Sef

Direct injection

Filtration; sulphate, chloride and phosphate removal

1. Aqueous PFBHA deriv.

2. MtBE extraction

3. CH2N2 deriv.

1. Aqueous PFBHA deriv.

2. Diethylether extraction

3. CH2N2 deriv.

1. Aqueous PFBHA deriv.

2. RP18 SPE or MtBE extraction

3. CH2N2 deriv.

4. MTBSTFA deriv.

(2) Wastewater

Centrifugation and filtration, acidification

Static headspace injection

Direct SPME, headspace and gas phase SPME with PDAM derivatization

Headspace SPME

AEC/cond.

AEC/cond.

Formic, acetic, butyric, (3-hydroxybutyric, glycolic, pyruvic, a-ketobutyric, oxalic acid Formic, acetic, oxalic, glycolic acid

GC/ECD

Glyoxylic, pyruvic, ketomalonic acid

GC/ECD

Glyoxylic acid

GC/MS (EI, CI) C2-C5 ketoacid and others

GC/FID GC/FID GC/FID

C2-C5 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C5 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C10 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C7 monocarboxylic acids

Oxalate in matrices with high sulphate 43,86,87

concentrations requires switching technique

20-40 /ng/1, No testing on 'real' drinking water samples 45

concentrator described

na Ozonated drinking water 39,40,f

Ozonated fulvic acid solutions, simultaneous detection of several aldehydes

Simultaneous detection of aldehydes and 41,45

hydroxyl substituted compounds, focused on identification of compounds in ozonated drinking water na Direct aqueous injection 90-96

0.3-3.7 mg/1 2-Ethylbutyric acid as internal standard, 97

weighted least square calibration curve 0.02-760 /Ltg/1 Only few real samples, detection limits for 98

standards in deionized water

(a) 6-675/Ltg/1 Few real samples, method development in 99,100

(b) 2-150/Ltg/1 deionized water

Continued

(3) Groundwater

Filtration, direct injection

CH2C12 extraction at pH < 2

Diethylether extraction of freeze dried samples

(4) Seawater

Concentrated using static diffusion

Extraction, PFBBr derivat.

Filtration, 2-nitrophenyl hydrazine deriv.

None

IEC/cond.

GC/MS

GC/FID

GC/FID

GC/ECD HPLC/VIS

AEC/cond.

C2-C4 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C7 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C7 monocarboxylic acids

C2-C5 monocarboxylic, pyruvic, acrylic, benzoic acid Acrylic acid, other acids possible C1-C5 monocarboxylic, lactic acid

Formic, acetic, oxalic acid

None

None, direct injection

Addition of octanesulfonate

AEC/cond./UV

AEC/UV CZE/ind.UV

CZE/ind. UV

Formic, acetic, glycolic, oxalic, malonic maleic, fumaric acid Formic, acetic, oxalic, malonic, succinic, pyruvic acid Formic, acetic, lactic, oxalic, malonic acid

Detection Limits

Comments

Ref.

0.5 /xM Microcosm study 101

na Identification of polar degradation products 48 at superfund sites na Groundwater at gas spill site 14,47

Down to 10 nM Unusual concentration procedure 16

3 nM 0.5% TOPO in MtBE for extraction 50

na, analyzed low nM Blank problems for acetic and formic acid 17 conc.

Below 1 /Ltg/1 Power plant water, online preconcentration, 18

simultaneous determination of inorganic anions

0.001-0.006 mM By-products of organic pollutant 30

degradation in water

0.2 /xM Photoformation of organic acids from brown 51,102

water dissolved organic matter; confirmation with CZE

na, analyzed UV irradiated humic surface water 12,103

Dilution with IEC/ES-MS trifluoroacetic acid, filtration

None, direct injection IEC/cond.

(1) Soil Solutions

Online removal of interfering compounds

AEC/cond.

Several extraction steps, filtration, removal of humic acids Centrifugation, filtration, cation exchange

IEC/UV

Centrifugation, filtration, addition of Na4EDTA

CZE/ind. UV

Aqueous extraction, centrifugation, filtration

CZE/ind. UV

(2) Sediments

Centrifugation, concentrated GC/FID

at pH 9, acidification

Filtration IEC/RI

Centrifugation, GC/FID

acidification

Formic, gyoxylic, oxalic, 2-hydroxy-«o-butyric, maleic, succinic, malic, 1-hexanoic, malonic acid C1-C5 monocarboxylic acids

Formic, acetic, lactic, pyruvic, oxalic, malic, citric acid

(a) 13 aliphatic mono-and dicarboxylic acids

(b) 14 aromatic acids Formic, acetic, propionic, lactic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, fumaric, malonic, trans-aconitic acid Q-C4 monocarboxylic, lactic, oxalic, malonic, tartaric, malic, succinic, citric acid Formic, acetic, lactic, tartaric, malic, citric, succinic acid

Acetic, propionic, butyric acid C1-C5 monocarboxylic, lactic, oxalic, citric, malic, tartaric, fumaric acids C2-C7 monocarboxylic acids

Aqueous standards only, established ES-MS 104

conditions

Soil

Standards, introduced C6 aliphatic monocarboxylic acids as eluents

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