Rain Fog Mist Snow

Rain samples have been analyzed for organic acids since the late 1970s5 and, as a consequence, numerous methods are available today — mostly using GC and AEC (Table 13.3). Although fog, mist, and snow samples require matrix-specific sample collection and sample preparation steps, the resulting aqueous solutions and therefore the actual organic acid measurements are virtually identical to rain and thus are also covered in this section. At first, organic acid measurement focused on formic and acetic acid,38,68,69,71 although methods were quickly

expanded to include hyroxy-, keto-, and dicarboxylic acids.33,70,72,73,78 Organic acid content in rain ranges from low to high /Ag/l concentrations depending on location, precipitation event, and

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