SPME Sonication

Water in the continuous mode at a flow-rate of 1 ml/min and 85°C was sufficient for quantitative extraction; mini column containing C18-hydra

Polydimethylsiloxane-coated fiber and high temperature alkaline hydrolysis

The main factors optimized by means of a central composite design

Insecticides LE-SPE —

Pesticides MASE-SPME Extractant. 1% methanol in water (LE); aqueous extradant at 105°C for 3 min, with 80% output of maximum power (1200 W) Pesticides MASE Extractant. 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7

Pesticides Ultrasounds SPME Experimental design of the variable

Pesticides HS-SPME 100-^m polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and

65-ju.m PDMS-DVB

Determination: HPLC-DAD; recoveries of the target 265

analytes ranged between 94.2 and 113.1%, and repeatabilities, expressed as relative standard deviations, were between 0.61 and 6.83% Determination: GC-MS, The method allows determination 266

with 1.0 /j,g of VX spiked per g of agricultural soil Determination: continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction 267

coupled to on line filtration-SPE-column liquid chromatography-post column derivatisation-fluorescence detection; LOD: 12 ng/g and LOQ: 40 ng/g; carbamates at 1 /Ltg/g spiked level; recoveries similar to those provided by the EPA 8318 method; repeatability: 3.1%; reproducibility: 7.5% Determination-. LC-UV detection, LC-MS, LOD: 10 268

Determination: GC-MS; LOD: 2 to 4 /iig/kg; precision: 269

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