How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

Complete Guide to Preventing Skin Cancer. We all know enough to fear the name, just as we do the words tumor and malignant. But apart from that, most of us know very little at all about cancer, especially skin cancer in itself. If I were to ask you to tell me about skin cancer right now, what would you say? Apart from the fact that its a cancer on the skin, that is.

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How I Survived Malignant Melanom

By The Time You've Finished Reading How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer Seven Survivors Tell Their Stories. You'll Feel Like A New Person, with A New, More Positive Outlook! You will learn: 1. How do I know if I have melanoma? What are the signs and symptoms? I wanted to know why the doctor was so concerned when she looked at that little mole on my forearm. What was it that looked so sinister? How worried should I be? Was the doctor over-reacting? 2. What tests will the doctor carry out to see if I have melanoma? Will they be able to tell me on the spot if there is a problem? Or will I have to wait for days, fretting about whats going on? 3. How curable is melanoma? If they do tell me its melanoma, what exactly does that mean? Is it a death sentence? Will they tell me You have 12 months to live. Get your life in order and prepare for the worst.? 4. What are the stages of the disease? The reading Id done said that there were different stages of melanoma. What are the symptoms of each stage? What are the survival rates of each stage? If I had a later stage melanoma, wouldnt I know about it? Wouldnt I actually feel like I was sick? 5. How quickly does the disease progress or spread? Should I have gone to the doctor sooner? Id noticed the mole changing over about 3 months. Was this delay critical? 6. How is melanoma normally treated? Would I have to go through chemotherapy and radiation treatment? If so, for how long? What are the odds of curing the disease using these treatments? How extensive is any surgery likely to be? How big will the scars be? 7. What are the common side effects of the treatments? Would I lose my hair? Would I become sterile? What else could I expect? 8. What alternative treatments are available? Id heard of people going on special macro-biotic diets. Id seen lots of herbal remedies on the internet. Which of these are proven and documented, and which ones are snake oil? Is it possible to combine alternative treatments with surgical other western treatments? How do I find a doctor that is open to using both alternative and western treatments? 9. What are the latest treatments being developed, and who is carrying out clinical trials of these new treatments?

How I Survived Malignant Melanom Summary


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For Melanoma Etiology and Pathogenesis

The adverse results of the -carotene and lung cancer prevention trials in which this nutrient (although at pharmacologic doses) led to more, rather than fewer, lung cancers in heavy smokers (Omenn et al. 1994) led me to reconsider the role of antioxidants in carcinogenesis, especially in melanoma genesis. One of the unique features of melanocytes is that they produce the unique differentiation product melanin whose major function has always been presumed to be protection against UVR. There are several unique features about melanin and its synthesis that merit comment For some time, it has been recognized that abnormalities of melanin synthesis lead to a range of benign pigmentary diseases. There is also available considerable descriptive data that has suggested melanosomes are abnormal in melanoma cells and became progressively deranged during the pathogenic process (Rhodes et al. 1988). However, the functional consequences of these abnormalities for transformation have been largely...

Upregulation of Transcription Factors in the Pathogenesis of Melanoma

We have recently focused on the multifunctional protein apu-rinic apyrimidinic endonuclease redox effector 1 (APE Ref-1), which functions in both the third step in base excision repair and also reduces a wide range of TFs so that they can bind to DNA sites and effect their action (Yang et al. 2005). We have recently shown that the polyphenoic anti-oxidant resveratrol binds to the redox pocket of Ref-1 and slows melanoma growth. We are in the process of designing a number of inhibitors based on this lead compound and by using an iterative structure-function approach and three-dimensional software modeling.

Redox Status of Melanocytes and Melanoma Cells

We initially asked a simple question How do melanocytes respond to oxidative stress (Meyskens et al. 1997). The conclusions from our studies are summarized as follows, and illustrated in Fig. 1. Melanoma were exposed to a low dose of H2O2 generated by adding titered amounts of glucose oxidase to the medium, and with a fixed dose of glucose, a predictable amount of H2O2 was generated. (Using UVR-B as the source of ROS was too complex as it produces many cellular effects including direct DNA damage.) The intracellular oxidative response was determined by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, a crude signal for superoxide peroxide flux. The results were surprising, in that no fluorescence signal was apparent in several non-melanin-containing cell lines. In normal human melanocytes (NHM), a small signal was initially generated, but rapidly suppressed over a few minutes. In contrast, a large and continuous chemiluminescence response was seen in all melanoma cell lines tested. The signal was...

Urinalysis In Malignant Melanoma

The preventable risk factor common to all skin cancers is sun exposure. Recommend to your at-risk patients limiting exposure to sunlight in the middle of the day, wearing appropriate protective clothing, and using sun screen. Contrary to popular belief, the use of tanning beds is also a risk factor for skin cancer. Abbasi NR, Shaw HM. Rigel DS. el al. Early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma revisiting ihe ABCD criteria. JAMA 2004 292 2771-2776. Goldstein BG. Goldstein AO. Diagnosis and management of malignant melanoma. Am Fam Physician 2001 63 1359-1368, 1374. Pierson JC. Pigmented skin lesions (nevi and melanoma). Best Practice of medicine. November 2001. Available at bpm_brief& artic le_id B PM01DE07. Saraiya M, Glanz.K. Briss P. et al. Preventing skin cancer findings of the task force on community preventative services on reducing exposure to ultraviolet light. MMWR _ October 17, 2003 52(RR15) 1-12_.

Influence Melanoma Tumor Progression

In addition to the effects of C-X-C chemokines on leukocyte chemotaxis, the C-X-C chemokines MGSA GRO-a and IL-8 are reported to enhance the growth of normal melanocytes, nevocytes, and melanoma cells (4,5,7,15,44a). The expression of MGSA GRO or IL-8 in immortalized melanocytes is also associated with an enhanced ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice (5,16,47,48). IL-8 expression has also been correlated with an enhanced metastatic capacity for melanoma tumors (52). Antibodies to MGSA GRO-a, IL-8, or CXCR2 can block this autocrine loop, slow the growth of the cells in vitro, and reduce formation of colonies in soft agar (24,37,48). Thus, the deregulation of expression of these chemokines can have important effects on melanocyte tumor progression. An essential component of the autocrine loop for C-X-C chemokines in melanoma is the expression of receptors for MGSA GRO proteins in melanocytes and malignant melanoma cells. Moser et al. (54) examined the expression...


Scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have found a new method for modifying the immune system of cancer patients to induce cancer regression. By inhibiting a molecule associated with T lymphocytes called cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), the immune system is able to attack some patients' tumors. CTLA-4 was inhibited with an antibody leading to tumor shrinkage in patients with metastatic melanoma. In addition to the tumor shrinkage, the treatment also induced evidence of autoimmunity, that is, signs that the immune system was attacking not only tumors, but normal tissue as well. However, treatment with steroids completely eliminated all symptoms of autoimmunity that occurred in the trial. The 14 patients in the study received an antibody that blocks CTLA-4 activity, plus a cancer vaccine made up of a small segment of a protein found on the surface of melanoma cells. The hope is that the vaccine will stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells, but...

CAIs And Skin Cancer

These compounds showed tumor growth inhibitory properties. Typically, they showed GI50 values in the low micromolar range (10 to 42 nM) against a wide number of tumors and melanoma (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000b, 2000c) and are considered among the most potent tumor cell growth inhibitors belonging to the sulfonamide CAIs to date (Table 11.2). The mechanism of tumor growth inhibition with these sulfonamide CAIs is not known at present, but several hypotheses have been proposed. Thus, as suggested by Chegwidden and Spencer (1995), these compounds, similarly to the classical inhibitors acetazolamide, methazolamide or ethoxzolamide, might reduce the provision of bicarbonate for the synthesis of nucleotides (mediated by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II) and other cell components such as membrane lipids (mediated by pyruvate carboxylase). Such a mechanism would likely involve CA II and CA V. An alternative, or additional, mechanism might involve acidification of the intracellular milieu as...

Genes In Melanoma

The expression of chemokines is normally tightly regulated and is only transiently induced in response to mediators of the inflammatory response such as IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), and a variety of other agents (3). Interestingly, during tumor progression and chronic inflammation, this tight regulation of chemokine expression is disturbed such that numerous tumor lesions and chronically inflammed tissues have been reported to express chemokines continuously (2,6,44,46,50,63,66). For example, in the absence of cytokine stimulation, the expression of MGSA GRO is very low in normal melanocytes and normal retinal pigment epithelial cells, but is quite high in malignant melanoma (7,10,47,63,64). In normal skin keratinocytes, MGSA GRO expression appears to coincide with differentiation, as noted by the presence of immu-noreactive MGSA GRO in suprabasal keratinocytes and in the hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat ducts. By contrast, lesional tissue from 7 7 squamous cell...

Skin Cancer

Production Sebum

This is the most common type of cancer in North America, with 1 million cases being diagnosed each year. The table on page 3 shows data only for melanoma. Nearly half of the North American population will develop some form of skin cancer by age 65. Although anyone can get skin cancer, the risk is greatest for people who have fair skin that freckles easily, often those with red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes. The two most common kinds of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Basal cell carcinoma accounts for more than 90 percent of all skin cancers in North America. It is a slow-growing cancer that seldom spreads to other parts of the body. Squamous cell carcinoma also rarely spreads, but it does so more often than basal cell carcinoma. Another type of cancer that occurs in the skin is melanoma, which begins in the melanocytes. Melanomas are quick to metastasize and are often deadly. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are...

Loss of Anchorage Dependent Growth and Altered Cell Adhesion

Several lines of evidence implicate MMPs in tumor progression and metastasis. First, MMPs are overexpressed in tumors from a variety of tissues and the expression of one, ma-trilysin, is clearly elevated in invasive prostate cancer epithelium (34-36). Second, reduction of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotein-ases-1 (TIMP-1) expression in mouse fibroblasts (Swiss 3T3), using antisense RNA technology, increased the incidence of metastatic tumors in immunocompromised mice. Similarly, overexpression of the various MMPs has provided direct evidence for their role in metastasis. Importantly, synthetic MMP inhibitors have also been produced and they lead to a reduction in metastasis in several experimental models of melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, and mammary carcinoma, suggesting a mechanism by which the invasive potential of tumors may be reduced (37).

Transforming Growth Factor3

There are several known inheritable DNA repair-deficiency diseases. Four of these are autosomal recessive diseases and include Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Fanconi's anemia (FA), and Bloom's syndrome (BS). XP patients are very sensitive to light and have increased predisposition to skin cancer (approximately 1000-fold) (96). AT patients exhibit a high incidence of lymphomas, and the incidence of lymphoma development is also increased for both FA and BS patients.

The Supergene Family Of Chemotactic Cytokines

The genes encoding many of the C-X-C chemokines map to human chromosome 4(q12-q21) and their proteins possess 20-50 amino acid homology with one another (3,35). Several C-X-C chemokines have been identified, including platelet factor 4 (PF4), IL-8, growth-related oncogene-a, -p, and -y (GRO-a, -p, -y), epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating factor-78 (ENA-78), granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 (GCP-2), interferon-y-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), monokine induced by interferon (MIG), and the amino terminal processed forms of platelet basic protein connective tissue-activating protein III, p-thromboglobulin, and neutrophil-activating peptide-2 (NAP-2) (15,20,29,37,48,52) (Table 1). PF4 was the first member of the C-X-C chemokine family to be described and was identified as a heparin-binding protein that could block the anticoagulation property of heparin. Many of the C-X-C chemokines were originally discovered based on their biologic activity or their ability to be expressed based...

Modifying Cell Adhesion

The mechanism of action of the bisphos-phonates has not been elucidated, but they have been used extensively for disorders in calcium homeostasis and recently in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients to prevent bone metastases (114). Clodronate, a bisphosphonate, inhibited expression of MTl-MMP RNA and protein in a fibrosarcoma cell line and effectively reduced the invasion of melanoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines through artificial basement membranes (115).

Age And Carcinogenesis

The incidence of common cancers increases with age (Figure 1). This association is universal 2 and is observed with the aging of any population around the world. A clear explanation of this phenomenon is the time-length of carcinogenesis, a stepwise process involving the activation of cellular oncogenes, and the suppression of anti-proliferative genes (anti-oncogenes)3. It is reasonable to assume that the duration of carcinogenesis reflects the number of stages involved in the pathogenesis of different tumors, and that this number be highest for tumors whose incidence peaks late in life, such as adenocarcinoma of the prostate and of the large bowel, or non-melanomatous skin cancer 3. In the era of chemoprevention and recognition and elimination of environmental carcinogens, an alternative possibility should be considered. These interventions may cause the prolongation of one or more carcinogenic steps and, in so doing they may delay the development of cancer. For example, the...

Inhibition of Extracellular Matrix ECM Degradation

Cellular invasion depends on cooperation between adhesive and proteolytic mechanisms. A single cell-surface receptor may regulate both matrix degradation and motility, thereby facilitating directed cellular invasion (18,19). For example, avB3 integrin on cultured melanoma cells enable the binding of the cells to MMP-2 in a proteolytically active form, facilitating cell-mediated collagen degradation (18). These MMPs and integrins are also specifically co-localised on angiogenic blood vessels and melanoma cells in vivo. Stromal cells also contribute to the degradation of matrix by secreting stromelysins. Intervention for this cellmatrix adhesion and subsequent degradation and invasion can therefore aim at targeting adhesion and degradation.

Future Directions And Application Of Nscs In Brain Tumors

NSCs offer a way to deliver a broad range of therapeutic molecules to intracranial glioma cells in a specific fashion. Immunomodulatory factors hold promise. Ehtesham et al. have already shown the successful and efficacious delivery of IL-12 and TRAIL to implanted brain tumors (80,81). Other cytokines with demonstrated promise in the treatment of glioma could be similarly delivered by NSCs (84). For example, IL-24 or melanoma differ-entiation-associated-7 induces the expression of the proapoptotic protein BAX and suppresses the growth of glioma cells (85). Aoki et al. showed that IL-7 reduced the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo via a T-cell-medi-

Use in Prevention and Therapy

Vitamin A is one of nature's primary anticancer substances, particularly in the skin and mucous membranes. Ample intakes of vitamin A have been shown to protect against cancers of the lung, bladder, prostate, larynx, esophagus, stomach, and colon. Vitamin A can prevent precancerous lesions, such as oral leukoplakia (white patches on the lips and mouth often found in smokers) and cervical dysplasia, from developing and may produce regression and disappearance of these disorders.15 As a cancer treatment, large doses of retinoic acid may reduce growth and recurrence of certain forms of skin cancer.16 As an antioxidant, beta-carotene helps provide protection against damage from many xenobiotics (such as polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs ). It may also reduce the risk of skin cancer associated with exposure to sunlight6 and radiation.2

Classification System

Invasive cancer refers to any malignancy except non-melanoma skin cancer (squamous and basal cell carcinoma), in situ cancer of the breast or uterine cervix, or ovarian cancers of borderline significance. It does include low-grade brain tumors (e.g., benign astrocytoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma) with low metastatic potential since these tumors can be fatal because of local growth. There are two basic systems of classification the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) and the International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC). The ICD evolved first, and has been through several iterations

Biological Activity and Side Effects

Stone of drug therapy for malignant melanoma (114, 115). It is metabolized by N-hy-droxylation, followed by N-demethylation, to give a monomethyltriazene that then methyl-ates DNA (116). No surprisingly, dacarbazine is strongly carcinogenic in animal models suggesting it may also be a human carcinogen.

Antigenic Specificity of Induced Regulatory T Cells

Other evidence for the existence of adaptive regulatory T cells specific for self-antigens and their significant biological role comes from studies of tumor immunity. Initial observations suggested that the presence of CD25+ regulatory T cells can diminish anti-tumor responses, but it was not clear whether this effect was antigen-specific (Shimizu et al. 1999). Several recent studies have suggested that adaptive CD25+ T cells may suppress tumor immunity by recognizing self-antigens. For example, CD25+ T cells with suppressor ability can be elicited by gene gun immunization with autoantigens identified in the SEREX screen (Nishikawa et al. 2003). In another example, human T cell clones with a phenotype resembling regulatory T cells were isolated from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma patients (Wang et al. 2004). Some of these clones were identified to be reactive to the self-protein LAGE1. However, it also remains unclear in these experiments whether these cells arose from...

Classification Of Human Cancers

Although the terminology applied to neoplasms can be confusing for a number ofreasons, certain generalizations can be made. The suffix oma, applied by itself to a tissue type, usually indicates a benign tumor. Some malignant neoplasms, however, may be designated by the oma suffix alone these include lymphoma, melanoma, and thymoma. Rarely, the oma suffix is used to describe a nonneoplastic condition such as granuloma, which is often not a true tumor, but a mass of granulation tissue resulting from chronic inflammation or abscess. Malignant tumors are indicted by the terms carcinoma (epithelial in origin) or sarcoma (mesenchymal in origin) preceded by the histologic type and followed by the tissue of origin. Examples of these include adenocarcinoma of the breast, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, basal cell carcinoma of skin, and leiomyosarcoma of the uterus. Most human malignancies arise from epithelial tissue. Those arising from stratified squamous epithelium are designated...

Prodrugs for j3Lactamase Enzymes

For j3-lactamase have been evaluated. The cephem analog (94) affected cures in mice bearing xenografts of human melanoma cells if given subsequent to treatment with 96.5 bL, a mAb j3-lactamase conjugate that binds to specific surface antigens on these cells (402)A B 5 cephem derivative of doxorubicin (95) showed Beci higher intratumoral levels of doxorubicin af- (GU ter treatment with the conjugate than with toly doxorubicin alone (403).However, the differ- hum ential cytotoxicities between drug and pro- I ADE drug in this approach are only moderate, and B prob no such prodrugs have yet proceeded to clini- p tend cal trial. I' (40

Cyclic Amp In Calcium Signalling

Functionally it seems possible to differentiate between influxed calcium and Ca2+ released from intracellular stores. This is illustrated by the modulation of S100A4 expression in B16 murine melanoma cells by agents that modulate intracellular calcium levels. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) increases calcium influx and cAMP levels. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker that reduces cAMP levels (Atlas and Adler, 1981 Janis et al. 1987). Thapsigargin is a sesquiterpene lactone that raises intracellular calcium levels by releasing calcium from intracellular

Role Of Integrins In Apoptosis

Hamster ovary cells ligated to fibronectin via a5pi and that this was associated with upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. This response to fibronectin also was shown to be integrin specific since cells expressing an alternative fibronectin receptor, underwent apoptosis when plated on fibronectin (38). Montgomery et al reported that expression of avP3 protected melanoma cells from apoptosis when growing in collagen gels (110). These data may have been related to the observation that ligation of is Small peptides containing the RGD binding motif have been used extensively in the study of the role of integrins in tumour progression and metastasis. Co-injection of small peptides, which include the RGD motif, can significantly impair the lung colonising ability of melanoma cells (118) as well as reduce the formation of spontaneous metastases (119). The principal mechanism for these results was believed to be as a consequence of the ability of RGD peptides to disrupt integrin-ligand...

Etiology and Risk Factors

Given that the duration of exposure to potential environmental carcinogens is directly proportional to age, it is not surprising that tobacco-, sunlight-, or diet-related cancers are more likely to occur in older adolescents than in younger persons. With the probable exception of melanoma, cancers known to have been related to environmental exposures in older adults have not been implicated with any certainty to environmental agents in 15- to 30-year-olds. In most people, it appears to take considerably longer than one or two decades for these environmentally related cancers to become manifest. The logical hypothesis is that adolescents who develop cancer after a carcinogenic exposure have a predisposing genotype. For example, melanoma is more common among Australian adolescents than among those elsewhere in the world, as described above. The Australia data does suggest that solar exposure may be able to induce skin cancer before the end of the second decade of life, at least in that...

C Rhamm and Tumor Progression

Serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning, SEREX, identified antibodies against RHAMM in acute myeloid leukemia (42 ), chronic myeloid leukemia (31 ), melanoma (83 ), renal cell carcinoma (40 ), breast cancer (67 ) as well as ovarian carcinoma (50 ) (132), and realtime PCR revealed a 1-13.6 fold increase of RHAMM expression in 97 of colon cancer (133). Furthermore, because of the presence of mononucleotide repeat sequences in the coding region, RHAMM is frequently mutated in subsets of colorectal cancers with defects in mismatch repair genes, suggesting a selective pressure for the accumulation of RHAMM mutations (134). Intrigu-ingly, several reports suggest that small tumor subsets are responsible for hyperexpression of both CD44 and RHAMM in breast cancers (90,135). Further, subsets of tumor cells from breast primary tumors that hyper-express CD44 also express stem progenitor markers and are several hundred times more tumorigenic upon transplantation...

Incidence Rates by Age and Diagnostic Group

Mias, with lymphomas second highest, then CNS tumors and bone tumors. In this age group, STS, germ cell tumors, melanoma, and carcinomas were relatively uncommon. In comparison with younger adolescents, the most striking difference in the 15- to 19-year-olds was a doubling of the incidence rates for lymphomas, which were the most common malignancies in this age group. Rates for leukemias, CNS tumors, and bone tumors were a little lower than those observed in the 13- to 14-year age group, but increases in rates relative to the younger age group were observed in STS, germ cell tumors, melanoma, and carcinomas. However, rates for these malignancies were still markedly lower than rates for leukemia and lymphoma. Table 3.8 Incidence of germ cell tumors, melanoma and other miscellaneous tumors per adolescents and young adults, England and Wales, 1979-2000 Melanoma mias was approximately 1 1 in 13- to 14-year olds, but in 20- to 24-year olds this had increased to more than 3 1. However, the...

All cancers154118231980

Table 3.8 includes incidence rates for germ cell tumors, melanoma, and certain tumors that are seen typically in younger children. The most dramatic increase in rates with age among the adolescent and young adult group occurs in the gonadal germ cell tumors, for which the rate increases from 0.33 per 100,000 in 13- to 14-year-olds to 1.25 in 15- to 19-year-olds, and to 3.76 in 20- to 24-year-olds, representing more than an 11-fold increase in rates over the age range. This is entirely due to testicular germ cell tumors. Nongonadal germ cell tumors are much less frequent than gonadal, and although rates increase across the age groups, the trends with age are less dramatic. There is a small decrease in rates with increasing age for intracranial germ cell tumors. Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, and retinoblastoma have peak incidences in children aged less than 5 years, but a small number of cases have been registered in the adolescent and young adult age range. Cases of...

Hereditary Metabolic Diseases

Bleeding within neoplasm mimicking a stroke. A 59-year-old man, in good health, suddenly collapsed. A few hours later, he was lethargic, his left side was paralyzed, a mild right ptosis was present, and the right pupil was slightly larger than the left, indicating incipient transtentorial uncal herniation. Three days later, he died. His medical history was significant for excision of a cutaneous melanoma 9 years earlier. A noncontrast CT scan of the head shows (A) a large right frontal and (B) a small right occipital hyperdense lesion surrounded by hypodense edema with mass effect. The brain shows (C) circumscribed hemor-rhagic lesions corresponding to the large frontal and the small occipital lesions shown on the CT scan, and also a third small parietal lesion histologically, all melanomas.

Concluding Remarks

B., Baars, A., Gomez, R., Weder, P., Smits, M., de Gruijl, T. D., von Blomberg, B. M., Bloemena, E., Scheper, R. J., van Ham, S. M., et al. (2006). Melanoma-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes but not circulating melanoma-specific T cells may predict survival in resected advanced-stage mela MacKie, R. M., Reid, R., and Junor, B. (2003). Fatal melanoma transferred in a donated kidney 16 years after melanoma surgery. N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 567568. Staibano, S., Mascolo, M., Tranfa, F., Salvatore, G., Mignogna, C., Bufo, P., Nugnes, L., Bonavolonta, G., and De Rosa, G. (2006). Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in uveal melanoma A link with clinical behavior Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 19, 171179.

Calreticulin in Cell Adhesion

Two other examples of the physiological involvement of calreticulin are in the process of cell adhesion and cell spreading and in disease states engendered by autoimmune conditions. The influence exerted by calreticulin on cell adhesion to substratum was appreciated from early experiments of White et al. (1995). They demonstrated that anticalreticulin antibodies inhibited the binding of murine B16 melanoma cells to a substratum covered with laminin. They also showed the antibodies bound to the cell surface. The interaction of cells with the substratum also appeared to involve mannoside residues. Further, cell spreading could be inhibited by adding purified calreticulin to the medium, which presumably competed with cell surface calreticulin and denied the cells interactive binding with the substratum. Incidentally, this also confirms the lectin-like properties of calreticulin.

Temporal Trends in incidence

Marked increases in incidence were also seen for gonadal germ cell tumors (accounted for primarily by testicular tumors), melanoma, and carcinoma of the thyroid (in all cases p< 0.0001) (Fig 3.6). There was no corresponding significant increase in ovarian germ cell tumors. Colorectal carcinomas showed a significant trend, which was accounted for by an increase between the second and third time periods (p< 0.001) (Fig 3.6).

Etiology and Pathogenesis 361 etiology

Not surprising that tobacco-, sunlight-, or diet-related cancers are more likely to occur in older adolescents and young adults than in younger persons. Nonetheless, these environmental agents known to be carcinogens in older adults have not been demonstrated to cause cancer with any significant frequency in adolescents. It appears to take considerably longer than one or two decades in most persons for these environmentally related cancers to become manifest. The logical hypothesis is that adolescents who develop cancer after a carcinogenic exposure have a predisposing genotype. For example, melanoma is more common among Australian adolescents than elsewhere in the world, as described above. This suggests that solar exposure may be able to induce skin cancer before the end of the second decade of life, at least in that part of the world. That melanomas during adolescence usually occur in nonexposed areas of the body mitigates against this explanation, and may suggest that the...

Clinical Trials with RSR13 A total

Patient eligibility was based on histologically or cytologically confirmed breast, NSCLC, melanoma, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal primary carcinoma. Patients were stratified by recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Class I or Class II, as previously described (529). A more recent analysis by the RTOG (Study 91-04) showed similar median survival times (MST) in each class. The analysis also indicated that no major change in the prognosis of brain metastases patients has been observed in the last 25 years, even with the advent of more aggressive multiagent CT regimens directed at both the primary tumor and extracranial metastases (530). At the time the study was closed there were 57 Class II patients enrolled.

Genetic Predisposition and Genetic Susceptibility

Skin cancer, lymphoma, sarcoma, and hepatic cancers also occur at higher frequency in persons with inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis, ataxia telangiectasia, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosa, Fanconi pancytopenia, hereditary dys-plastic nevus syndrome, nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes, and Turner syndrome. In the aggregate, however, the cancers that are known to be due to these conditions account thus far for only a small proportion of the can

Ultraviolet Radiation

Ultraviolet radiation-induced lesions, generated by UV-B (280-320 nm wavelength) or UV-A (320-400 nm wavelength), result from DNA damage, which is converted to mutations during cellular repair processes. UB-B and UV-A generate different types of DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms (reviewed in Reference 113). Irradiation with UV-B produces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers that are repaired by nucleotide excision repair. If left unrepaired, C T and CC TT base transitions occur. UV-A-induced DNA damage produces mostly oxi-dative lesions via photosensitization mechanisms and is repaired by base excision repair. UV-B and UV-A also produce different effects on the immune system and elicit different tran-scriptional and inflammatory responses. While the specific mechanisms by which UV radiation induces basal cell or squamous cell carcinomas or melanoma are not clear, a number of signal transduction pathways are affected that can either lead to apoptosis or to increased cell proliferation...

Answers To Case 13 Skin Lesions

Summary A 45-year-old healthy woman with no significant past medical history presents for evaluation of a skin lesion. She does not have a family history of skin cancer. The lesion is symmetric, with well-defined borders, relatively small (< 6 mm), and uniform coloration. She is not able to assess whether the lesion has changed recently (i.e., become larger), and does not give a history of itching or bleeding at the site of the lesion.

Chemokines And Nk Cell Effector Functions

Supported by the fact that NK-mediated lysis of K562 cells and degranulation in the presence of MIP-1a was enhanced in the presence of fibronectin and VCAM-1, suggesting that enhancement of cell adhesion and adhesion molecule presentation by chemokines may facilitate or potentiate NK cell cytotoxic activity (64). In addition, I have recently found, using an adherent NK-sensitive melanoma line, that C-C chemokines and IP-10 facilitate NK cell adhesion to tumor cell monolayers within 15 min, suggesting that the chemokines are promoting NK target cell conjugation (Taub, D., unpublished data). Another possible mechanism for chemokine-induced modulation of tumor cell lysis is provided by data demonstrating that chemokines induce NK cell degranulation (45,64). Granule exocytosis is an important mechanism in NK cellmediated killing (9-12). Serine esterases, granzymes, and perforins have been shown to be present in NK cell granules and to play an essential role in tumor cell killing in vitro....

Cell Assays on RGD Peptide Amphiphiles

Rgd Peptide

We demonstrated that the supported monolayers of looped RGD support adhesion and spreading of M14 5 human melanoma cells and RHE-1A rat heart endothelial cells in a dose-dependent and specific manner (48). An equimolar mixture of looped RGD and looped RGE yielded the highest degree of cell spreading (Fig. 9a). Control surfaces of 100 looped RGE surfaces resulted in minimal cell adhesion and spreading (Fig. 9b). Inhibition assays using integrin-blocking antibodies identified a3b as the primary receptor-mediating melanoma cell adhesion to the looped RGD construct. Cells did not spread on monolayers containing the amino-coupled RGD amphiphiles, whereas cells spread in a nonspecific manner on monolayers of the carboxy-coupled RGD amphiphiles. In both linear Figure 9a Spreading of M14 5 human melanoma cells (spreading increases as the shape factor gets smaller) on mixtures of looped RGD and RGE peptide amphiphiles. Figure 9a Spreading of M14 5 human melanoma cells (spreading increases as...

Nk Cell Trafficking And Cancer Any Relevance

Since the early 1980s, the adoptive transfer of LAK cells or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been performed in a series of cancer patients, resulting in a low but significant proportion of clinical responses, especially in those with renal cell carcinoma and melanoma (35). Critical to the activity of these systemically transferred effector cells is their localization to tumor sites. However, for the most part, the proportion of LAK and TIL cells capable of penetrating tumor tissues is quite small, consistent with several early lymphocyte trafficking studies demonstrating that highly activated T- and mononuclear cells migrate poorly into peripheral tissues and tend to localize in various organs and lymphatic tissues (35).

Innate Immune Cells

NKT cells produce both T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, depending on their mode of activation, underscoring key regulatory roles for the cytokine milieu and glycolipid antigen repertoire present in the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, NKT cells can undermine tumor rejection in some tumor models through a mechanism that involves transforming growth factor P (TGF-P) production by Gr-1+ myeloid suppressor cells (Terabe et al., 2003). Studies have indicated that the CD4- NKT cells effectuate tumor rejection in the MCA-induced fibrosarcoma and B16F10 melanoma models, whereas CD4 + NKT cells contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases (e.g., asthma) by the secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 (Akbari et al, 2006 Crowe et al, 2005). A deeper understanding of the factors determining the induction of NKT cell subsets during tumor development is an important goal of further investigation.

Historical Perspectives

Image Stop Smoking

Later in the eighteenth century, the first direct observation associating chemicals was made by John Hill, who in 1761 noted that nasal cancer occurred in people who used snuff excessively. In 1775, Percival Pott reported a high incidence of scrotal skin cancer among men who had spent their childhood as chimney sweeps. One hundred years later, von Volkman, in Germany, and Bell, in Scotland, observed skin cancer in workers whose skin was in continuous contact with tar and paraffin oils, which we now know contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In 1895, Rehn

Adaptive Antitumor Responses

IgG subclasses to bind the array of activating and inhibitory Fcy receptors expressed on DCs, which influences the balance of effector versus tolerizing function (Nimmerjahn and Ravetch, 2005). In this regard, IgG2a and IgG2b display higher affinity than IgG1 and IgG3 for the activating Fcy IV receptor and are more potent for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Together, these properties resulted in superior suppression of B16 melanoma growth in vivo. These findings should advance the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and provide a framework for clarifying the roles of endogenously produced antitumor antibodies. The principal mechanism involved in the priming of antitumor T cells appears to be cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigens by professional antigen presenting cells, particularly DCs. This pathway allows processing of exogenously acquired tumor antigens into the MHC class I pathway, whereas proteins captured through endo-cytosis or autophagy are...

Lmmunotherapy Using Dendritic Cells

Antigenic peptides are presented to T-cells by APC in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Numerous peptide epitopes have been identified and studiedI for both CD8+ and CD4+ tumor-specific T-cells (reviewedin ref. 80). Table 6.3 provides examples of HLA class I-binding peptide epitopes recognized by CD8+ CTL. Many tumor-associated antigens have been identified and inay serve as targets for immunotherapy. Melanoma-specific cells can be propagated in vitro, therefore facilitating the identification of im-munogenic melanoma antigens. However, there has been less success in the identification of tumor-associated antigens derived from other cancers because of the difficulty in generating tumor-specific CTL lines foi in uitro studies. The use of peptides in immunotherapy is an attractive approach becsuse Immunodominant peptides derived from tumor-associated antigens such as gplOO (melanoma) ,Her-2 neu (overexpressed on adenocarcinomas such as breast cancer), MAGE A...

Proteinases Involved in Ectodomain Shedding

Shedding ofthea2Pi integrin is also observed in migrating melanoma cells (235). Galectin-3 is a substrate for MMP2 and MMP9 (236). Murine recombinant FGFR1 and FGFR2 is cleaved by MMP2 and not by MMP9, releasing the ectodomain (184). MDC9, belonging to the ADAM family of metalloproteinases and MMP3 are involved in ectodomain cleavage of proHB-EGF (237, 238). AD AMI 7, also called TACE ( converting enzyme), and ADAM 10 cleave TNFa(164, 165). L1, NgCAM and NrCAM, brain cell adhesion molecules, have a serine proteinase recognition sequence which is cleaved by tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) (239). Indeed, the addition of tPA to brain membranes increases the amount of soluble CAM molecules. Chymase, a chymotrypsin-like protease expressed by human mast cells, cleaves c-kit ligand yielding a soluble, bioactive form (240).

Infiltrates And Their Function

Infiltrates varied with tumor type and were most common in renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and colorectal carcinomas, although CD167CD11c+ cells of similar appearance were also very common in breast and lung carcinomas. Expression of CD16 may be related to the activation or maturation status of the monocytes and may explain why other investigators see lower proportions of CD16+ cells in tumor infiltrates (although technical differences may also account for the discrepancy) (17). This suggests that some straightforward immunohistochemical analyses may also underestimate the true proportion of macrophages in tumors. These contradictory results could be a reflection of the dual role played by infiltrating cells, in particular macrophages. On the one hand, their cytocidal capacity immediately suggests a mechanism for direct antitumor activity, and a variety of experimental models have generated evidence consistent with this idea. For example, Fidler (26)...

Why the lack of Progress in Older Adolescents and Young adults with cancer

The initiative includes several strategies. In all of the pediatric group protocols for malignancies that sub-stantively overlap young adult patients, such as leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma and the sarcomas, the upper age limit has been raised to 30, 40, or 50 years, depending on the disease. The pediatric group has also opened adult cooperative group trials in melanoma. Reciprocally, an adult cooperative group has opened the pedi-atric cooperative group trial in Ewing sarcoma. Plans are underway for the pediatric and adult groups to develop and open trials together in other sarcomas.

Antitumor Effects Of Mcp1 In Vivo

These results suggest that MCP-1-mediated macrophage infiltration into tumors occurs in immunocompetent animals as well as in athymic mice. This was demonstrated directly by engineering MCP-1 expression in a B16 murine melanoma-derived cell line that does not ordinarily express MCP-1 (65). A clone expressing MCP-1 formed a tumor with double the proportion of macrophages and a slower growth rate compared to nonexpressing tumors. Again, this difference occurred despite identical growth rates in vitro for expressing and nonexpressing clones. Interestingly, however, despite forming slower-growing tumors, the MCP-1-expressing cells actually had a higher tumor-forming efficiency at low inocula (i.e., 102 cells site). This phenomenon is considered to be supportive evidence for the tumor-promoting role of macrophages. As in the work of Prehn (52), at low inocula, the growth factors provided by infiltrating macrophages can promote the clonogenic growth of individual tumor cells. However, with...

Mechanisms Of Mcp1 Antitumor Effects

In an early study, the addition of MCP-1 to purified human monocytes in tissue culture enhanced their ability to inhibit DNA synthesis in six malignant human cell lines (37). These included colon and breast carcinoma lines as well as melanoma, rhab-domyosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma lines. The effect was clearly cytostatic and occurred with an ED50 of approx 0.3 nM, consistent with MCP-1's Kd for its receptor on monocytes. By contrast, the ability of MCP-1 to enhance the tumoricidal effects of monocytes in vitro has been documented (71). Elicited peritoneal macrophages from C3H mice were incubated with radiolabeled syngeneic murine melanoma cells (K-1735) at an effector target ratio of 10 1. In the presence of 1 g mL of LPS, macrophages were able to lyse melanoma cells engineered to express human MCP-1, but not parental or control cells. (LPS plus interferon-y induced lysis regardless of MCP-1 expression status.) The addition of LPS and human MCP-1 to cultures of macrophages induced...

Calmodulin in Neoplasia

The CaM antagonist J8 inhibits the invasive behaviour of the cutaneous melanoma cell line A-375SM and uveal melanoma cells (Dewhurst et al. 1997). Tamoxifen, its metabolites , -desmethyltamoxifen, and 17p-oestradiol also inhibit invasion in the absence of oestrogen receptors, which suggests that the inhibition produced by these anti-oestrogens was mediated by mechanisms other than receptor binding, e.g., CaM inhibition. A deregulation of intracellular calcium resulting in cell death is produced by tamoxifen at high concentrations where its effects are believed to be not mediated by oestrogen receptors (Jain and Trump, 1997).

Autoimmune Conditions In Malignant Diseases

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is the most common autoimmune syndrome associated with cancer and is characterized by an increased destruction of red blood cells by autoantibodies. In one series, a malignant disease was found in 14 of 175 patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 2 . Usually, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is associated with lymphomas and leukemias 4 , However, autoimmune hemolytic anemia has been described in solid tumors including cancer of the lung, breast, colon, cervix 5 , hypernephroma and melanoma. In most patients with paraneoplastic autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the tumor had already metastasized. Moreover, steroid treatment has been found to be much less effective in paraneoplastic autoimmune hemolytic anemias than in idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemias 9 . In most cases of malignancy related autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the autoantibodies are of the warm auto-natibody type, however, there are reports of cancer patients with cold agglutinins 10-12 . The...

Toward a Biological Definition of Aging

Immune senescence involves an accumulation of so-called memory cells and a decline of T-cell mediated immunity and possibly of antigen presenting cells activity (20). The effects of immune senescence on tumor growth appear variable. In the experimental system, immune senescence appears to be associated with accelerated growth of highly immunogenic tumors, such as radiation-induced sarcoma, but with decreased growth of poorly immunogenic tumors, such as Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) or B16 melanoma (21).

The Immunoglobulin Superfamily

The immunoglobulin superfamily receptors of most interest in tumour cell metastasis are those that are likely to be involved in tumour cell-endothelial cell interactions such as the ICAMs and VCAM-1. ICAM-1 is expressed at a low level on most tumour cells and it is interesting to note that melanoma tumour progression and an increased risk of metastasis has been correlated with ICAM-1 expression (69). It should be noted, however, that a definitive link between such factors is not clear as other studies have shown that ICAM-1 expression does not significantly contribute to tumour progression (70). VCAM-1 may also be involved in tumour spread. Tumour cells bind endothelial VCAM-1 via a4Pi integrins and thus increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells may promote tumour cell binding (71, 72). Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression modulates the adhesive phenotype of glioma cells. Cells lacking NCAM expression display marked invasive capabilities in vivo, migrating along...

Hyaluronan Oligosaccharides A Examples of Biological Activity

These studies on angiogenesis continued and soon it was shown that fragments of 3-10 disaccharides of HA (approximately 1.2-4 kDa) stimulated endothelial cell proliferation (47) and that this occurred by induction of protein tyrosine kinase activity (48). The same size fragments (1.2-3.6 kDa) activate messenger RNAs for collagen synthesis in an X-irradiation model of lung fibrosis (20). Fragments of tetra- and hexasaccharide size (approximately 0.8-1.2 kDa), but not intermediate size nor high molecular weight HA, induced immuno-phenotypic maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (49). HA oligomers consisting mainly of 5-6 disaccharide units, around 2 kDa, inhibited B16F10 melanoma growth (50). HA fragments less than 500 kDa stimulated inflammatory genes which direct the production of cytokines (51-53) whereas polymers of 3 X 103 - 6 X 103 kDa did not. Fragments of HA are produced by the action of hyaluronidases and by free radical reactions and these...

The Autoimmune Response In Lung Cancer Is Similar To That In The Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

There are also indications for the development of linked antibody response in cancer. In melanoma, multiple components of the melanosome, a cellular organelle found in melanocytes, have been reported to be recognized by autoantibodies 59 . Also, we have recently identified autoantibodies to the 32- and 14-kDa subunits of replication protein A (RPA) in the sera of patients with lung, breast and prostate cancer 42 , These subunits of RPA are known to be a part of a multicomponent enzyme complex 41, 6062 involved in the metabolism of DNA 60, 63-68 , Thus, our data suggest that autoantibodies developing in cancer patients, similar to those of the systemic autoimmune diseases, may be recognized multiple epitopes of immunogenic subcellular particles. This possibility deserves further investigation.

Aging and Carcinogenesis

Tumor growth may be altered by two nonmutually exclusive mechanisms. Thinking of cancer as a tree, the growth of the tree may be influenced by the nature of the seed, or the tumor cell, and of the soil, or the tumor host. In rodents, the influence of the tumor host has been clearly established when the same tumor load of B16 melanoma and LLC was injected in older and younger animals, the younger animals died earlier and with increased number of lung metastases (21).

Autoantibodies To

Cancer testis antigens (CTA) are expressed in a variable proportion of a wide range of human tumors, but are silent in most normal tissues except the testis. Seven CTAs or CTA families have been described up to now (Table 5). They were initially identified as targets for cytotoxic T cells (MAGE, GAGE, BAGE) and, later on, uncovered by SEREX analysis (reviewed in 11,12 ). CTAs identified by SEREX elicited an AAb response in tumor patients. Therefore, this methodology leads not only to the detection of new tumor antigens but also to the identification of specific humoral responses which may be used for diagnostic purposes. Stockert et al. were the first who tested a great number of tumor sera for humoral immune response to SEREX-identified tumor antigens, including several CTAs, by ELISA with recombinant proteins 60 , They showed that 9.4 of melanoma patients, 12.5 of ovarian cancer patients, 4.2 of patients with lung cancer and 7.7 of patients with breast cancer have AAb against...

Dissociation of cellcell adhesion

Enhancement of cell motility by HGF. Left Scattering of human carcinoma cells induced by HGF. A431, epidermoid carcinoma A549, non-small cell lung carcinoma, HuCC-Tl, cholangiocellular carcinoma SBC-3, small cell lung carcinoma. . Right Enhancement of human tumour cell migration by HGF. Tumour cells were cultured on Transwell membrane and appearances of cells migrated through the membrane were shown. SAS, human tongue squamous cell carcinoma T98G, human glioblastoma Bows, human melanoma. Figure 2. Enhancement of cell motility by HGF. Left Scattering of human carcinoma cells induced by HGF. A431, epidermoid carcinoma A549, non-small cell lung carcinoma, HuCC-Tl, cholangiocellular carcinoma SBC-3, small cell lung carcinoma. . Right Enhancement of human tumour cell migration by HGF. Tumour cells were cultured on Transwell membrane and appearances of cells migrated through the membrane were shown. SAS, human tongue squamous cell carcinoma T98G, human glioblastoma Bows, human...

Regulation of p53 Stability by ARF and MDM2

Functions, because it associates with many of the same proteins to which cyclin G1 binds, including p53, PP2A, MDM2, and ARF (137). This p53-stabilizing effect of PP2A cyclin G complexes may also influence the malignancy of cancer cells, considering that enhanced expression of a truncated form of PP2A was observed in highly metastatic melanoma cells (140). Cells overexpressed with this truncated form of PP2A show irradiation-induced checkpoint defects and appear to elevate genetic instability, which may promote tumor progression (141). These data suggest that cyclin G1 is a positive feedback regulator of p53, since it downregulates the activity of MDM2, which would otherwise restrain the accumulation of p53 (142).

Industrial Chemicals and Occupational Cancers

Several epidemiologic studies have shown increased frequency of leukemia in workers exposed to benzene.81-83 Two studies of workers exposed to bis(chlorome-thyl) ether have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer, primarily small-cell carcinoma.81 There is also an increased risk of lung cancer among workers in chromium industries. Occupational exposure to 2-naphthylamine has long been known to be associated with urinary bladder cancer.81 Since the time of Percival Pott and his study of chimney sweeps (see Chapter 2), coal soot has been known as a cause of skin cancer. Since that time, occupational exposure to soot, coal tar, pitch, coal fumes, and some crude shale and cutting oils has been shown to be associated with cancers of the skin, lung, bladder, and gastrointestinal tract. The carcinogenicity of these latter agents is probably related to their content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Air and Water Pollutants

Air, water, and soil pollution is estimated to account for only 1 -4 of all cancers. A small percentage of lung cancer (less than 5 ) may be due to chronic inhalation of outdoor air pollutants such as industrial or engine exhaust chemicals. Indoor air pollutants such as secondhand smoke and radon are thought to be contributors, but this risk is most likely exaggerated (see below). In China and some other Asian countries, chronic inhalation of cooking oil smoke may be a causative agent of lung cancer.90 The contamination of the atmosphere by chlorofluorocar-bons (whose production is now banned in developed countries) in refrigerant and propellants has been implicated in destruction of the ozone layer and a resultant increase in skin cancer due to a lower filtering of UV irradiation from the sun. Occupational exposure to inhaled asbestos, such as occurred in Liberty Ship building in World War II, has been clearly linked to me-sothelioma. Regarding water pollution, high exposure to...

Manipulation of Hyaluronan Function as Potential Therapeutic Strategies

Even though HA oligos have demonstrated angiogenic effects in tumours, paradoxically, Zeng et al. (109) have shown that HA oligo administration in vivo, inhibited melanoma tumour growth and these observations are now being extended to ovarian cancer. The tumour inhibitory effects of HA oligos in this instance are thought to arise from competition for endogenous polymeric HA and replacing high affinity multivalent interactions with weaker low affinity low valency interactions (110). The growth inhibitory effects of HA oligos was further supported by Ghatak et al. (111). In this study HA oligos were shown to inhibit anchorage independent growth in TA3 St murine mammary carcinoma and HCT116 colon adenocarcinoma models. Furthermore, this inhibition was shown to correlate with inhibition of PI3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt, both of which exert strong anti-apoptotic signals. In addition, HA oligos also stimulated expression of PTEN, which caused downstream decrease in phosphorylation...

Marine Invertebrates of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

The most interesting compounds of Tunicates are the cyclic oligopeptides. Lissoclinum patella has furnished several cyclic peptides.232 233 Of these ulicyclamide, ulithiacyclamide, and patellamide A, B, and C exhibit antitumor activity against L1210 murine leukemia culture in vitro. A new class of depsipeptides, some of them exhibited high order of antiviral (against RNA and DNA viruses) and antitumor (against L1210 P388 leukemia and B16 melanoma) activities, are obtained from Trididemnum species of the family Didemnidae.234,235 The compounds designated as eudistomins contain substituted condensed oxathiazepine ring system. These compounds show high order of antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type (HSV-1) and have been isolated from the colonial caribbean tunicate Eudistoma olivaceum.236 Other eudistomins having substituted P-carboline system and displaying modest activity against HSV-1 and Bacillus subtilis have been isolated from the same species.237 Dolastatin 10, a...

Developed Countries Have the Highest Cancer Rates

Of the 14 cancers shown in the table on page 56, all but two occur with a higher incidence in developed countries (located in North America, Europe, and parts of Asia). The difference is often profound (see table on page 58). Prostate cancer, at the top of the list, is nearly six times more prevalent in developed companies than it is in undeveloped or less developed countries of the world (located in South America, Africa, and large parts of Asia). Skin cancer, specifically melanoma, is seven times more prevalent in developed countries, while the remaining cancers, shown in the table, are two to three times more prevalent in developed countries. There are two exceptions to this trend stomach cancer, which occurs with about the same incidence in developed and undeveloped countries, and liver cancer, which is more common in undeveloped countries. The equalized incidence of stomach cancer may point to the ingestion of environmental carcinogens that are present throughout the world (this...

Association Of Hsp 70 And Gp96 With Immunogenic Peptide Antigens In Cells

Recently, several studies provided direct evidence that immunogenicity of stress protein preparations is due to bound peptides. Arnold et al. 60 showed that only gp96 preparations from TAP competent cells can induce CTL responses against antigens, whose presentation is TAP-dependent. In conclusion, gp96 can associate with CTL-recognized peptide antigens translocated by TAP. Further studies showed that the depletion of peptides from tumor-derived HSP 70 preparations abrogated their immunogenicity 37, 45, 61 . Two studies obtained direct evidence for the association of naturally processed CTL recognized peptide epitopes with HSP 70 and gp96 in cells. Nieland et al. reported the isolation of a naturally processed VSV-peptide epitope from gp96 preparations of VSV infected cells and Breloer et al. showed the isolation of naturally processed ovalbumin epitopes from gp96 and HSP 70 derived from ovalbumin transfected cells 62,63 , We obtained experimental evidence that gp96 in human melanoma...

Induction Of Autoimmunity By

The immunization with epitopes of the first and second category might induce autoimmunity in susceptible individuals, if thymic tolerance has not been developed against these self-epitopes and if the strong adjuvant effect of the stress proteins breaks peripheral tolerance. However, it is more and more recognized that immunization with self-HSP antigens might also cause resistance against the development of autoimmune diseases 73 , Accordingly, the likelihood of an autoimmune disease induced by self-epitopes might even be decreased if these epitopes are complexed with self-HSP. It can be expected that the immunization with epitopes of the third category will induce tumor immunity. Experimental observations support that epitopes of the fourth category, cryptic mimicry epitopes for tumor antigens, are indeed associated with gp96. We observed cross-reactivity of CTL clones specific for melanoma peptide antigens Melan A and a mutated CDK4 epitope with gp96 purified from EBV transformed B...

Ribozyme Applications in Cell Culture

Pleiotrophin is a polypeptide growth factor which contributes to the development and maintenance of normal tissue. It is essential as an autocrine factor for tumour growth and metastasis since it supports angiogenesis in expanding tumours. In two studies, Czubayko and coworkers inhibited pleiotrophin expression using a hammerhead ribozyme (Czubayko et al., 1994 Czubayko et al., 1996). Ribozyme expression was driven by the CMV promoter. Stable transfection of two melanoma cell lines yielded clones with strongly reduced pleiotrophin mRNA and protein levels. In addition, one melanoma line showed in reduced soft agar colony formation (Czubayko et al., 1994). Ex vivo colony formation of the second line was not affected indicating that this line is not dependent on pleiotrophin as a growth factor (Czubayko et al., 1996). However, when ribozyme-expressing clones of the second line were injected into nude mice, tumour growth and angiogenesis were decreased and apoptosis was increased....

Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor

A role was suggested for LIF in the development of cancer cachexia, due to its ability to decrease lipoprotein lipase activity. LIF mRNA was shown to be present in two types of melanoma xenografts that induced weight loss in transplanted animals, whereas none was detected in non-cachexia-inducing xenografts 5, 67 . It seems unlikely that inhibition of lipoprotein lipase alone

Tumor Aggressiveness In The Aging Host

It is probable that certain factors that influence tumor growth change with age. With this in mind, various endocrine, nutritional, wound healing, and angiogenesis factors have been explored. For some tumors, age-associated changes in these factors have been correlated with reduced tumor growth 76-80. However, several early observations led to the seemingly paradoxical conclusion that immune senescence accounted for a large component of the observed reduced tumor growth with age. For example, B16 melanoma grows less well in congenitally immune deficient mice 81 and in young mice rendered T-cell deficient 119. Furthermore, when young, thymectomized, lethally irradiated mice received bone marrow or splenocytes from old donor mice, tumor growth was less than when the spleen or bone marrow was from young donor mice73,74.

Neoplastic Enlargement Gingival Tumors

Periodontal Disease Radiograph

Neoplasms account lor a comparatively small proportion of gingival enlargements and make up a small percentage ol the total number of oral neoplasms. In a survey of 2.S7 oral tumors,81 approximately 8 occurred on the gingiva. In another study1, of 868 growths of the gingiva and palate, ol which 57 were neoplastic and the remainder inflammatory, the following incidence of tumors was noted carcinoma, 11.0 fibroma, 9 * giant cell tumor. 8.4 papilloma. 7.3 leukoplakia, 4.9 mixed tumor (salivary gland type), 2.5 angioma, 1.5 osteofibroma. 1.3 sarcoma, 0.5 melanoma, 0.5 myxoma, 0.45 fibropapilloma, 0.4 adenoma, 0.4 and lipoma, 0.3 . Malignant Melanoma. Malignant melanoma is a rare oral tumor that lends to occur in the hard palate and maxillary gingiva of older persons.87 It is usually darkly pigmented and is often preceded by the occurrence of localized pigmentation.1 Il may be llat or nodular and is characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. It arises from melanoblasts in the...

Defects in G1S Checkpoint and Cancer

Mutations in the p53 gene are responsible for the large majority of sporadic human cancers, and thus p53 is a key target for cancer therapy (67,108,110,135). p53 gene mutations can also be inherited in a subset of families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), which is characterized by a predisposition to sarcomas, brain and breast tumors, and childhood adrenocortical carcinoma (258). The inactivation of the INK4a ARF (or CDKN2a) locus, which engages the pRB and p53 tumor suppressor pathways through its capacity to encode the two distinct gene products p16INK4a and p14ARF, is also a common genetic event in the development of human melanoma (259). Human cells harboring pRB and p53 mutations also cause telomere dysfunction that results in the chromosomal end-end joining and fusion-bridge-breakage cycles that trigger the aneuploidy observed in most cancer cells (67). Both p53- and ARF-deficient mice spontaneously develop tumors and die of cancers early in life, and the primary MEFs...

Tight Junction Its Possible Role In Cancer Invasion And Metastasis

While the function of endothelial and mesothelial cell tight junctions may be enhanced by therapeutic agents, cancer cells may release factor(s) that assist their transmigration in the endothelium. Conditioned medium from a highly invasive metastatic melanoma cell (B16) is able to damage the function of tight junctions (increase transendothelial resistance). This destruction is irreversible, i.e. can not be rescued by normal medium (50). The penetration of the endothelial cells by tumour cells may be coincided with the destruction of adherens junction (65), such as the alteration of phosphorylation and loss of VE-cadherin and catenins in endothelial cells.

Chemokine Expression In Ovarian Cancer 41 Introduction

Other tumor cells derived from a melanoma, osteosarcoma, glioblastoma, fibrosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma were also able to produce monocyte chemotactic activity (47). In 1989, MCP-1 was purified from the glioma cell line U-105MG (48), which constitutively expresses high levels, and cloned from both this cell line (49) and stimulated myelomonocytic cell lines (50). Shortly afterward, TDCF derived from experimental sarcomas was found to be the same as MCP-1 (51). One cytokine that appears to stimulate consistently MCP-1 production and that is present in ovarian cancers is TNF-a. mRNA and protein have both been detected in human ovarian tumors, and the amount of TNF-a produced correlated with tumor grade (40). TNF-a expression has been found in other tumors, such as malignant melanoma (53), some brain tumors (54), and carcinoma of the breast (55). In contrast to the

The Role Of Thymosin Family Actinbinding Proteins In Actin Dynamics

Suggesting that the high levels of Tp4 expression might be associated with high invasive ability. Contrary to this, transfection of adenovirus E1A and E1B genes has been carried out in a highly metastatic human melanoma cell line by Van Groningen et al. (1996) who reported that a number of markers for tumour progression were down-regulated as a consequence. Among them was Tp10. Admittedly, E1A gene products can inhibit oncogene-mediated cell transformation as well as invasion and metastasis in certain animal models. E1A protein is known to be able to induce and stabilise p53 phosphoprotein, which controls the GrS checkpoint transition of cells, and this is accompanied by apoptic loss of cells. On the other hand, E1B protein can bring p53 levels to normality (Sherbet and Lakshmi, 1997b). However, the raft of changes produced by the transfection of the adenovirus genes makes it a rather inappropriate model for the study of tumour progression. Although the transfected cells may have...

Antitumor Sulfonamides

The development of CAIs possessing potent tumor cell growth inhibitory properties was reported by this group (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000b, 2000c Scozzafava and Supuran 2000a Supuran et al. 2001). Such compounds were discovered in a large screening program in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of sulfonamide CAIs. Several hundred aromatic heterocyclic sulfonamides were assessed in vitro as potential inhibitors of growth of a multitude of tumor cell lines, such as leukemia, nonsmall cell lung cancer, ovarian, melanoma, colon, CNS, renal, prostate and breast cancers. The active compounds (most of them nanomolar inhibitors of CA II and CA IV), of types 4.212 to 4.223, belong to both the aromatic and the heterocyclic sulfonamide classes and showed GI50 values (molarity of inhibitor producing a 50 inhibition of tumor cell growth after a 48-h exposure to the drug) in the micromolar range (Supuran and Scozzafava 2000b, 2000c). Better antitumor compounds were then...

Dendritic Cell lmmunotherapy Approaches for Undefined Tumor Antigens

Phase I clinical trial was composed of a mixture of lysate-pulsed DC and DC pulsed with KLH. No severe toxicity was reported in 14 patients that received three DC vaccinations. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were detected at the vaccination sites. Two patients with melanoma experienced a partial and a minor response, respectively. In other tumor types, phase I trials of patients with advanced gynecological malignancies and a malignant endocrine carcinoma demonstrated that vaccination with DC-autologous tumor lysates was safe, well-tolerated, and immunologically active with no significant adverse effects (109, 110). Tumor lysates were also derived from ovarian cancer cells and used to evaluate the potential of lysate-pulsed DC to induce tumor-specific T-cell responses against autologous tumors (111). DC-lysate stimulated proliferation of autologous T-cells and CTL-mediated lysis of autologous tumor cells. These effects were abrogated using anti-MHC class I and anti-CD8 antibodies. Furthermore,...

Epidemiologic Evidence for Metal Involvement in Melanin Etiology and Pathogenesis

There is a considerable amount of occupational epidemiology that suggests that high exposure to metals or polyphenol chlorinated biphenyls (PCPs) is a risk factor for melanoma (Austin and Reynolds 1986 Loomis et al. 1997). Relative risks for printers, lithographers, electrical utility, and semiconductor workers are consistently elevated (1.5-4.0), and in many studies a dose and time exposure effect are evident (i.e., Loomis et al. 1997). Dietary studies also implicate excessive alcohol ingestion as a risk factor (RR above 2.0) (Millen et al. 2204), probably working through its metabolite acetaldehyde, which results in increased ROS. In contrast, broad dietary studies suggest that dietary antioxidants are protective against melanoma development (RR 0.7). No genetic studies of metallothioneins that regulate metal uptake or their polymorphisms and melanoma risk have yet been reported. However, one large study of this enzyme has shown that MT expression is an unfavorable prognostic sign...

Osteonectin In The Remodelling Of The Extracellular Matrix

A remodelling of the ECM partly mediated by MMPs and their inhibitor TIMPs has recently been shown to be related to the expression of S100A4 in B16 murine melanoma and human astrocytoma-derived cell lines. The enhancement of invasive behaviour and metastatic spread, which occurs upon up-regulation of S100A4 expression, has been putatively linked with these events associated with the ECM (Merzak et al. 1994b Lakshmi et al. 1997). It is not surprising therefore that, in light of the ECM changes produced by osteonectin, its role in embryonic development and differentiation, and other cell membrane-associated phenomena, such as cell adhesion, modulation of cellular morphology, cell proliferation, and wound healing, should have been investigated. It is also not surprising that such studies should be extended to neoplastic development, invasion, and dissemination.

Proteoglycans and Mucins

(3) epitopes expressed only on glycoproteins. To the first group belongs the lacto-series structure that is found in the most common human cancers, such as lung, breast, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. The common backbone structure for these epitopes is Ga1p1 3G1cNAcp1 3Ga1 (type 1 blood group) or Ga1p1 4 GlcNac p1 3 Gal (type 2 blood group). The second group of epitopes, expressed exclusively on gly-colipids, is mostly on the ganglio- or globo-series structures. This series of epitopes is expressed abundantly only on certain types of human cancers, such as melanoma, neuroblastoma, small cell lung carcinoma, and Burkitt's lymphoma. The third group of epitopes, seen only on glycoproteins, consists of the multiantennary branches of N-linked carbohydrates and the alterations of O-linked carbohydrate chains seen in some mucins. Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens can also be classified by the cell types expressing them, as those (1) expressed on only certain types of normal...

Chromatin Structure and DNA Methylation

Ined by the use of methylation-sensitive and -resistant restriction endonucleases, such as Mspl that recognizes the sequence 5'-CCGG-3' and 5'-CmCGG-3', and Hpall that recognizes the sequence 5'-CCGG-3' but not 5'-CmCGG-3'. Methylated DNA is condensed and inhibits gene expression, while it hypomethylated DNA is usually correlated with open chromatin structure and gene expression. Supporting this paradigm are evidences which find in normal tissue cells that the HLA-DRa gene is hypermethylated, and the only unmethylated region is located in the 5' portion of the gene, next to the promoter. In carcinomas and metastatic lymph nodes, which express HLA-DRa, the gene was found hypomethylated 100 . In a B lymphoblastoid cell line, which expressed HLA-DRa, the gene was hypomethylated compared to the gene in a T lymphoblastoid cell line that did not express it. Moreover, in a hybrid cell line, which expressed the HLA-DRa copy obtained solely from the parental T lymphoblastoid cell line, the...

Relationship Of Molecular And Cellular Defects To Clinical Features

The work described above has shown that all patients with XP have defects either in NER or in TLS. Although only a few mutagenesis studies have been carried out, all XP cells examined are hypermutable by UV light. In NER-defective XPs, mutation spectra studies have shown that the majority of the mutations are C to T transitions and occur at the sites of dipyrimidines. A particular signature of UV-induced mutations is the occurrence of CC to TT tandem mutations. A series of papers by Sarasin and coworkers has shown a high level of mutations in the p53 gene in all types of tumors excised from patients with XP (133,134). Tandem CC to TT transitions have been found in many of the mutated p53 genes, indicating that they arise as a direct consequence of sunlight-induced photoprod-ucts. Likewise, similar mutations in the tumor suppressor gene patched have been found in basal cell carcinomas from patients with XP (135). There is therefore overwhelming evidence that the defect in NER or TLS...

Key Outcomes from a Joint Position Statement

The position statement resulted in a number of key outcomes directly related to skin cancer control. Essentially it was agreed that A balance is required between avoiding increases in skin cancer and maintaining adequate vitamin D levels. Skin cancer campaigns need to note that there are benefits and harms associated with sun exposure and that a balance between the two needs to be achieved. This had not been a general perspective of skin cancer prevention messages to date.

Prevention And Treatment

The retinoid isotretinoin has been used in trials with patients with XP. During the course of one of these trials, the incidence of new skin cancers decreased substantially, but increased back to the initial rates when the treatment was withdrawn because of adverse side effects (140). The role of the retinoids is thought to be one of keeping tumors in check. Preliminary results on a therapeutic regimen using T4 endonuclease V applied as a liposome lotion are promising (141). T4 endonuclease V is a microbial enzyme that is able to circumvent the defects in NER when introduced into cultured XP cells (142,143). When applied to a cohort of patients with XP in a 1-year regimen, there was a significant decrease in the appearance of new basal cell carcinomas in the treated population as compared with controls, and a substantial reduction in the number of new actinic keratoses at the end of the treatment (141). No adverse side effects were reported. These results are encouraging. Since the T4...

The Relationship Between Sun Exposure and Other Diseases

There is in Australia unanimous agreement by the ACOD, OA, ANZBMS, and CCA that there is high-level evidence for the harmful effects of sun exposure in terms of skin cancer and for the beneficial effects of sun exposure in maintaining adequate vitamin D levels to protect against bone fracture (Trivedi et al. 2003). However, all parties agree that substantially more evidence is required before conclusions can be drawn between sun exposure and a possible beneficial effect with other cancers such as breast, prostate, bowel, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. The biological pathways underlying these empirically observed observations are still not clear and in some instances the epidemiological evidence is equivocal. It was agreed by all parties that it is not appropriate to make statements about a protective effect of UV radiation exposure for these diseases because substantially more studies with good individual exposure measures by season is...

How Much Sun Exposure Is Enough

The most difficult factor in coming to an agreed position statement has been to determine what would be a reasonable level of sun exposure necessary for healthy bone growth and development that will not add to a substantial risk of skin cancer. It was clear amongst OA, ANZBMS and the ACOD that we are still a long way from having sufficient evidence to suggest where this point should be exactly. This difficultly stems almost entirely from the limitation and paucity of existing research. This issue is also compounded because skin type, age and culturally related clothing practices vary the ability to absorb vitamin D through UV exposure. Recognising the limitations of existing evidence, a very pragmatic approach was adopted in Australia. Based on evidence relating to bone gracture and vitamin D, it was agreed that one-third of a minimal erythemal dose (MED) to 15 of the body, (e.g. the face, arms and hands) on most days of the week would be sufficient to maintain adequate vitamin D...

Oligosaccharide Processing Enzymes

Additional evidence for the importance of glycosylation patterns of cell surface glycopro-teins and glycolipids in the malignant phenotype comes from the use of glycosylation inhibitors and oligosaccharide-processing inhibitors. For example, tunicamycin, an inhibitor of addition of N-linked glycans to nascent polypeptide chains, castanospermine, an inhibitor of glucosidase, and KI-8110, an inhibitor of sialyltransferase activity, all reduce the number of lung metastases in murine experimental tumor models.49-51 In addition, swainsonine, an inhibitor of mannosi-dase II, was shown to reduce the rate ofgrowth of human melanoma xenografts in athymic nude

The Fimbrin Family Of Actinbinding Proteins

The involvement of fimbrin in podosomes is compatible with the association of fimbrin with the adhesive organelles called fimbriae that have been described in bacteria. Fimbriae are fibre-like structures that mediate the attachment of bacteria to host cells. These are assembled from fimbrin subunits (Smyth et al. 1996). Frederick et al. (1996) investigated the adhesive interactions between lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and came to the conclusion that fimbrin might be an important factor in intercellular adhesive contacts. They also showed that contact between LAK cells and target tumour cells, namely SK-Mel-1 human melanoma cells and Raji lymphoma cells, leads to the phosphorylation of L-fimbrin of the LAK cells. S.L. Jones et al. (1998) have also suggested that induction of fimbrin phos-phorylation is an important step in fimbrin function. However, as discussed below, the question of whether phosphorylation leads to fimbrin activation must be regarded as sub judice at...

Artificial Tanning Sunbeds and Vitamin D

The size of the artificial tanning sunbed industry and the number of people who use them represent a significant challenge to those working in skin cancer control. The sunbed industry is based on the glorification of a tan, the antithesis of the objectives of those working in skin cancer prevention. In the United States, the sunbed industry continues to grow with a 1 billion a year turnover and 30 million patrons visiting sunbeds annually (Spencer and Amonette 1995 Levine et al. 2005). This growth in patronage has also been seen in Europe where it has gone from less than 5 of the adult population in Belgium, France and Germany in 1980 to 33 by 1995 (Autier et al. 1994). This is a concern because sunbeds emit high levels of a known carcinogen that makes regular sun-bed use a risk factor for skin cancer (Gallagher et al. 2005 Young 2004). Despite any possible benefit that UVB-emitting sunbeds might have in terms of increasing vitamin D levels, there use must continue to be discouraged...

D CD44Hyaluronan Interactions in Tumor Invasion and Metastasis

There is long standing evidence that many solid tumors are enriched in hyaluronan (163). As far back as the beginning of the 20th century there was the description of a 'mucinous substance' associated with malignant breast carcinoma, analogous in nature to that found in umbilical cord (164). Higher levels of hyaluronan are associated with poor prognoses in many cancers including human ovarian, breast and prostate carcinomas (165-168). Coincident with this is the finding that CD44 is often upregulated in several of the same tumor tissues (36,169,170). Given the close association of extracellular matrix receptors participating in adhesion and migration, a predicted facilitatory role for CD44 during invasion and metastasis is well warranted. A necessary question is whether binding to hyaluronan is a necessary component of CD44's positive function in invasion and or metastasis. Bartolazzi et al. (171) demonstrated that stable transfectants of CD44H in human melanoma cell line MC acquired...

Expression of Hyaluronan and Hyaluronidase in Cancer Cells of Epithelial Origin

Recent experimental research has brought extensive evidence supporting the idea that 'Has' expression and hyaluronan synthesis in tumor cells promote malignant growth (61). Transfected Has3 gene enhances the malignancy of prostate cancer cells (64). Overrepresentation of the chromosomal region 8q23-24 is common in prostate cancer and forms an unfavorable prognostic factor. This region contains Has2, which is overexpressed in an aggressive prostate cancer cell line (65). Accordingly, prostate cancer cells with high Has2 expression have a higher affinity to bone endothelial cells, and form more metastases (66), while antisense inhibition of Has2 or Has3 reduces metastasis and subcutaneous growth of implanted prostate cancer cells (67). Mouse mammary carcinoma cells with a transfected overexpressed Hasl gene showed higher metastatic activity than their parental cells, while an inactivating mutation in HAS1 reduces metastasis (68). Metastasis is also increased by cell surface hyaluronan...

Clinical Trials With Modified Dendritic Cells

Of DC in order to determine the most appropriate time points for loading and administering the DC. In the past, preparing the cells in sufficient numbers and in a reasonably pure form was a major problem. Recently, methods have been developed to generate large quantities of pure DC 82 . Currently, human DC are derived either from CD34+ stem cells by in vitro culture in the presence of GM-CSF and TNF-a 83 or from CD 14+ monocytes by cultivating with GM-CSF and IL-4 84, 85 . Recently, we succeded in the generation of a monoclonal antibody (M-DC8) which allows direct immunomagnetic isolation of circulating DC from human blood. These DC were shown to efficiently induce CTL from melanoma patients as well as from normal donors against a melanoma-associated tyrosinase peptide (86). One established strategy to prepare DC for clinical use is based on leukapheresis followed by separating the PBMC on a automated cell separator and by culturing the plastic adherent cell fraction in serum-free...

Cell Adhesion and Invasive Potential of Cancer Cells

Many components of the ECM are associated with and known to participate actively in cell motility and cancer invasion (see Sherbet and Lakshmi, 1997b). More pertinent to the topic under discussion here is the observation by Savarese et al. (1992) that type IV collagen, which stimulates motile behaviour in melanoma cells, also increases intracellular calcium levels. The effect seems to be mediated by the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores rather than by an influx of extracellular calcium. Another ECM component, the transmembrane glycoprotein CD44, has been the subject of much debate with regard to its putative role in cancer invasion and metastasis (see Sherbet and Lakshmi, 1997b). CD44 is a membrane-associated adhesive glycoprotein that mediates intercellular adhesion by virtue of its function as a hyaluronate receptor. It has been attributed with enhancing the invasive ability of cells (Radotra et al. 1994 Merzak et al. 1994a). In this context may be cited recent studies of...

S100 Proteins in Cell Proliferation

Two questions can be posed in order to elucidate the relationship between growth regulation and the expression of S100 proteins. One question is whether the presence of S100 proteins correlates with the growth fraction and proliferative behaviour of tumours, or with tumour cells or normal cells in culture. Recently, S100B has been attributed with a role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The evidence takes the form of the demonstration of the ability of S100B to bind to and activate in vitro the nuclear serine threonine protein kinase called Ndr, in response to changes in the intracellular calcium levels. An N-terminal regulatory region of Ndr seems to be involved in the Ca2+-dependent binding of S100B, and this region contains sequences that are characteristic of CaM S100 binding (Millward et al. 1998). S100B also seems to be able to regulate the intracellular activity of Ndr. Millward et al. (1998) have proposed a biological role for this interaction between S100B and Ndr and the...

Ivig In Cancer Treatment

Autoimmunity and malignancy co-exist frequently, and share etiological and pathological mechanisms. Since the two diseases are similarly treated, we studied the efficacy of i.v. with melanoma or sarcoma cells induced a statistically significant inhibition or metastatic lung foci and prolongation of survival time. Similar results were seen with SCID mice inoculated with SK-28 human melanoma cells. In a different model, melanoma was induced in the foot pad, followed by leg amputation, after the development of the tumor lesion. A lower number of melanoma recurrences and prolongation of survival time were demonstrated in the i.v.Ig-treated groups. In vitro studies revealed that i.v.Ig was found to stimulate the production or IL-12, an anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic cytokine. Moreover, it enhanced NK cell activity, thus explaining its beneficial effect in SCID mice (which lack B and T but possess NK cells). The results indicate that i.v.Ig acts as an anti-tumor agent. Since it has only...

Postulated Mechanism of Cell Cycle Control by S100A4

The mechanisms by which S100A4 exerts control over the progression of the cell cycle are yet unclear. However, much circumstantial evidence has been adduced to support the concept that this protein might form complexes with certain cellular target proteins, such as the suppressor p53 phosphoprotein that has been regarded as the guardian of the genome. When cellular DNA is damaged p53 protein is expressed, and this appears to block the transition of the damaged cells from G1 into the S phase, until DNA repair takes place. In B16 melanoma cells, up-regulation of S100A4 (18A2 mts1) expression is associated with an enhanced level of p53, as detected by immunohistochemical methods. This has been attributed to the formation

Section 4 Significance Of Mirna Cgh Assay

If the location of miRNAs is relevant to tumorigenesis, then structural or functional alterations of miRNAs should be identified in various types of cancers. A growing number of reports are providing such evidence and suggest that abnormal expression of miRNAs is central to cancer pathogeny. The majority of miRNAs causally linked to human tumorigenesis are located in genomic regions altered in cancer, and the genomic abnormality is concordant with expression deregulation (genomic deletion for downregulation and amplification for upregulation, respectively). The combination of nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities and other types of genetic or epigenetic events could contribute to downregulation or overexpression of miRNAs. An extensive study of high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization by Zhang et al. (2006) on 227 human ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and melanoma specimens clearly proved that regions hosting miRNAs exhibit high-frequency genomic alterations in human...

Association With Cell Cycle

Mutation of p16 has been reported in several malignancies. Alteration in the p16 gene and its mutant protein have been found in several tumor cell lines and tumors, which include squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, NSCLC, familial melanoma kindreds, primary bladder carcinoma, acute adult T-cell leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (70). Other cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors involving in malignancies include p21 in NSCLC and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and p15 in leukemia, melanoma and metastatic lung cancer, and p57 in sarcomas and Wilms' tumors. Additional studies are needed in the future will verify their clinical utilities as tumor markers.

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation For Solid Tumors

May be inferred from early reports of a few cases that used allogeneic, fully ablative transplantation. A graft-versus-malignancy effect was first described after allo-grafting for breast cancer.92 Subsequently, Ueno et al.93 reported a small series of breast cancer patients treated with a high-dose alkylating agent regimen. In two of these cases, a disease response occurred during acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). More recently, Bay et al.94 described responses attributable to a graft-versus-malignancy effect in four patients with refractory ovarian cancer. An anecdotal report identified a complete response in a patient with non-SCLC who had acute GvHD following a myeloablative allogeneic transplant for acute leukemia.95 Thus, several tumors have been demonstrated to be susceptible to an immune-mediated graft-versus-malignancy effect after allogeneic SCT. The toxicities of fully ablative conditioning, however, precluded clinical trials to explore this more fully. The improved...

CD25CD4 Tr Cells and Tumor Immunity in Humans

T cells reactive with normal self-constituents or tumor-associated antigens are present in the peripheral blood of normal individuals. For example, peripheral blood CD4+ T cells show in vitro proliferative responses to self-antigens such as human heat shock protein-60 (hHSP60) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) when CD25+CD4+ TR cells are removed before culture (Taams et al. 2002 Wing et al. 2003). Direct visualization of self-reactive T cells in healthy individuals was achieved by using class II tetramers loaded with the diabetes-associated antigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65, the vitiligo and melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase, or the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 (Danke et al. 2004). Following removal of CD25+CD4+ TR cells and stimulation with antigens, tetramer positive T cells became easily detected in vitro. T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens, most of which are normal self-constituents, can also be detected in the peripheral blood, within...

S100a2 As A Putative Tumour Suppressor

The suppressor function of S100A2, however, is not so clear-cut either in normal melanocytes or in melanomas. Thus, in normal melanocytes S100A2 is expressed at very low levels or is virtually undetectable. Neither is its expression up-regulated in malignant melanoma (L.B. Andersen et al. 1996). S100A2 staining has been reported in the basal layer of the epidermis and in hair follicles, but none has been found in naevi. Also, only a small proportion (4 39) of primary cutaneous melanomas and none of 14 metastatic lesions stained for S100A2 (Boni et al. 1997). A further report has appeared on S100A2 expression in epidermal cell types and epithelial tumours of the skin. Again the basal cells, epithelial cells of the sebaceous glands, and epithelial cells of hair follicles stained positive for S100A2. Also immunoreac-tive were basal cell as well as squamous cell carcinomas (Shrestha et al. 1998). Overall, the evidence available to date does not lend itself to a firm interpretation that...