fruit components, which follow in that order. At this point, the volume should be approaching 90 of final volume to allow the dilution of preservatives. Acidulant is then added, followed by colourings, flavourings and all other components.

Hereditary Neurometabolic Diseases

Lysosomal Diseases Peroxisomal Diseases Leukodystrophies Mitochondrial Diseases Amino Acid Metabolic Diseases Carbohydrates Metabolic Diseases Copper Metabolic Diseases Neuroaxonal Dystrophies Miscellaneous Neurometabolic Diseases Diseases caused by defective metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and copper

Carbohydrate Chemistry

To fully realize the potential of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, new chemical methods to discover, characterize, and supply carbohydrates is needed. one characteristic of carbohydrates that most vividly demonstrates both the opportunities and challenges of carbohydrate chemistry is the potential of this class of biomolecules to form diverse structures. With oligosaccharides, carbohydrates of low-to-intermediate complexity, the shear number of possible isomers becomes difficult to calculate. For example, considering a relatively small tetrasaccharide and using only nine common monosaccharides found in humans, there is greater than 15 million possible isomers that can be assembled (93). Traditionally, carbohydrates have been prepared by synthesis or natural product isolation. Nature has evolved very sophisticated mechanisms for making exact polypeptides and polynucleotides. In contrast, saccharides are made in an apparent random fashion with a diverse set of enzymes competing to...

Efficiency of muscle contraction

Note that while carbohydrate is the more effective fuel (by 6 ) in terms of oxygen utilisation, fats produce appreciably less carbon dioxide (by 40 ) per unit ATP yield than carbohydrates. Therefore, a high fraction of carbohydrate in the substrate mixture being metabolised minimises the cardiovascular demands of the task (for oxygen delivery), whereas a high fraction of fatty acids tends to reduce the ventilatory demands for a given level of oxygen utilisation (being, as described below, closely linked with the carbon dioxide exchange rate). Of course, this has necessary consequences for arterial oxygenation.

Cancer and the North American Diet

Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 64 percent of Americans are overweight. The typical American diet is high in fat and calories, with insufficient quantities of whole grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Whole grain breads and cereals, along with fresh fruit and vegetables, are known to reduce the risk of cancer development, particularly colon cancer. The issue of high- versus low-fat diets has traditionally focused on improving an individual's resistance to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. But it has recently become clear that a high-fat diet is directly responsible for the high incidence of many cancers in the developed countries. Adipocytes, the cells that store fat, increase or decrease in number, depending on the amount of fat being consumed and used. The fat in high-fat diets cannot be metabolized at the rate that it is being ingested, and yet the digestive system is programmed to absorb as much as it can. Consequently, the unused portion is stored in...

Glycobiology Study Of Glycoproteinassociated Glycans

The carbohydrate part of glycosylated proteins can consist of one, several or many residues. Artificial glycosylated proteins used as model compounds for experimental purposes are called neoglycoproteins. Peptidoglycans are glycosaminoglycans that are cross-linked with peptides. Proteoglycans are a sub-class of the glycoproteins, in which the carbohydrate residues are glycosaminoglycans (generally in disaccharide repeat units) in linear chains. A proteoglycan can carry up to 100 glycosaminoglycan chains with up to 200 disaccharide repeat units. Glycopeptides contain carbohydrates, mostly oligosaccha-rides, which are bound to oligopeptides. Glycoproteins contain carbohydrates bound to proteins via glycosidic linkages (Corfield, 2000). The carbohydrates can be monosaccha-rides, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides and also their derivatives. In many glycopro-teins (from serum to membranes) the carbohydrates are found as oligosaccharides, either linear or branched. The highly branched...

High Fat Diets Decrease Longevity in Drosophila

However, the specific mechanism responsible for the deleterious effects of saturated fats is unknown. One of the first studies that attempted to make a connection between Drosophila dietary components and longevity found that isocaloric diets consisting of high saturated fats (such as palmitic acid) and low carbohydrates will, on average, shorten the life span of Drosophila compared with flies fed control diets high in carbohydrates and low in saturated fats (24-26). These early studies, performed in the late 1970s and early 1980s by Driver and colleagues (24-26), did not determine the specific metabolic processes that were negatively affected by the consumption of fat. Instead, they potentially laid the groundwork for further studies.

Controversial Health Benefits of Low Carbohydrate and High Beef Diets

The recent epidemic of obesity in Western countries has contributed to the dramatic increase in the popularity of low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins (56), South Beach (57), and Protein Power diets (58). This rapid switch in dietary habits has had a profound effect on the food industry, despite the opposition from the majority of the nutrition establishment (29). Recently, some nutrition professionals have argued for the need to understand the apparent success of low-carbohydrate diets in some studies (59), but little work has been done in this area. Feinman and Fine have argued that low-carbohydrate diets have a metabolic advantage because proteins require metabolic energy to convert them to carbohydrates (60). One component of the inefficiency in metabolizing food is measured by ther-mogenesis (thermic effect of feeding), or the heat generated during the metabolism of food. As summarized in a recent review by Jequier (61), the thermic effects of nutrients is 2-3 for lipids,...

Nutrigenomics Research on Dietary Beef

A major component of many low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins diet, is 95 lean ground beef, typified by a hamburger without the bun (56). Lean ground beef consists of 35 fat and 65 protein ( Kcal), in addition to 65 mg cholesterol and 55 mg sodium per 85 gram portion. The fat portion consists of approximately equal amounts of saturated and mono-unsaturated fats (FDA food label). Surprisingly, we could only find one previous study in which Drosophila were fed dietary beef (63), and one microarray study where mice were fed beef tallow (64). The Drosophila beef paper was published in 1979

Caking And Anticaking Agents

Anticaking agents, also called flow conditioners, glidants, antiagglomer-ants, lubricants, and free-flowing agents, are defined as substances added to finely powdered or crystalline food powders to prevent caking, lumping, or aggregation (i.e., to improve the latter's flowability and or inhibit their tendency to cake). usually, the anticaking agents used in food powders are finely divided solids (particle size on the order of a few microns) made of chemically or practically inert substances. Their legally permitted concentration level is on the order of 1 or less (63, 64). Common anticaking agents include silicon dioxides, silicates, insoluble phosphates, the bi-or trivalent salts of stearic acid, talcum, starches, or modified carbohydrates, such as aluminum calcium silicate, silicon dioxide, and magnesium phosphate 63 . Rice flour produced by grinding is also used as a dusting or anticaking agent, for refrigerated biscuit dough (9).

Summary and Conclusions

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of carbohydrates. Mass Spectrom Rev 1999 18 349-450. 48. Siegel MM, Tabei K, Kagan MZ, Vlahov IR, Hileman RE, Linhardt RJ. Polysulfated carbohydrates analyzed as ion-paired complexes with basic peptides and proteins using electrospray negative ionization mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom 1997 32 760-772.

Insights into FABP Function from Null Mice

In contrast to the H-FABP and I-FABP nulls, mice null for the ap2 gene, which encodes A-FABP, showed a dramatic increase in expression of another FABP, ker-atinocyte FABP (K-FABP), in adipose tissue 78, 79 , perhaps accounting for the absence of a dramatic phenotype in the animals. Initial investigations of low fat-fed mice showed few differences between wild-type and A-FABP- - animals, however feeding a high-fat diet resulted in lower levels of plasma insulin and reduced adipocyte mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) relative to wild-type mice the absence of hyperinsulinemia appeared to occur despite the presence of high-fat diet-induced obesity 78 . Conversely, however, it was found that younger aP2- - mice, despite maintaining lower glucose levels, did in fact develop hyperin-sulinemia on a high-fat diet the plasma insulin levels were directly correlated with the degree of adiposity in both wild-type and A-FABP- - mice 79 . Further, adipocyte TNFa secretion was not reduced...

Mechanisms of Malnutrition in Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic Pancreatitis Mechanism

Nar cells causes insufficient secretion of lipase, col-ipase, amylase, and proteases, which results in maldigestion of lipid, carbohydrates, and protein. Of these nutrients, fat maldigestion is the most clinically apparent. However, because the pancreas secretes a large surplus of enzymes, pancreatic enzyme output must be reduced to less than 10 of normal before fat absorption is appreciably impaired. Fat digestion depends not only on the amount of pancreatic lipase and colipase, but also on the activity of these enzymes. Since lipase has maximal enzymatic activity in the range of pH 6.5-8, decreased bicarbonate delivery to the duodenum leads to inactivation of lipase through a pH drop. In addition, since duodenal acidification precipitates bile salts, mixed micelle formation is impaired, resulting in the malabsorption of fat. All these pathophysiological events contribute to massive steatorrhoea, leading to malnutrition and weight loss in chronic pancreatitis patients.

Lysosomal Carbohydrate Diseases

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Pas Stain

Deficiencies of lysosomal enzymes necessary for the degradation of complex carbohydrates result in an accumulation of nondegraded products in various tissues and cells. Such products are the mucopolysaccharides, the mucolipids, the glycoproteins, and the glycogen. The diseases affect chiefly infants and children. Despite genetic and enzymatic heterogeneity, many diseases share facial and skeletal abnormalities, multiorgan manifestations, and urinary excretion of abnormal metabolites, mucopolysaccharides, mucolipids, and glycoproteins (Table 9.4).

Medium Chain Triglycerides

In MAC-16 tumours, an anti-cachectic effect can be obtained, together with a reduction of tumour mass, by administration of amount of MCT > 80 of the required energy 58, 60 . Cachexia and tumour growth rate 61 can be reduced by replacing a portion of dietary carbohydrates with lipid derivatives of fish oil at 50 of the total calories in the animal diet. Even those neoplastic patients with a weight loss > 32 , can recover their weight with isocaloric diets in which energy is supplied by MCT at 70 62 .

Physiological Effects Of Glucocortioids

Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid present in circulation, is a carbohydrate-sparing hormone exerting an anti-insulin effect, which can lead to hypogly-cemia and insulin-resistance. In addition, glucocorticoids maintain blood glucose and the glycogen content of the liver by promoting the conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates and the storage of carbohydrate as hepatic glycogen.

The Biochemistry Of Disease

Four categories of organic biochemical markers are used for assessment and diagnosis of disease carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and the derivatives of these markers. The assessment of inorganic chemicals, such as ions, minerals, and dissolved gases, provide a measure of homeostasis in the body. In addition to the measurement of these endogenous substances, the clinical chemistry laboratory provides measurement of chemicals that are exogenous to the body both beneficial chemicals, such as therapeutic drugs, and harmful substances, such as poisons. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are chemical substances that contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Often carbohydrate molecules consist of one H2O molecule per carbon, hence the nomenclature carbohydrate, or hydrate of carbon. The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides, which usually contain 3 to 6 carbons. Monosaccharides are the units that make up more complex carbohydrates. Glucose, fructose, ribose, and galactose...


Coarse Facial Features

Grossly, the brain is large and shows leptomeninges thickened from deposits of mucopolysaccharides in vascular endothelium and fibrous tissue. The ventricles are enlarged due to communicating obstructive hydroceph-alus. The histology is characterized by the neuronal storage of a mixture of gangliosides that stain positively for lipids and carbohydrates. Dilated perivascular spaces are filled with foamy macrophages (see Fig. 9.8).

The Krebs Cycle The Central Switching Yard Of Metabolism

The fuels we take in in the diet are mainly fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. At the very center of metabolism is a cycle of reactions that takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. The cycle is named after its discoverer, Hans Krebs, and is also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the citric acid cycle. The foods we eat are converted to the two-carbon unit acetate, CH3COO-. The acetate is not free but is carried by a coenzyme called coenzyme A. Acetate bound to coenzyme A acetyl-CoA for short is then fed into the Krebs cycle and may be completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. In the process the energy currency NADH is produced. The Krebs cycle is central to carbohydrate, fat, and amino acid metabolism.

Photosynthesis as Process of Energy Transfer and Energy Transformation

In general, photosynthesis can be considered as a reaction during which water is split, driven by the energy of photons, producing 02, and transferring hydrogen to the redox system NADPH NADP+, the nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotid phosphate. Simultaneously, a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane is generated. Within a separate process, this leads to the synthesis of ATP. Subsequently, an ATP-consuming synthesis of carbohydrates occurs. This process is usually called the dark reaction of photosynthesis occurring in the stroma of chloroplasts. In general, photosynthesis can be considered as the reversal of respiration and can be characterized roughly by the following

Expression Pattern in Mammals

The expression level of the mammalian ACBP is slightly affected by feeding status. Fasting rats for 24 hours resulted in a 33 decrease in liver ACBP levels 30 and in reduced ACBP mRNA level as well 31 , whereas the level in heart and kidney was unaffected. High-fat diet for 48 hours increased liver ACBP levels by 36 . Hepatic levels of ACBP continued to increase and remained elevated with prolonged exposure to high fat (28 days). Heart ACBP did not respond to short-term fat feeding but was increased after prolonged exposure 30 . Androgens, which stimulate growth of the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP 32 , also stimulate de novo fatty acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and lipid accumulation and induce ACBP expression in this cell line 33 . Similarly, androgens induce ACBP expression in several accessory sex organs in the male rat 34 . ACBP expression is also significantly induced during in vitro differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes 35 , a process that is accompanied by a...

Proteoglycans and Mucins

(3) epitopes expressed only on glycoproteins. To the first group belongs the lacto-series structure that is found in the most common human cancers, such as lung, breast, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. The common backbone structure for these epitopes is Ga1p1 3G1cNAcp1 3Ga1 (type 1 blood group) or Ga1p1 4 GlcNac p1 3 Gal (type 2 blood group). The second group of epitopes, expressed exclusively on gly-colipids, is mostly on the ganglio- or globo-series structures. This series of epitopes is expressed abundantly only on certain types of human cancers, such as melanoma, neuroblastoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. The third group of epitopes, seen only on glycoproteins, consists of the multiantennary branches of N-linked carbohydrates and the alterations of O-linked carbohydrate chains seen in some mucins.

Selectins Rolling Leukocytes and the Inflammatory Response

Selectin Endothelial Cell

These interactions involve adhesion proteins called selectins, which are found both on the rolling leukocytes and on the endothelial cells of the vascular walls. Selectins have a characteristic domain structure, consisting of an N-terminal extracellular lectin domain, a single epidermal growth factor (EGR) domain, a series of two to nine short consensus repeat (SCR) domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a short cytoplasmic domain. Lectin domains, first characterized in plants, bind carbohydrates

Ordered domain Nonordered domain

Another important feature for the hydroxyl groups is the type of hydroxymethyl conformation at the C-6 position, because the conformation of C(5)-C(6) and the resulting interactions including inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the present cellulose structure may differ from that in crystallites and also it is assumed to make up the extent of crystallization, as well as the final morphology of cellulose. In the noncrystalline regions, the rotational position of hydroxymethyl groups at the C-6 position may be considered as indeterminate or totally nonoriented, which are not identical with those in the crystallites. Therefore, it was important to confirm the type of O(6) rotational position with respect to the O(5) and C(4) in a P-glucan chain, by employing CP MAS 13C NMR (Horii et al. 1983). The type of hydroxymethyl conformations is gauche-trans (gt), trans-gauche (tg), or gauche- gauche (gg) at the C-6 positions in carbohydrates. As for the noncrystalline states, they are...

Capillary Isotachophoresis cITP

The most commonly employed chiral selector in CE is cyclodextrin, ring shaped carbohydrates made up of 6, 7, or 8 D-glucose subunits. Cyclodextrins may be chemically modified to alter their hydrophobicity or charge. Uncharged cyclodextrins are not suitable for the analysis of uncharged analytes since the complex will move with the EOF. However, cyclodextrins modified to carry a charge by addition of sulfate groups, can serve both as chiral selectors and as carrier molecules (similar to the detergent in MEKC). Other molecules, such as the antibiotic vancomycin, have also been employed as chiral selectors.

Exoglycosidase Digestion

Exoglycosidases are to carbohydrates, what restriction enzymes are to DNA. Exoglycosidases cleave very specifically the terminal monosaccharide on a glycopro-tein, glycopeptide, or oligosaccharide. The exoglycosidase can be specific to a sugar or glycosidic linkage (153). Exoglycosidases can be used to determine the identity, and absolute and anomeric configuration, and with some enzymes, the linkages position of the oligosaccharide (126). Thus, oligosaccharides can be sequenced by

Specific Causes for Metabolic Acidosis

Metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the liver. There are two major sources of acetic acid and thereby hepatic ace-tyl-CoA, ethanol and acetic acid produced duri ng the bactet rial fermentation of poorly absorbed carbohydrates. Pro-duc tion of acetyl-CoA from these precursors bypasses the usual regu i atory steps that involve fatty acid oxidation. Hence a high supply of these precursors and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by hormones such as adrenaline lead to the unregulated formation of ketoacids.

See also Phosphorylations

Photosynthesis is a plant process (in chloroplasts) whereby energy from light is harvested to provide carbohydrates for energy production (Figure 17.1). It is the major path through which carbon reenters the biosphere (from CO2). Photosynthesis is also the major source of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere.

Apoptosis of Macrophages

While apoptosis of vascular SMCs characterizes early plaque growth apoptosis of these cells has also been demonstrated in fibrotic part of advanced human atheromata (20) and SMC apoptosis may also contribute to plaque vulnerability by recruitment of inflammation via Fas-associated death domain (FADD) protein induced expression of MCP-1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) causing migration of macrophages (21). However, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells plays a minor role in undermining plaque stability compared to apoptosis of macrophages. Using human autopsy material Kolodgie and coinvestigators defined culprit plaque as plaque rupture with intralumenal thrombosis and stable plaque as stenotic lesions with thick fibrous cap (13). Ruptured plaque showed extensive infiltration of macrophages that stained positive for caspase-1, a mammalian death protease while the stable lesions showed a dense fibrous cap with paucity of apoptotic cells (13). This same group of investigators went on to target...

Caries Control For The Periodontal Patient

Dental caries, particularly root caries, can be a problem tor periodontal patients because of attachment loss associated with the disease process and periodontal therapeutic procedures. Root caries develops through a process similar to coronal caries, involving the alternating cycle of demineralization and remineralization of the surfaces.I4M The process requires the fermentation of carbohydrates in the plaque by oral bacteria, resulting in loss of mineral from the root surface. Lactobacilli and Streptococci species are involved in the root caries process, similar to coronal caries.17 The major difference is the amount of organic material in the root surfaces is greater than in enamel, so once the demineralization has occurred, the organic matrix mostly collagen is exposed. Organic material is then further broken down by bacterial enzymes, resulting in destruction of the root surface.4

Nutritional Counseling

(< 10 of calories) replaced by monounsaturated fat (oleic acid as in olive oil and rapeseed oil), no concentrated carbohydrates, and a wide variety of healthy fresh food. There are good reasons to follow this Mediterranean style diet,31 even though controlled studies in HTRs to assess the influence of nutrition on CAV or survival have not been published.

Scientific Foundations

Biomass contains energy that has been stored from the sun. Plants use energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide into a form that the plant use as energy, called carbohydrates. This process is called photosynthesis. The chemical energy gets stored in the plant, and when the plant is burned, the energy is released. This is why, for example, firewood burned in a fireplace can be used to heat a house.

CD36 Gene Structure and Regulation

PPAR activation of CD36 gene transcription may provide a link to the increased CD36 expression observed with pathologic states characterized by hyperlipidemia. CD36 expression is increased, for example, in animal models of genetic obesity and diabetes 47-52 . CD36 expression is also increased in mice fed a high fat diet

Functionalization Of Carbon Nanotubes

Many biological species, such as carbohydrates 31-34 , nucleic acids 35,36 , peptides 37, 38 , and proteins 39, 40 , can be non-covalently adsorbed on the carbon nanotube surfaces through hydrophobic, n-n stacking, and electrostatic interactions or even be trapped inside of the nanotube hollow cavity through supramolecular inclusion 16,40 . For instance, SWCNTs have been dissolved in an aqueous solution of starch and iodine by forming starch-wrapped nanotube supramolecular complex 31 . Similarly, SWCNTs were also found to be soluble in an amylase-encapsulated form in an aqueous solution of amylase 32 . More interestingly, Dodziuk et al. 34 have recently reported the solubilization of SWCNTs in an aqueous solution of n-cyclodextrins (n-CD), which has a 12-membered ring structure with an inner cavity of 1.8 nm in diameter (Figure 6.2a), by encapsulating individual nanotubes within the CD ring structure, as schematically shown in Figure 6.2b. However, it is unlikely to solubilize SWCNTs...

Analytical Tools to Examine Bacterial Glycomes

NMR has been used for decades to elucidate carbohydrate structures from all domains of life (28-33). NMR is most often used in combination with MS and chemical methods for structural elucidation of glycan structures. For carbohydrates of biological origin, NMR experiments are done primarily for 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclei. Proton homonuclear experiments are the most sensitive since 1H is naturally abundant. NMR experiments for other nuclei are less sensitive and require more time or material. Protons can interact with each other through bonds or through space which provides information on the molecular distance and geometry used to elucidate the sugar type. Homonuclear experiments usually consist of correlated spectroscopy (COSY), total correlated spectroscopy (TOCSY), and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. In general, two-dimensional (2D) COSY and TOCSY are used to assign the proton resonances to each proton in the monosaccharide units, through H-C-H and H-C-C-H...

Heparin and Heparan Sulphate Sequencing

The ability to sequence heparin and more specifically heparan sulphate is of fundamental importance in the determination of structure-function relationships between the carbohydrate and its many interacting partners. Unlike protein and nucleic acid sequencing, the sequencing of carbohydrates and more specifically that of glycosaminoglycans has lagged behind with no one individual method allowing for facile, reproducible sequence determination of an oligosaccharide (and certainly not a polysaccharide) chain of any sizeable length.

Structure of antibody

Antibodies belong to the class of serum glycoproteins called immunoglobulins (Igs), which are made in all vertebrates as part of the immune response to antigenic challenge by foreign substances (van Oss and van Regenmortel, 1994). Immunoglobulins are Y-shaped proteins made up of two identical light (L) polypeptide chains (Mol. wt. 25 kDa) and two identical heavy (H) chains (mol. wt. 50kDa) held together by disulfide bonds. Immunoglobulins are divided into several major classes or isotypes characterized by their heavy (H) chain type (Table 10.4). They all contain carbohydrates, largely d-hexose and d-hexosamine but also sialic acid and l-fucose, covalently attached to protein moiety.

Respiratory Acidbase Disorders

CO2 production There is a very large production of CO2 relative to the concentration of CO2 in the plasma (i.e., 10 mmol of CO2 are produced per minute, yet the arterial PCO2 and H2CO3 are only 1.2 mmol of CO2 per liter of blood). The rate of production of CO2 is determined by the amount of metabolic and mechanical work, and to a lesser extent, the fuels being utilized (oxidation of carbohydrates yields more CO2 relative to ATP production than does the oxtdation of fat-derived fuels 2 ).

Ruobing Wang Shaoyi Liu Dhaval Shah and Denong Wang Summary

We have established a high-throughput biochip platform for constructing carbohydrate microarrays. Using this technology, carbohydrate-containing macromolecules of diverse structures, including polysaccharides, natural glycoconjugates, and mono- and oligosac-charides coupled to carrier molecules, can be stably immobilized on a glass chip without chemical modification. Here, we describe a practical protocol for this technology. We hope that anyone who has access to a standard cDNA microarray facility will be able to explore this technology for his or her own research interest. We also provide an example to illustrate that the carbohydrate microarray is also a discovery tool this is particularly useful for identifying immunologic sugar moieties, including complex carbohydrates of cancer cells and sugar signatures of previously unrecognized microbial pathogens. Key Words Antigens antibodies carbohydrates glycans glyconjugates microarrays microspotting nitrocellulose polysaccharides...

Nutritional Supplementation

McCrory et al. found that a wide variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, and high-carbohydrate entrees coupled with a smaller variety of vegetables promoted long-term increase in energy intake and body fat 17 . Providing nutritional supplements consisting of a wide variety of sweets and carbohydrates may be helpful as the second step for the treatment of weight loss. In addition, loss of taste and smell are common in the elderly, and medications and medical conditions play a major role in taste losses and distortions 18 . Thus, the use of flavour-enhanced food has a correspondingly positive effect on food intake.

Lectincarbohydrate recognition general

Nature seems able to construct saccharide-binding sites on very different frameworks, as exemplified by the legume lectins with their large P structures and low cysteine content on one hand, and WGA (cereal lectin) with its high cysteine content and virtual absence of regular structures on the other. Chemical groups involved directly in binding are diverse. Carbohydrates interact with lectins through hydrogen bonds, metal coordination (metal-dependent lectins), van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions. The contributions of these chemical interactions in carbohydrate-lectin recognition (Weis and Drickamer, 1996) will be considered. Hydrogen bonding. The availability of a large number of hydroxyl groups on carbohydrates renders them obvious partners in complex networks of hydrogen bonds, usually formed by cooperative hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxyl serves both as a donor and an acceptor. Cooperative hydrogen bonding is characteristic of the interaction of lectins with...

Lectincarbohydrate recognition ligand discrimination

Charide hydroxyl groups with van der Waal packing, often including packing of a hydrophobic glycose face against aromatic amino acid side chains. Although the key interactions responsible for carbohydrate recognition are common, each family has evolved a unique stereochemistry at the principal combining site in order to discriminate between ligands. The common view is that the selectivity toward a particular target is augmented through multiple binding, by mechanism of additional binding in subsite (or extended site) and or subunit multivalency (Rini, 1995 Weis and Drickamer, 1996). In subsite binding, one monosaccharide, usually the terminal one, is bound at the primary binding site of the lectin, with additional monosaccharides along the carbohydrate chain bound to secondary subsites on the lectin. This kind of selectivity enhancement is demonstrated in the binding of carbohydrate ligands to legume lectins. Among these plant lectins, concanavalin A (ConA), pea lectins and Lathyrus...

Physiology of the Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes

The cell's hardware (proteins, RNA, phospholipid bilayers, carbohydrates) is also duplicated and partitioned, more or less evenly, between daughters. During normal cell proliferation, these two cycles turn at the same rate, so that each round of DNA synthesis and mitosis is balanced by doubling of all other macromolecules in the cell. In this way, the DNA protein ratio of the cell is maintained within advantageous limits. Of course, there are exceptions to this rule, such as oocytes, which grow very large without dividing, and fertilized eggs (embryos), which divide rapidly in the absence of growth. Nonetheless, the long-term viability of a cell line depends on balanced growth and division.

Conclusions and Future Directions

Genome sequencing demonstrated that C. jejuni contains multiple carbohydrate loci including both N- and O-linked protein glycosylation pathways. C. jejuni is an excellent model system for development of new techniques that can be applied to other organisms, and for understanding the biological relevance of carbohydrates and their importance in bacterial survival. Carbohydrates are required for multiple cellular functions and, thus, should provide multiple targets to be further exploited for the reduction of C. jejuni and related pathogens. Understanding these questions will allow us to gain a better awareness of the importance of glycosylation in campylobacter survival and pathogenesis. This will require further model development and optimization of available analytical techniques. For example, fresh C. jejuni isolates (108-1010 cells) can now be examined directly by HR-MAS NMR to look for changes in N-linked glycan and CPS expression without laboratory culturing or further...

Metabolic Complications

Hyperglycaemia, hypercapnia, electrolyte abnormalities, and re-feeding syndrome are metabolic complications that can occur with enteral feeding. Complications are seen more often in diabetics and in patients receiving formulas with high caloric density. In diabetics, the use of hyperosmolar formulas can lead to hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. High carbohydrate concentrations may increase respiratory quotients and increase carbon dioxide production. Re-feeding syndrome is characterised by dehydration, hypernatraemia, hyper-chloraemia, and azotaemia. Its most common cause is the use of high-protein formulas with low water intake. This syndrome is seen among severely malnourished patients, such as alcoholics, when potassium and phosphorus requirements are high because of the intracellular shift that occurs when nutrients are replenished.

Energy Sources Carbohydrate and

Along with proper training, dietary choices have a strong influence on the amount of glucose stored in muscle. Diets high in carbohydrate stimulate muscles to store more glucose and can increase endurance.2,3 Athletes consuming 60-70 of calories as carbohydrates are better able to build large reserves of muscle glycogen than those consuming 40 of calories as carbohydrate (the normal amount of carbohydrate in the typical diet is about 45 ).2 For endurance athletes, at least two-thirds of total calories should come from carbohydrate. This means eating 500-600 g of carbohydrate each day. Emphasis should be on eating complex carbohydrates because, compared with simple carbohydrates, they contain more of the nutrients needed by athletes (they are richer in B vitamins, minerals, and fiber). Fat intake should be only 20-30 of total calories. Body fat stores, even in very lean athletes, contain much more fat than is needed during training or competition. For example, because each half kilo of...

To Probe Immunologic Sugar Moieties of SARSCoV

Glycan Array

Third, we applied this probe to examine whether SARS-CoV expresses antigenic structures that imitate the host glycan. We confirmed that only the SARS-CoV-infected cells express PHA-L reactive antigenic structure (data not shown). Therefore, we obtained immunologic evidence that a carbohydrate structure of SARS-CoV shares antigenic similarity with host glycan complex carbohydrates. The biological significance of this finding remains to be further explored. For example, what is the possible involvement of autoimmune responses in SARS pathogenesis ASOR is an abundant human serum glycoprotein, and the ASOR-type complex carbohydrates are also expressed by other host glycoproteins (19,20). Thus, the human immune system is generally nonresponsive to these self carbohydrate structures. However, when similar sugar moieties were expressed by a viral glycoprotein, their cluster configuration could differ significantly from those displayed by a cellular glycan, thereby...

See also Figure 113 Protein Targeting Programmed Destruction of Proteins Cholesterol Biosynthesis Biosynthesis of

Sugars and polymers of them are known as carbohydrates because their general formulas can all be written in a simple form as (CH2O)x, as if they were a hydrated form of carbon. Another term used to describe sugar-based molecules is rooted in the word saccharide (from the Latin, saccharum, meaning sugar).

Alphaglucosidase inhibitor blocks hydrolysis of an

Bond of disaccharides disaccharides - simple carbohydrates composed of the esophagus luminescence - production of light without the production of heat luteal phase - second half of the female menstrual cycle following ovulation and the dominance of the corpus luteum lytic - rupturing or breaking down cell membranes M protein - paraprotein visible in protein elec-trophoresis causing a tall peak in the densitometry pattern, also called an M spike macroglobulinemia - disease of plasma cells marked by excess production of immunoglobulin M (IgM) macronutrient - a chemical element or substance, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, required in relatively large quantities in the diet macrosomia - increased size and weight of the fetus malignant - characterized by completely unrestricted from Streptomyces species monoclonal - arising from one cell line monosaccharides - simple carbohydrates that cannot

Impaired Insulin Secretion

Figure 12.2 Model of the development of beta-cell dysfunction. A combination of beta-cell gene defects with environmental factors such as high-fat diet with chronically increased FFA levels leads to an initial beta-cell dysfunction. This dysfunction is associated with altered insulin secretion resulting in the Figure 12.2 Model of the development of beta-cell dysfunction. A combination of beta-cell gene defects with environmental factors such as high-fat diet with chronically increased FFA levels leads to an initial beta-cell dysfunction. This dysfunction is associated with altered insulin secretion resulting in the Development of beta-cell dysfunction and progression to complete beta-cell failure was attributed to a combination of beta-cell gene defects and environmental factors such as high fat diet leading to chronically increased FFA levels 26 . According to this model, beta-cell dysfunction is associated with the development of islet amyloid and subsequent reduction of the...

Saccharide Biosynthesis And Glycobiology

Carbohydrates are of central significance in the balance between the Earth's 'living' and 'nonliving' carbon, since photosynthesis (Foyer, 1984), which leads primarily to neutral monosaccharides, is largely responsible for reversing the flow from nonliving to living occurring as a result of the normal process of life. At the center of carbohydrate metabolism is d-Glucose (Glc). Once Glc has been formed, different derivatives from the phosphate esters take over the role of providing the driving force for the reactions by which monosaccharides interconvert (Figure 13.1), leading to biosyntheses of oligo- and polysaccharides.


Proteins and glycoproteins cross-linking cell-surface carbohydrates and other antigens, often causing cell clumping (see ag -glutination). May act as antigens themselves, as do the mitogenic lymphocyte-stimulators phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Concana-valin A (ConA). In plants, may provide toxic properties of seeds. Are also involved in artificial capping of specific cell surface components.

And the Nonpathogenic L innocua Strain CLIP11262

Present in EGDe and absent from L. innocua (31,32). Together with InlA and InlB, these surface and secreted LRR proteins comprise the internalin family (11,33). LRR proteins are widespread in nature, being found in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins of diverse function (34). A feature common to virtually all LRR domains is that they mediate protein-protein interactions. However, without exception, different LRR proteins have distinct ligands, indicating that the horseshoe structure common to these proteins serves as a scaffold on which specific amino acid clusters are presented for interaction. The multitude of EGDe-specific LRR proteins suggests that internalins, in addition to InlA and InlB, likely play important roles in pathogenesis. This notion has already been confirmed for a small proportion of these L. monocytogenes LRR proteins (30,31,35). Apart from internalins and other cell surface or secreted factors, other classes of genes present in EGDe and absent in L. innocua...

Bioartificial devices

The liver is a complex organ, often referred to as the body's chemical factory. Its many functions can be classified as secretion of bile metabolism of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates detoxification of drugs and metabolites and storage of vital substances such as iron and vitamins. Under certain clinical conditions the liver may regenerate itself in a short span of time, thereby making assist systems practical. However, substitution for the required metabolic support is not possible with present knowledge. The culturing of hepatic cells or the use of liver cells or tissue in membrane modules that permit extracorporeal perfusion but prevent direct blood to hepatic cell contact is being experimentally investigated. The membrane may provide a means for containing the cells ensure the transport of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and cell products and provide a barrier against immunologic linteractions between the cells or tissue and the patient. Because of this latter concern,...

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Living cells save up metabolic energy predominantly in the form of fats and carbohydrates, and they spend this energy for biosynthesis, membrane transport, and movement. In both directions, energy is exchanged and transferred in the form of ATP. In Chapters 19 and 20 we saw that glycolysis and the TCA cycle convert some of the energy available from stored and dietary sugars directly to ATP. However, most of the metabolic energy that is obtainable from substrates entering glycolysis and the TCA cycle is funneled via oxidation-reduction reactions into NADH and reduced flavoproteins, the latter symbolized by FADH2 . We now embark on the discovery of how cells convert the stored metabolic energy of NADH and FADH2 into ATP.

Isopycnic Centrifugation

The isopycnic method has been used to dramatically demonstrate semiconserva-tive DNA replication, using CsCl density gradients. Separation of DNA, RNA, protein, and carbohydrates can be performed in dense CsCl solutions, where the RNA pellets, the DNA forms bands, and protein and carbohydrates form a thin layer called a pellicle at the top of the gradient.

Glycomic Databases And Servers

The advances in genomic and proteomic research have enabled many oligosaccharides of glycoproteins to be analyzed for their sequences, structures and functions. Thus the need exists for interfaces to bioinformatics tools constructed specifically for gly comes. The IUBMB site (http iubmb) offers general biochemical information for carbohydrates. General information, specifically keywords related to glycosciences including glycogene, glycoprotein, glycolipid, saccharide, glycotechnology and glycopathology, are available at GlycoWord On-line glycan structure databases are listed in Table 17.3.

Glycomics Proteoglycomic Approaches

Hydrazide covalent conjugation (Zhang et al., 2003) Periodate oxidation converts the cis-diols of carbohydrates to aldehydes, which form covalent hydrazone bonds with the hydrazide (or amine) groups immobilized on the solid support. After washing removing the nonglycosylated proteins, the immobilized glycoproteins are proteolyzed on the solid support. Nonglycosylated peptides are again washed away while the glycosylated peptides remain on the solid support. The a-amino groups of the immobilized glycopeptides are then labeled with isotopically light (H) and heavy (D)-succinic anhydride after lysine residues have been converted to homoarginine termed stable isotope tagging. The N-glycosylated peptides are finally released from the solid support using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGF). The released peptides are identified quantified with MS-MS. Figure17.4 shows a schematic representation of hydrazide covalent isotope tagging.

Bsdspage and Western Blotting

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE (351) and the subsequent development of Western blotting are now routine methods of detecting cell proteins and carbohydrates. The former method separates a mixture of soluble biological molecules by mass to charge ratio, whereas the latter method allows for the transfer of proteins carbohydrates onto a membrane that is probed with a chosen antibody specific to that antigen. Application of an appropriate secondary sandwich-tagging antibody (e.g., if the first antibody has been sourced from rabbit sera, then the second antibody should be antirabbit) conjugated with an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP), is used to detect the molecule of interest upon addition of a substrate for the enzyme that produces a colorimetric, fluorescent, or chemiluminescent signal at the separated protein band on the membrane.

Agriculture Seeks to Maximize Photosynthesis

Recall from Chapter 2 that plants, along with algae and some bacteria, transform light energy into chemical energy via the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts the energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and water into energy-rich molecules called carbohydrates. Plants then use carbohydrates to run the activities of their cells. In other words, plants make their own food. In fact, plants are so effective at converting light energy into chemical energy that they produce enough energy to store and to grow larger. Other organisms, such as humans, harvest this excess energy. Our agricultural practices are intended to maximize the photosynthesis of crop plants so they will produce a surplus of carbohydrates we can harvest.

Vaginal Discharge Reveals Branching Hyphae Consistent With Candida

A 30-year-old woman presents to your office with the chief complaint of a yeast infection that I can't seem to shake. She also has noticed that she has been urinating more frequently, but thinks that it is related to her yeast infection. Over the last several years she has noticed that she has gained more than 40 lb. She has tried numerous diets, most recently a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. The patient's only other pertinent history is that she was told to watch her diet during pregnancy because of excessive weight gain. Her baby had to be delivered by cesarean because he weighed more than 9 lb. Her family history is not known, as she was adopted. On physical examination, her blood pressure is 138 88 mm Hg. her pulse is 72 beats min, and her respiratory rate is 16 breaths min. Her height is 65 inches and her weight is 190 lb (body mass index BMI 31.6). Her physical examination reveals darkened skin that appears to be thickened on the back of her neck and moist, reddened skin...

Inulin and Diabetes Mellitus

Of sucrose or glucose prompts blood sugar and insulin changes, but no corresponding effects are noted when equivalent amounts of inulin or fructooligosaccharides are ingested (Roch-Norlund et al., 1972). Therefore, consuming inulin-rich foods helps to restore normal levels of blood sugar, whereas foods containing starch and sucrose further raise blood sugar levels. Experiments during the 1980s and 1990s confirmed the beneficial role of inulin-rich foods in diabetic diets. Daily intake of fructooligosaccharides has been shown to reduce blood sugar levels in both diabetic and healthy subjects (Luo et al., 1996 Yamashita et al., 1984), for instance, while inulin reduced insulin peaks compared to diets containing other carbohydrates (Rumessen et al., 1990). An intake of around 16 to 23 g of inulin per meal has been recommended in diabetic diets (Van Loo et al., 1995). There is a long history of inulin-containing plants being used to treat diabetes. The Greek physician Theophrastus used...

Animal Studies On Pufas And Cancer Metastasis

Growth and metastasis on weaning female BALB c mice in comparison to corn oil fed animals. An inhibitory effect of dietary linolenic acid (i.e., 18 3 (n-3)) but not of fish oil on mammary tumour growth and metastasis was observed. High oleate and low linoleate are seen in EFA-deficiency, a condition which may favour tumorigenesis (93,94). The total amount of fat in the diet also contributed to the development of mammary tumour (95). With an increase in the dietary fat, there is an increase in experimental mammary gland tumorigenesis. The longer the duration of the high-fat diet, the greater the enhancement of tumorigenesis. These animal studies demonstrated that the amount, type, and the degree of saturation are important factors that determine their role in breast cancer development. But confusion arises from other studies. For instances, Karmali et al. (96) tested the effect of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on metastases in an experimental model of metastasis (13762MAT B mammary...

Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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