Idiot Guide To The Marine Aquarium

Ultimate Secrets To Saltwater Fish

The Ultimate Guide To Keeping Happy,healthy Marine Life (fish, Corals And Other Invertebrates) And How To Optimally Set Up A Saltwater Aquarium And Maintain A Pristine Environment For Your Pets. Create The Perfect Environment For Your Marine Life and Learn: How to easily and cheaply prepare excellent quality water for your tank with none of the hidden sources of pollutants. What to do to completely assess your aquariums water quality in 7 easy steps that take 5 minutes. This is one of the most frequently underestimated keys to success that so many people just dont understand, by the time they get their water test results back from the local fish shop it's often too late. The truth about microorganisms in your aquarium: what they are, which ones are bad and how to enrich for the beneficial ones that can save you a lot of grief. Beautifully and easily aquascape your marine aquarium in 5 steps that take 30 minutes. What never to do regarding your aquarium equipment: the livelihood of your marine life could rely on this little known marine biologist tip. Banish aquarium problems for good by learning how to prevent them before they happen. Science has demonstrated that prevention can end up to 90% of disease outbreaks! The truth about cheaply setting up your marine aquarium, learn the key elements you really need and to avoid the unnecessary gimmicks and expensive add-ons. Slash the time and effort you spend on maintaining your aquarium, learn the absolute necessities you need to do and when. Everything else is just a waste of your precious time and money. Read more...

Ultimate Secrets To Saltwater Fish Summary

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Contents: Ebook
Author: Andrej Brummer
Official Website: saltwateraquariumadvice.com
Price: $37.00

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Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates

The chapter deals with the bioactive metabolites of the marine invertebrates. The chemistry and biological activity of the bioactive steroids, terpenoids, isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid compounds, quinones, brominated compounds, nitrogen heterocyclics and nitrogen-sulphur heterocyclics from marine invertebrates have been discussed. The chapter also reviews the bioactive secondary metabolites isolated in recent past from the marine sponges, jelly fish, sea anemones, corals, bryozoans, molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and crustaceans.

Metabolites of Marine Invertebrates

Over 500 metabolites have been isolated from sponges.1-13,71-80 Several of these have unusual structures with interesting biological activities. Despite much speculation on the biogenesis of these metabolites, there has been only limited experimental evidence. The main difficulty in the biosynthetic studies is the slow rate of metabolism of these marine invertebrates. Accumulation of metabolites occur over a number of years, rather than in weeks or months. The turnover of metabolites may also be slow. The sponges cannot be maintained under aquarium conditions for longer periods for incorporation studies. Animals may become stressed resulting in loss of metabolites production or a switch over to a different biosynthetic pathway. Attempts to trace the biosynthetic pathways of aeroplysinin-1, aerothionin and the amide by feeding 1-14C acetate, 2-14C mevalonate, methyl-14C methionine, L- U-14C tyrosine and L- U-14C ornithine to the sponge Aplysina aerophoda81 and A. fistularia82 provided...

Information

Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 4(8)(1981) 34-36, 79-80. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Part One. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(4)(1982) 15-18, 90-91. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Part Two. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(5)(1982) 22-23. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Pari Three. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(7)(1982) 8-10, 91-92. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Part Four. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(8)( 1982) 15-17. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Part Five. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(9)(1982) 8-10. Norton. J. Angelfish Genetics. Part Six. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(10)(1982) 38-40. Norton, J. Angelfish Genetics. Part Seven. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 5(11)(1982) 40-41. Norton, J. Clown Angelfish. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 6(5)(1983) 15-17, 88-91. Norton, J. Black Velvet Angelfish. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 7(7)(1984) 10-11. Norton, J. Leopard Angelfish. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 8(2)(1985) 10-14. Norton,...

Distinctions between the freshwater and marine trades

By contrast, only about 25 of 8000 marine ornamental species can be easily cultured. Captive breeding currently accounts for only about 3 per cent of the total supply and is growing very slowly because of biological and technical constraints (Marine Aquarium Council, 2001). The seahorse, for example, is notoriously difficult to raise in captivity because of its dependence on live food. Nevertheless, there is a strong push to breed and domesticate this and other high value species (Bartley, 2000), creating a need for collections of wild broodstock. During recent years, as new technologies and an improved understanding of reef ecology provide the means to create functioning mini reefs in home aquariums, there has been increasing demand for collections from coral reefs in the South Pacific. Although over 90 per cent of the ornamental fish kept in the US are freshwater species, the demand for marine ornamentals is steadily growing. Approximately 85 per cent of marine aquarium fish...

Bioactivity of Marine Organisms

4.3 Marine Invertebrates of Indian Coasts Twenty six species of marine invertebrates belonging to phyla Porifera, Echinodermata, Coelenterata and Annelida collected from Goa, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Lakshadweep and the Andaman islands have been screened for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antifertility and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of the 26 extracts tested, 16 showed biological activity. Of the active extracts two showed hypotensive, six antiimplantation, two spasmogenic, and two diuretic activities.81 The species of Phylum Coelenterata which exhibited activity are Gemmaria spp-I collected from Baga, Goa, exhibited hypotensive activity, LD50 1 87.5 (mg kg, in mice), Gemmaria spp-II from Malvan, Maharashtra, was found very toxic, LD50 0.02 (mg kg, in mice), Anthopleura panikkar from Anjuna, Goa also showed toxic properties, LD50 68.1 (mg kg, in mice), Melitodes ornata from the Andaman Islands exhibited spasmolytic activity, Montipora divaricata from Mandapam,...

Biosynthesis of Bioactive Metabolites of Marine Organisms

The chapter deals with the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites of marine blue-green, green, red and brown algae, as well as bioactive metabolites of marine sponges, coelenterates, and molluscs. The problems of microbial contamination and the role of symbionts in the biosynthesis of some metabolites of marine organisms and the feeding techniques used in the biosynthetic studies of metabolites of marine algae and marine invertebrates have been discussed. The biosynthesis of carotenoids in halophilic bacteria, algal sterols, isocyanides and isothiocyanides of marine sponges, sponge sterols, cholesterol, sponge phospholipids brominated fatty acids and arsenic containing compounds of macroalgae are also described.

Pandoras patent box Fighting for the right to own genes and genetic inventions

Genetic modification of animal life (the 'Harvard mouse' is a controversial example) has drawn attention to the need to address demands to allow patents on living creatures. Pharmaceutical companies and bioprospectors collecting on their behalf have been actively patenting processes to develop drugs and cosmetics derived from research based on aquatic genetic resources that range from marine invertebrates to algae. Patenting of new fish varieties (such as the Super Salmon and Arctic char varieties) and of processes used in their development has been more limited but can be expected to increase significantly as the aquaculture industry expands. The US Patent and Trademark Office led the way by approving a patent protecting a method of increasing the growth rate of a transgenic salmon (Correa, 1999).

Problems of Microbial Contamination

Several metabolites of marine organisms of considerable biological interest have been obtained in trace quantities. For example, to isolate 100 mg of bryostatin-2, an antileukaemic agent from the bryozoan Bugularia species, one requires about 1500 kg of the appropriate bryozoan. These metabolites are probably produced by micro-organisms growing on the surface of the organism. Conflicting results regarding the chemical constituents and biological activity of different collections of the bryozoan Chartella papyracea have been noted.161 The possibilities of microbial contamination are also not excluded. An autoradiographic study on feeding and transport of metabolites in the marine bryozoan Membranipora membranaceae has been made by Best and Thorpe.162 The green alga Platymonas convolutae is a symbiont of the marine flatworm Convoluta roscoffencis. Tracer experiments with 14-C labelled precursors have shown that the fatty acids and sterols synthesised by the alga are provided to the...

Concluding Remarks

The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites of marine algae and marine invertebrates is fascinating and challenging. In spite of several problems involved in biosynthetic studies, the biosynthetic pathways of several classes of secondary metabolites have been traced using tracer experiments. Biosynthesis of metabolites exhibiting high order of biological activities or toxicity and produced in minute quantities is still a challenging problem. There is a lot of confusion regarding the origin of compounds of marine organisms living in symbiotic form or contaminated with bacteria. Feeding experiments are expected to resolve some of these problems.

The Devolution Of Eucarya

In green hydra, many marine cnidarians (especially corals and anemones), other marine invertebrates, and ciliates, symbiotic algae retain cell walls. They are acquired by offspring from the detritus of parents (horizontal inheritance) or nonparents (diagonal inheritance).

Stakeholder participation

Support for independent fish certification systems (such as MSC and Marine Aquarium Council) that apply objective standards to local operations and follow the chain of custody from original provider to end consumer. International cooperation in policy development and compliance with international agreements promoting conservation and sustainable use.

Gracilaria lichenoides

All the naturally occurring marine prostaglandins so far had been isolated from marine invertebrates particularly from soft corals and gorgonian. Quinn et al73 reported for the first time the occurrence of prostaglandins PGE2 and PGF2a in the Red alga Gracilaria lichenoides. The red alga (8.3 kg wet weight, 945 g dry weight) was collected from West Head, Victoria, Australia. It was frozen, stored at 20 C then cryogenically ground in liquid nitrogen. Extraction of the ground material twice with water followed by lyophilization of the combined extract afforded powder-A (456.5 g) which displayed potent antihypertensive activity when given intravenously to pentabarbitone, anaesthetized hypotensive rats. Isolation of the antihypertensive agent from G. lichenoids was achieved by a sequence of chromatographic separations monitered by the hypertensive rat assay. Aqueous extract of power-A (260 g) was adsorbed onto Amberiite XAD-2 in water and the active fraction-B (1.99 g, 0.3 ) was eluted...

Biopiracy and aquatic genetic resources

Nevertheless, complaints about biopiracy of marine organisms are not uncommon. Indeed, one of the main catalysts for the passage of access legislation in the Philippines in 1995 (see Case Study 5) was a series of newspaper articles on biopiracy of marine invertebrates (and of plants) by foreign collectors. After the law came into effect, the complaints continued, and communities began targeting the government for not properly enforcing the law and for its lax requirements for obtaining community consent. While bioprospecting for marine invertebrates gets most of the attention, biopiracy concerns sometimes extend to fish as well. The Amazon region has been hard hit by illegal trade in wildlife, and the Brazilian government attempts to be vigilant in stemming its flow. However, given the size and remoteness of the region, enforcement of environmental law is a stupendous task. In another example of suspected aquatic biopiracy, a German aquarist who planned to breed ornamental cichlid...

Pyridoacridine Alkaloids

Mass Spectra Alkaloid Salt

Pyridoacridines have a common tetracyclic heteroaromatic parent-pyrido 4,3,2-m,n acridine (1) system. They are distributed across several phyla of marine invertebrates which are an intriguing fact, and it needs further investigation. One possibility is that in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids probably symbiotic microbes are involved, but it has not yet been tested. Marine pyridoacridine alkaloids have been reviewed extensively.18-23 Pyridoacridine alkaloids had not only been obtained from marine invertebrates of tropical waters, the pentacyclic phenolic alkaloid is also obtained from a South Australian temperate water tunicate Amphicarpa meridiana,14 and more recently from a Caribbean sponge Corticum sp.40 The structure of meridine (29)40 is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.14 An isomer of meridine was also isolated from A. meridiana and assigned structure as (30). The regiochemistry of (30) was assigned on the basis of NOE studies. Rapid tautomerism of...

Acknowledgements

Others who provided invaluable information and advice include Yogi Carolsfeld, World Fisheries Trust Keith Davenport, Ornamental Aquatic Trade Association Fred Fortier, Shuswap Nation Fisheries Commission Rainer Froese, World Fish Center Lyle Glowka Michael Halewood, Genetic Resources Policy Initiative Paul Holthus, Marine Aquarium International Steven King, Shaman Pharmaceuticals Heather MacAndrew Don McAllister, Ocean Voice International Bob McFetridge, Canadian Biodiversity Convention Office Jeff McNeely, IUCN Anna Rosa Martinez Prat Roger Pullin, formerly with the World Fish Center Calvin Sandborn Krystyna Swiderska, International Institute for Environment and Development and Amanda Vincent, Project Seahorse.

John W Daly

Poisonous substances occur throughout nature and are particularly well known from plants, where they presumably serve in chemical defense against herbivores. Poisons can also serve as venoms, which are introduced into victims by coelenterates molluscs various arthropods, including insects, spiders, and scorpions gila monsters and snakes, by a bite or sting, or as toxins, such as those produced by bacteria, dinoflagellates, and other microorganisms. Examples of poisons of plant origin encompass a wide range of substances, including many alkaloids a variety of terpenes and steroids, some of which occur as saponins and unusual secondary metabolites such as the trichothecenes, pyrethroids, and dianthrones (1, 2). Another wide range of presumably defensive substances occur in marine invertebrates, including steroid and terpenoid sapogenins, tetrodotoxins, a variety of polyether toxins, and alkaloids (3, 4). Poisons also occur in terrestrial invertebrates and vertebrates, where they serve...

Feeding Techniques

Feeding experiments have been carried out either in situ or on organisms cultured in the laboratory. Many marine invertebrates, such as sponges, are filter feeders, digesting bacterial and other particular debris from the seawater. Soft corals are carnivorous, feeding on microorganisms. Corals contain photosynthetic algae and, therefore, also take nutrients through this source. Thus, marine invertebrates may be herbivorous, carnivorous even omnivorous. In several biosynthetic experiments, precursors are fed in aqueous solutions, using either physiological saline or sterile seawater, except where the precursors are insufficiently soluble. Sterol precursors are fed in alcoholic solutions. The addition of Tween 80, perhaps, facilitates the transport of precursors across cell barriers. Labelled precursors can be injected into corals, sponges, star fish, molluscs or fish. Slow release techniques, such as liposomes or implants (e.g. gelatin capsule and osmotic pumps), embedded directly in...

Life on Land

For billions of years, the only life present on earth existed in the nutrient environments of the oceans, lakes, and rivers. About 600 million years ago, the Paleozoic Era began. Scientists believe that living things first came to occupy the land during this era. They also believe that during a subdivision of the Paleozoic Era called the Cambrian Period, the main groups of marine invertebrates in existence today evolved. A so-called Cambrian explosion occurred. The appearance of multicellular organisms is notable in the Cambrian Period, when evolution and natural selection led to a vast array of organisms filling every conceivable niche on the earth. Many organisms that arose at that time have since become extinct.

Discussion

Indeed, this toxic niche construction is one way to form a non-transitive competitive dynamic. Specifically, with regards to growth rate, the strain on the bottom of the totem pole (the producer) kills the strain at the top (the sensitive), thus creating a loop in the competitive interactions. Such non-transitivity has been found in other systems as well, including side-blotched lizards (Sinervo and Lively 1996), sessile marine invertebrates (Buss and Jackson 1979), and yeast (Paquin and Adams 1983). Theoretical work on non-hierarchically organized communities has shown that such interactions can promote the maintenance of biodiversity (Huisman and Weissing 1999 Huisman et al. 2001). Non-transitivity may be an important ingredient in the persistence of diverse bacteriocin communities, but it seems to require a partner to get the job done. This partner is population structure.

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