Artemia nauplii

There is no substitute among tropical fish breeders for newly hatched live brine shrimp, otherwise called nauplii. Brine shrimp (Artemia) are small ('A inch 1 cm ) crustaceans that live in desert ponds and lakes with high sodium, calcium, and or magnesium salt content, where they feed on salt-tolerant blue-green cyanobacteria and algae, and in turn are fed upon by birds. Few other creatures live in salt ponds. In California and elsewhere, seawater is trapped in ponds for drying in the process...

Cichlids in Africa

We know the first cichlids appeared some 130 million years ago. Halfway through the history of cichlids, about 65 million years ago, as Gondwana was breaking up, a more advanced cichlid appeared resembling Heterochromis and Hemichromis of Africa. While this Heteroehromis-Ukc fish was spreading over this large land mass, a giant crack was developing in the tectonic plate below, splitting it in two. As magma rose up, it pushed the plates apart and the land mass began breaking up, one side...

Mutations

Mutations can be dominant (capital letter) or recessive (small letter) to wild-type (+). Many angelfish genes are for incomplete dominance (blending). Put another way, an angelfish with two incomplete dominance genes for a trait (homozygous) has a double dose of the gene and therefore a double dose of the trait. There are exceptions, but incomplete dominant genes yielding single dose and double dose phenotypes are a recurring phenomenon through many angelfish mutations. All specific mutations...

The Biological Record

So we can trace the origin of historic cichlids. But what of modern cichlids How do we know when and how fast they evolved, and which ones are most closely or most distantly related The modern tools of DNA analysis and computerized estimates of relationships have changed the field of classification (taxonomy). Today we know how often genes mutate and which genes are shared by closely, distantly, or unrelated fish. Then we apply statistical programs to generate a most likely phylogenetic tree...

Foods and Feeding

Angelfish are carnivores that eat insects, worms, and crustaceans, but not plants or seeds. They may also eat slow-swimming, small fishes. The small invertebrates are rich in fats and proteins (about 50 50) and almost devoid of carbohydrates and fiber. In the wild, angelfish feed casually and lighlly all day long. What should we feed them in captivity, and how often should they be fed Live and frozen animal foods provide the richest and most natural diet tor angelfish. Breeders offer them adult...

The First Cichlids

Cichlids first appeared 130 million years ago on Gondwana. Over time, Gondwana split into two, three, four, and more continents, a process that continues today. These fossil cichlids had spines in the fins, a single nostril, and other characteristics passed down to modern cichlids. The early cichlids gave rise to the cichlids thai survive today on the Indian subcontinent. Does that mean Asia also has cichlids No. Long ago India and Madagascar were a single land mass. This mass split apart. The...

Information

Tropical Fish Hobbyist 43(10)(1994) 70-76. Goldstein, R.J. Cichlids of the World. Neptune, NJ T.F.H. Publications, 1973. Gratzek, J.B., and J.R. Matthews, eds., Aquari-ology, Fish Diseases and Water Chemistry. Blacksburg, VA Tetra Press, 1992. Killino, T.J., and M.S. Bodri. Safety of Milbe-mycin as an Oral or Bath Treatment for the Tropical Freshwater Angelfish Pterophyllum scalare. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28(1) (1997) 94-96. Mayland, HJ. The...