Applications In Environmental Analysis

Examples of environmental analysis of amines in air are shown in Table 11.15.

Air pollution is a important problem for public health. For air analysis, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health specifies exposure limits163 for amines in industrial air (10 to

30 ng/ml) and for amines in indoor air (10 to 300 pg/ml). The direct SPME could be used to monitor the amounts of the amines extracted from air in the following order: Carbowax divinylbenzene CAX(DAB) > poly(acrylate) PA > poly(dimethyl-siloxane) PDMS.40

An integral part of environmental analysis in air is the examination of the presence of amines (mainly heterocyclic) in an atmosphere polluted with cigarette smoke. Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoking is associated with the development of human cancers, and cigarette smoke condensate has been known to be mutagenic in bacteria and carcinogenic to experimental animals. Cigarette smoke contains various pyrolysis products. Among them are known patent mutagens and carcinogens such as volatile N-nitrosamines, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aza-arenes, and mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines.7 Figure 11.17 shows an example of a chromatogram of AAs in Kentucky cigarettes, while Table 11.16 compares the results of a determination of AA amounts in ng/cigarette using the new SPE method, ISO method, and some other references.

It is also very important to investigate the contents of N-nitrosamines in cigarette smoke, and especially in mainstream and sidestream smokes. In Kataoka's experiment,67 cigarette smoke was m/

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