Adamsite Vapor Pressure

Hydrolysis

Slow

V. slow

Slow

(— )

Inhibited

Slow

None

Note: CS = o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; CR = dibenz-(b,f)-1:4 oxazepine; CN = chloroace-tophenone; OC = oleoresin capsicum; DM = adamsite; CA = bromobenzylcyanide; PS = chloropicrin. Vapor pressure at 20°C (68°F) (mmHg). Volatility, mg/m3/°C for other than 20°C. Solubility, I = limited in water, O = soluble in organics, C = soluble in chlorinated organics. Hydrolysis (rate of hydrolysis). (—) Denotes no value.

aOleoresin capsicum is a mixture—no values.

Note: CS = o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; CR = dibenz-(b,f)-1:4 oxazepine; CN = chloroace-tophenone; OC = oleoresin capsicum; DM = adamsite; CA = bromobenzylcyanide; PS = chloropicrin. Vapor pressure at 20°C (68°F) (mmHg). Volatility, mg/m3/°C for other than 20°C. Solubility, I = limited in water, O = soluble in organics, C = soluble in chlorinated organics. Hydrolysis (rate of hydrolysis). (—) Denotes no value.

aOleoresin capsicum is a mixture—no values.

is 2.0 X 10—4 mol/l (= ~4 mg/100 ml). Dissolved CS is rapidly hydrolyzed; however, CS may persist in the environment because its solubility in water is limited. The melting and boiling points are 93-96°C and 310-315°C, respectively. The vapor is several times heavier than air, and the vapor pressure of the solid is 0.00034 mm Hg at 20°C.

The military designation for dibenz (b,f) 1:4-oxazepine is CR. This compound is a pale yellow solid with a molar mass of 195.3 corresponding to a molecular formula of C13H9ON. The molar solubility in water at 20°C is 3.5 X 10—4 mol/l (= ~7 mg/100 ml). The melting and boiling points are 72°C and 335°C, respectively. The vapor is 6.7 times heavier than air, and the vapor pressure of the solid is 0.00059 mm Hg at 20°C. CR is a stable chemical and may persist for prolonged periods in the environment.

C. Chloroacetophenone (CN)

Chloroacetophenone is also referred to as «-chloroacetophenone, a-chloroacetophe-none, phenacyl chloride, 2-chloro-l-phenylethanone, and phenyl chloromethyl ketone. It has the military designation CN. Chloroacetophenone is a white solid with a molar mass of 154.5 corresponding to a molecular formula of C8H7OCl. The molar solubility at 20°C is 4.4 X 10—3 mol/l (= 68 mg/l00 ml). Melting and boiling points are 54°C and 247°C, respectively. Density of the solid is 1.318 g/cm3 at 0°C, and density of the liquid is 1.187 g/m3 at 58°C. The vapor is 5.3 times heavier than air. The vapor pressure of the solid is 2.6 X 10—3 torr at 0°C, 4.1 X 10—3 torr at 20°C, and 15.2 X 10—3 torr at 50°C.

D. Oleoresin Capsicum (OC)

Oleoresin capsicum is a reddish-brown, oily liquid obtained by extracting dried, ripe fruit of chili peppers, usually Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescenes. Oleoresin capsicum is a mixture of many compounds. Its composition is variable and depends on factors such as maturity of the fruit and the environment in which the plants are grown, as well as the conditions of the extraction. More than l00 compounds have been identified in oleoresin capsicum. Among the branched- and straight-chain alkyl vanillyamides isolated from oleoresin capsicum, capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-noneanamide) is the major constituent. Capsaicin is the major pungent component in many peppers, and it is particularly noted for its irritant properties. Depending on the variety of chili pepper, oleoresin capsicum contains from 0.01 to 1.0% capsaicinoids on a dry mass basis. Some of the capsaicinoids found in oleoresin capsicum are cap-saicin (~70%), dihydrocapsaicin (~20%), norhydrocapsaicin (~7%), homocapsaicin (~1%), and monodihydrocapsaicin (~1%). Other components of oleoresin capsicum may also possess irritant properties (e.g., phenolic compounds, acids, and esters).

Diphenylaminochloroarsine (phenarsazine chloride, adamsite) has the military designation, DM. Adamsite is a yellowish and odorless solid that is very stable in pure form. The melting point is 195°C, and the vapor pressure is negligible (2 X 10"13 mm Hg at 20°C). As a solid, the rate of hydrolysis is not significant, owing to the formation of an oxide coating; however, the rate of hydrolysis is rapid when as an aerosol. DM has a molecular weight of 277.5 with the formula C6H4(AsCl)(NH)C6H4.

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