Glycobiology is now an established discipline that is expanding rapidly, and an understanding of the major advances in this discipline is essential for the discovery of new carbohydrate-based therapeutics. What follows is a discussion of a few of the interesting developments and trends that have occurred in this field over the past 10 years.

4.1 Driving Forces

Several forces drive the surge in interest in the field of glycobiology. They include the sequencing of the human genome, glycoconju-gate structure-function studies, and immunogen and lectin research.

4.1.1 Human Genome. One force is the sequencing of the human genome. As it becomes clear that the number of genes encoded by the genome cannot alone explain the complexity of life, post-translation modifications have become obvious explanation for the source of

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