Natural Remedies for Kidney Stones
All the water-soluble waste products and all the ions and water ingested in excess of needs must be excreted in the urine without forming precipitates. One of the most important renal physiological functions is to excrete urine with a composition that makes ions and organic materials sufficiently soluble to avoid kidney stone formation. Key to this aim is to have independent regulation of the urine pH -select a value that is close to 6.0 to achieve this aim 45 (Figure 10). Excreting urine at Figure 10. UrinepHandkid-ney stones. The safest urine pH to avoid kidney stones is close to 6. Be I ow this value, uric acid stones are most likely to form. Ca-phosphate stones precipitate in alkaline urine. By driving NH4+ excretion with a high distal H+ secretion, a considerable quantity of H+ can be elimi nated at a urine pH close to 6.0. By excreting organic anions rather than HCO3 , a considerable quantity of HCO3-can also be eliminated at a urine pH close to 6.0 (see Figure 2). Avoiding uric...
Nephrolithiasis is a disorder in which small stones - usually formed from calcium and oxalate - precipitate in the kidney. If they pass into the ureter they cause irritation, spasm, and may block the flow of urine. The pain of a kidney stone is intense it typically starts suddenly in the lower back and radiates down and around toward the groin. In general, the more calcium and oxalate in the urine, the greater the chances of developing kidney stones. Uric acid in the urine can be the seed around which calcium oxalate stones develop. The risk of kidney stones can be strongly influenced by dietary factors.5
The symptoms of a kidney stone are sudden onset of flank tenderness along with nausea and vomiting. The patient experiences more colicky-type pain and moves around a lot, in an attempt to alleviate the pain. In our scenario, the patient is sitting quietly on the exam table and is not moving around. There may be fever and chills if the stone obstructs the ureter and causes a urinary tract infection. To make the diagnosis of a kidney stone, more testing needs to be done by obtaining a urinalysis. In the case of a simple kidney stone, without infection, the urinalysis will only be positive for blood.
In healthy adults, oral intakes of calcium up to 2 g per day do not have significant side effects or toxicity. People with hyperparathyroidism and people who form calcium-oxalate kidney stones should avoid high intakes of calcium. In healthy adults, high intakes of calcium do not appear to increase the risk of kidney stones.
Hematuria in adults should first be defined as gross hematuria or microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria denotes that the patient is able to visualize blood in his voided specimen. Patients most often describe their urine as having a reddish or brownish color. They commonly are concerned about malignancy or kidney stones. In contrast, microscopic hematuria is usually asymptomatic and often discovered incidentally. Although a thorough work-up of microscopic hematuria is advocated, many authorities do not recommend routine screening for hematuria.
Focused by integrating the energy source into a suitable reflecting system. Shock waves give rise to mechanical stresses in brittle materials such as kidney stones and cause disintegration. Except for cystine stones, human calculi can be dealt with at low levels of pressure (700 - 900 bar). Side effects include hematuria, perirenal hematoma, parenchymal hemorrhage, edema, tubular necrosis, and fibrosis. The hemorrhage and edema are similar to blunt renal trauma and are short lived.
Probably the most intense of pains experienced by humans is that resulting from nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), which can be reproduced with some symptomatic accuracy in rats. With any pain model, but especially those of a potentially severe nature, the ethical implications should be addressed. A stimulus that cannot be terminated by either the experimenter or animal (e.g., by escape or an operant response) is of particular concern, and a factor that is more common in visceral than somatic pain models due to the nature of the pain. With this in mind, a number of models have been introduced to replicate nephrolithiasis, one of which is the introduction of artificial ureteral calculosis in the rat the surgical formation of an artificial kidney stone in the ureter. Such a model was presented by Giamberardino et al. (74), and involves the injection of 20 p.L dental resin cement solution into the upper-third of one ureter. The cement will harden and block the ureter, resulting in a marked...
Most of the normal epithelial cells in the adult kidney, including the loop of Henle, proximal and distal tubules, collecting ducts, and calices of different sizes are completely negative in staining with a probe specific for hyaluronan. The mesenchymal compartment in the kidney cortex and outer medulla is also very weak in hyaluronan staining, in striking contrast to the inner medulla where hyaluronan resides in high concentrations, perhaps as part of the urine concentration process. There is also little, if any, expression of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 in normal kidney. However, both CD44 and hyaluronan are highly upregulated in the kidney cortex after immunological (42) and ischemic (43) injury, CD44 particularly in the tubular epithelial cells, and hyaluronan in the interstitium. Cultured cortical tubular epithelial cells are also capable of hyaluronan synthesis (44) induced by cytokines, high glucose (45), and cell dispersal, while downregulated by cell density-dependent...
Very little information was provided by Mr. Smith's primary care physician regarding his medical history. During the interview, Mr. Smith described himself as in generally good health. He denied having major illnesses or hospitalizations during his childhood or teen years. He noted that he rarely gets sick and that his employment attendance was exceptionally good. To the best of his recollection, his only major medical problems and associated treatments were for kidney stones (1996) and removal of a benign polyp from his colon (1998). He reported taking vitamins and glucosamine sulfate (for general health and joint pain), but currently does not take any prescription medications. Mr. Smith's primary care physician is Dr. Nancy Jones.
Abdominal pain should always be taken seriously, as peritoneal signs may be absent. Acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated gastric or duodenal ulcers, and divertic-ulitis can be sources of rapid deterioration. Bacterial infections of the upper urinary tract or biliary system are more likely to be severe in the presence of obstruction due to kidney stones, tumor, or choledocholithiasis.
The net result in acid-base terms is the production of HCO3 7 . Removal of this HCO3-load is achieved via production of new endogenous organic acids including citric acid 9 . The H+ of these acids titrate HCO3- and base balance is maintained by excrettng the conjugate base of these acids (e.g., citrate in the urine as their Na+, K+, and or calcium (Ca2+) salts 2, 9 - 12 (Figure 2). This disposal of alkali with the excretion of organic antons min-mizes the risk for kidney stone formation. It avoids the excretion of HCO3-which, by alkalinizing the urine, could lead to calcium phosphate precipitation 13 . Fur
Inhibitory activity, this action, as it relates to anticonvulsant activity, remains problematic. However, it can explain the appearance of kidney stones in some patients resulting from the formation of the insoluble N-acetyl metabolite (Fig. 6.3), a phenomenon known for the sul-fonamides.
Individuals with a tendency to form kidney stones can reduce the risk by 4 Reducing caffeine intake, as high intakes increase calcium excretion into the urine and may promote stone formation. Heavy alcohol consumption also increases the chance of developing kidney stones. Because vitamin C can be metabolized to oxa-late, it has been suggested that high intakes of vitamin C might increase risk of kidney stones. However, oxalate in the urine generally does not increase unless the daily dose of vitamin C is greater than 6 g, and even then only rarely. In individuals susceptible to stone formation who are taking high doses of vitamin C, supplemental vitamin B6 and magnesium can reduce risk of increased oxalate in the urine.
Vitamin deficiency, hypocalcemia, and carnitine deficiency due to inadequate consumption of these agents have been reported in epilepsy studies (Levy and Cooper 2003). Other reported side effects include dehydration, constipation, and sometimes complications from kidney stones or gall stones (Levy and Cooper 2003). Adult women on the diet may have menstrual irregularities, pancreatitis, and decreased bone density (Levy and Cooper 2003). Excessive bruising and increase in minor bleeding in patients after institution of KD is probably associated with diet-induced changes in platelet function (Berry-Kravis et al. 2001). Recent studies have shown that the KD can also have some detrimental effects on cognitive ability (Zhao et al. 2004).
51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones
Do you have kidney stones? Do you think you do, but aren’t sure? Do you get them often, and need some preventative advice? 51 Tips for Dealing with Kidney Stones can help.