1. EU Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water quality, Official J. Eur. Communities, 2000.

2. Frankenberger, W. T., Mehra, H. C., and Gjerde, D. T., Environmental applications of ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 504, 211-245, 1990.

3. Woods, C. and Rowland, A. P., Applications of anion chromatography in terrestrial environmental research, J Chromatogr. A, 789, 287-299, 1997.

4. Jackson, P. E., Ion chromatography in environmental analysis, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, Meyers, R. A., Ed., Wiley, Chichester, 2000.

5. Dahllof, I., Svensson, O., and Torstensson, C., Optimising the determination of nitrate and phosphate in seawater with ion chromatography using experimental design, J. Chromatogr. A, 771, 163-168, 1997.

6. Ledo de Medina, H., Gutierrez, E., Colina de Vargas, M., Gonzalez, G., Marin, J., and Andueza, E., Determination of phosphate and sulphite in natural waters in the presence of high sulphate concentrations by ion chromatography under isocratic conditions, J. Chromatogr. A, 739, 207-215, 1996.

7. Simon, N. S., The rapid determination of orthophosphate, sulfate, and chloride in natural water samples with high iron concentrations using ion chromatography, Anal. Lett., 21, 319-330, 1988.

8. Yuchi, A., Ogiso, A., Muranaka, S., and Niwa, T., Preconcentration of phosphate and arsenate at sub-ng/ml level with a chelating polymer-gel loaded with zirconium(IV), Anal. Chim. Acta, 494, 81-86, 2003.

9. Determination of inorganic anions in drinking water by ion chromatography, Dionex Application note 133, Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, USA.

10. Determination of inorganic anions in wastewater by ion chromatography, Dionex Application note 135, Dionex Corporation, Sunnyvale, USA.

11. Buldini, P. L., Mevoli, A., and Quirini, A., On-line microdialysis-ion chromatographic determination of inorganic anions in olive-oil mill wastewater, J. Chromatogr. A, 882, 321-328, 2000.

12. Mehra, H. C. and Frankenberger, W. T., Single-column ion chromatography: IV. Determination of arsenate in soils, Am. J. Soil Sci. Soc., 52, 1603-1606, 1988.

13. Moibroek, K. and Shahwecker, P., Moisture Measurements in Food and Related Products, Mettler Instruments, Greifensee, Switzerland, 1984.

14. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, 1980.

15. Bradfield, E. G. and Cooke, D. T., Determination of inorganic anions in water extracts of plants and soils by ion chromatography, Analyst, 110, 1409-1410, 1985.

16. Five anions in dried potatoes, Metrohm IC Application Note No. 6, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

17. Alcazar, A., Fernandez-Caceres, P. L., Martin, M. J., Pablos, F., and Gonzalez, A. G., Ion chromatographic determination of some organic acids, chloride and phosphate in coffee and tea, Talanta, 61, 95-101, 2003.

18. Grunau, J. A. and Swiader, J. M., Application of ion chromatography to anion analysis in vegetable leaf extracts, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 17, 321-335, 1986.

19. Smolders, E., Van Dael, M., and Merck, R., Simultaneous determination of extractable sulphate and malate in plant extracts using ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr., 514, 371-376, 1990.

20. Risner, C. H., Quantitation of some tobacco anions by eluent suppressed anion exchange chromatography using conventional liquid chromatographic equipment, Tobacco Sci., 1986, 85-90, 2004.

21. Ruiz, E., Santillana, M. I., Nieto, M. T., and Sastre, I., Determination of water soluble inorganic phosphates in fresh vegetables by ion chromatography, J. Liq. Chromatogr., 18, 989-1000, 1995.

22. Chen, S. S. and Spiro, M., Rose-hip tea: equilibrium and kinetic study of mineral ion extraction, Food Chem., 48, 47-50, 1993.

23. Spiro, M. and Lam, P. L. L., Kinetics and equilibria of tea infusion — Part 12. Equilibrium and kinetic study of mineral ion extraction from black Assam Bukial and green Chun Mee teas, Food Chem., 54, 393-396, 1995.

Buldini, P. L., Cavalli, S., and Mevoli, A., Sample pretreatment by UV photolysis for the ion chromatographic analysis of plant material, J. Chromatogr. A, 739, 167-173, 1996. Murcia, M. A., Vera, A., Ortiz, R., and Garcia-Garmona, F., Measurement of ion levels of spinach grown in different fertilizer regimes using ion chromatography, Food Chem., 52, 161-166, 1995. Dick, W. A. and Tabatabai, M. A., Ion chromatographic determination of sulfate and nitrate in soils, Am. J. SoilSci. Soc., 43, 899-904, 1979.

Antony, P. J., Karthikeyan, S., and Iyer, C. S. P., Ion chromatographic separation and determination of phosphate and arsenate in water and hair, J. Chromatogr. B, 767, 363-368, 2002. Butler, F. E., Toth, F. J., Driscoll, D. J., Hein, J. N., and Jungers, R. H., Analysis of fuels by ion chromatography: comparison with ASTM methods, Ion Chromatographic Analysis of Environmental Pollutants, 1979.

Colina, M. and Gardiner, P. H. E., Simultaneous determination of total nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur by means of microwave digestion and ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 847, 285-290, 1999.

Novic, M., Dovzan, A.,Pihlar, B., andHudnik, V., Determination of chlorine, sulphur and phosphorus in organic materials by ion chromatography using electrodialysis sample pretreatment, J. Chromatogr. A, 704, 530-534, 1995.

Nguyen, V. D. and Rossbach, M., Ion chromatographic investigation of brown algae (fucus-vesiculosus) of the German-environmental-specimen-bank, J. Chromatogr., 643, 427-433, 1993.

McKelvie, I. D., Peat, D. M. W., and Worsfold, P. J., Techniques for the quantification and speciation of phosphorus in natural waters, Anal. Proc., 32, 437-445, 1995.

Grasshoff, K., Kremling, K., and Ehrhardt, M., Methods of Seawater Analysis, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999.

Haberer, J. L. and Brandes, J. A., A high sensitivity, low volume HPLC method to determine soluble reactive phosphate in freshwater and saltwater, Mar. Chem., 82, 185-196, 2003. Karlson, U. and Frankenberger, W. T., Single column ion chromatography: III. Determination of orthophosphate in soils, Am. J. Soil Sci. Soc., 51, 721987.

Greenberg, A. E., Clesceri, L. S., Eaton, A. D., Eds., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, 1992. Pfaff, J. D., Method 300.0, Revision 2.2: Determination of Inorganic Anions by Ion Chromatography, United States EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 1999.

Bruno, P., Caseli, M., de Grennaro, G., De Tommaso, B., Lastella, G., and Mastrolitti, S., Determination of nutrients in the presence of high chloride concentrations by column-switching ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 1003, 133-141, 2003.

Karmarkar, S. V., Analysis of wastewater for anionic and cationic nutrients by ion chromatography in a single run with sequential flow injection analysis, J. Chromatogr. A, 850, 303-309, 1999. Shotyk, W., Immenhauser-Potthast, I., and Vogel, H. A., Determination of nitrate, phosphate and organically bound phosphorous in coral skeletons by ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 706, 209-213, 1995.

Colina, M., Ledo, H., Gutierrez, E., Vilalobos, E., and Marin, J., Determination of total phosphorous in sediments by means of high-pressure bombs and ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 739, 223-227, 1996.

Masson, P., Hilbert, G., and Plenet, D., Ion chromatography methods for the simultaneous determination of mineral anions in plant sap, J. Chromatogr. A, 752, 298-303, 1996. Casey, C. E., O'Sullivan, O. B., O'Gara, F., and Glennon, J. D., Ion chromatographic analysis of nutrients in seed exudates for microbial colonisation, J. Chromatogr. A, 804, 311-318, 1998. Baluyot, E. S. and Hartford, C. G., Comparison of polyphosphate analysis by ion chromatography and by modified end-group titration, J. Chromatogr. A, 739, 217-222, 1996.

Sekiguchi, Y., Matsunaga, A., Yamamoto, A., and Inoue, Y., Analysis of condensed phosphates in food products by ion chromatography with an on-line hydroxide eluent generator, J. Chromatogr. A, 881, 633-644, 2000.

Connolly, D. and Paull, B., Fast ion chromatography of common inorganic anions on a short ODS column coated with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, J. Chromatogr. A, 953, 299-303, 2002.

47. Divjak, B., Novic, M., and Goessler, W., Determination of bromide, bromate and other anions with ion chromatography and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as element-specific detector, J. Chromatogr. A, 862, 39-47, 1999.

48. Kapinus, E. N., Revelsky, I. A., Ulogov, V. O., and Lyalikov, Yu. A., Simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in aqueous solutions at 10" 9% to 10"8% level by ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. B, 800, 321-323, 2004.

49. Rich, W. E. and Wetzel, R. A., La chromatographie ionique: une nouvelle technique pour l'analyse des ions, L'actualité Chimique, 6, 51-57, 1980.

50. Lindgren, M., Jonkromatografisk vattenanalys, Vatten, 36, 249-264, 1980.

51. Darimont, T., Schulze, G., and Sonneborn, M., Determination of nitrate in drinking water by means of ion chromatography, Fres. ZAnal. Chem., 314, 383-385, 1983.

52. Kaiser, E., Rohrer, J. S., and Jensen, D., Determination of trace anions in high-nitrate matrices by ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 920, 127-133, 2001.

53. Mosko, J. A., Automated determination of inorganic anions in water by ion chromatography, Anal. Chem., 56, 629-633, 1984.

54. Green, L. W. and Woods, J. R., Ion chromatographic determination of anions in wastewater precipitate, Anal. Chem., 53, 2187-2189, 1981.

55. Crowther, J. and McBride, J., Determination of anions in atmospheric precipitation by ion chromatography, Analyst, 106, 702-709, 1981.

56. Cheam, V. and Chau, S. Y., Automated simultaneous analysis of anions and monovalent and divalent cations, Analyst, 112, 993-997, 1987.

57. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in wastewater, IC Application Note No. S-7, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

58. Lu, Z., Liu, Y., Barreto, V., Pohl, C., Avdalovic, N., Joyce, R., and Newton, B., Determination of anions at trace levels in power plant water samples by ion chromatography with electrolytic eluent generation and suppression, J. Chromatogr. A, 956, 129-138, 2002.

59. Improved determination of trace anions in high purity waters by high-volume direct injection with the EG40, Application Update 142, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA, 2001.

60. Fast analysis of anions in drinking water by ion chromatography, Application Note 140, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA, 2001.

61. Determination of polyphosphates using ion chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection, Application Note 71, Dionex, Sunnyvale, CA, USA, 2002.

62. Karlson, U. and Frankenberger, W. T. Jr., Single column ion chromatography of selenite in soil extracts, Anal. Chem., 58, 2704-2708, 1986.

63. Mehra, H. and Frankenberger, W. T. Jr., Determination of trace amounts of molybdate in soil by ion chromatography, Analyst, 114, 707-710, 1989.

64. Phosphate in sewage sludge after aqua regia digestion, IC Application Note No. S-97, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

65. Nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in fertilizer after digestion with HCl, IC Application Note No. S-49, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

66. Silicate, sulphate and phosphate in a clay extract, IC Application Note No. S-142, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

67. Coerdt, W. and Mainka, E., Determination of inorganic anions in dusts and filter residues of waste incineration plants, Frez. ZAnal. Chem., 320, 503-506, 1985.

68. Walford, S., Applications of ion chromatography in cane sugar research and process problems, J. Chromatogr. A, 956, 187-199, 2002.

69. Sekiguchi, Y., Mitsuhashi, N., Inoue, Y., Yagisawa, H., and Mimura, T., J. Chromatogr. A, 1039, 71 -76, 2004.

70. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate in plant leaf extracts, IC Application Note No. N10, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

71. Saccani, G., Gherardi, S., Trifiro, A., Soresi Bordini, C., Calza, M., and Freddi, C., Use of ion chromatography for the measurements of organic acids in fruit juices, J. Chromatogr. A, 706, 395-403, 1995.

72. Ding, M.-Y., Chen, P.-R., and Luo, G.-A., Simultaneous determination of organic acids and inorganic anions in tea by ion chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A, 764, 341-345, 1997.

73. Jardy, A., Caude, M., Diop, A., Curvale, C., and Rosset, R., Single-column anion chromatography with indirect UV detection using pyromellitate buffers as eluents, J. Chromatogr., 439, 137-149, 1988.

74. Sayler, D. and Geiger, P., Extraction and analysis of metabolic phosphates in plants, J. Food Sci., 58, 890-892, 1993.

75. Five anions in a meat extract, IC Application Note No. S-123, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

76. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and citrate in beverages, IC Application Note No. S-141, Metrohm Ltd. CH-9101 Herisau, Switzerland.

Characterization of Organic Matter from Air, Water, Soils, and Waste Material by Analytical Pyrolysis

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment