References

1. Urban, R., Pyridostigmine, U.S. Patent 2, 1951. Pharmacol. Ther., 13(3), 393, 1972.

2. Koelle, G.B., Protection of cholinesterase against irreversible inactivation by DFP in vitro, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 88, 323, 1946.

3. Koster, R., Synergism and antagonisms between physostigmine and ci-isopropylfluo-rophosphate in cats, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 88, 39, 1946.

4. Bergman, F. and Shimona, A., Quaternary ammonium salts as inhibitors of acetylcholine release, Biochem. Biophys. Acta., 8, 520, 1952.

5. Jobst, J. and Hesse, O., Uber die bohne von calabar, Ann. Chem. Pharm., 129, 115, 1864.

6. Vee, M. and LeVen, M., De L'alcaloide de la feve de calabar et experiences physiologiques avec ce meme alcaloide, J. Pharm Chimie, 1, 70, 1865.

7. Aeschlimann, J.A. and Reinert, M., Pharmacological action of some analogs of physostigmine, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 43, 413, 1931.

8. Almog, S., Winkler, E., Amitai, Y., Dani, S., Shefi, M., Tirosh, M., and Shemer, J., Acute pyridostigmine overdose: A report of nine cases, Isr. J. Med. Sci., 27, 659, 1991.

9. Park, K.H., Kim, D.E., Arnold, T.W., Oh, S.J., and Bradley, R., Pyridostigmine toxicity electrophysiological study, Electromyogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 33, 323, 1993.

10. Kluwe, W.M., Page, J.G., Toft, J.D., Ridder, W.E., and Chung, H., Pharmacological and toxicological evaluation of orally administered pyridostigmine in dogs, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 14, 40, 1990.

11. Keeler, J.R., Hurst, C.G., and Dunn, M.A., Pyridostigmine used as a nerve agent pretreatment under wartime conditions, JAMA, 266, 693, 1991.

12. Institute of Medicine, Health consequences of service during the Persian Gulf War: Initial findings and recommendations for immediate action, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992.

13. Cook, J. and Kolka, M., Chronic pyridostigmine bromide administration: Side effects among soldiers working in a desert environment, Mil. Med., 157, 250, 1992.

14. Levine, B.S., Long, R., and Chung, H., Subchronic oral toxicity of pyridostigmine bromide in rats, Biomed. Environ. Sci., 4, 283, 1991.

15. Caldwell, R.W., Lowensohn, H.S., Chryssanthis, M.A., and Nash, C.B., Interactions of pyridostigmine with cardiopulmonary systems and their relationships to plasma cholinesterase activity, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 12, 432, 1989.

16. Sorensen, P.S., Flachs, H., Friis, M.L., Hvidberg, E.F., and Paulson, O.B., Steady state kinetics of pyridostigmine in myasthenia gravis, Neurology, 34, 1020, 1984.

17. Breyer-Pfaff, U., Maier U., Brinkmann, A.M., and Schumm, F., Pyridostigmine kinetics in healthy subjects and patients with myasthenia gravis, Clin. Pharmacol. Thera., 37, 495, 1985.

18. Aquilonius, S.M., Eckernas, S.A., Hartvig, P., Lindstrom, B., and Osterman, P.O., Clinical pharmacology of neostigmine and pyridostigmine in patients with myasthenia gravis, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat., 46, 929, 1983.

19. Cohan, S.L., Drettchen, K.L., and Neal, A., Malabsorption of pyridostigmine in patients with myasthenia gravis, Neurology, 27, 299, 1977.

20. Aquilonius, S.M. and Hartvig, P., Clinical pharmacokinetics of cholinesterase inhibitors, Clin. Pharmacokinetics, 11, 236, 1986.

21. Aquilonius, S.M., Eckernas, S.A., Hartvig, P., Lindstrom, B., and Osterman, P.O., Pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of pyridostigmine in man, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 18, 423, 1980.

22. Birtley, R.D., Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., Excretion and metabolism of 14C-pyridostigmine in the rat, Br. J. Pharmacol., 26(2), 393, 1966.

23. Cohan, S.L., Pohlman, J.L.W., Mikszcwski, J., and O'Doherty, D.S., The pharmacoki-netics of pyridostigmine, Neurology, 26, 536, 1976.

24. Miller, R.L. and Verma, P., Radio immuno assay of pyridostigmine in plasma and tissues, Pharmacol. Res., 21(4), 359, 1989.

25. Yamamoto, K., Sawada, Y., and Iga, T., Comparative pharmacokinetics of four cholinesterase inhibitors in rats, Biol. Pharmaceut. Bull., 18, 1292, 1995.

26. Eiermann, B., Sommer, N., Winne, D., Schumm, F., Maier, U., and Breyer-Pfaff, U., Renal clearance of pyridostigmine in myasthenic patients and volunteers under the influence of ranitidine and pirenzepine, Xenobiotica, 23, 1263, 1993.

27. Telang, F.W., Ding, Y.-S., Volkow, N.D., Molina, P.E., and Gatley, S.J., Letter to the Editor, Nucl. Med. Biol., 26, 249, 1999.

28. Sharma, H.S., Navarro, J.C., and Dey, P.K., Increased blood brain barrier permeability following acute short-term swimming exercise in conscious normotensive rats, Neurosci. Res., 10, 211, 1991.

29. Kornfeld, P., Samuels, A.J., Wolf, R.L., and Osserman, K.E., Metabolism of 14C-labelled pyridostigmine in myasthenia gravis. Evidence for multiple metabolites, Neurology, 26, 634, 1970.

30. Somani, S.M., Roberts, J.B., and Wilson, A., Pyridostigmine metabolism in man, Clin. Pharmacol. Therap., 393, 13, 1972.

31. Somani, S.M., Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine in rat after multiple dosing, Pharmacologist, 25, 97, 1983.

32. Howrath, R.D., Lamberton, A.H., and Woodcock, D., Investigations on the influence of chemical constitution upon toxicity. Part II. Compounds related to "prostigmine," J. Chem. Soc., Part 1, 182, 1947.

33. Golomb, B.A., Pyridostigmine Bromide, Vol. 2, Rand Corporation, 1999, 1.

34. Somani, S.M., Distribution of neostigmine and its metabolites in rat tissues after acute and chronic administration, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 30, 336, 1975.

35. Somani, S.M. and Anderson, J.H., In vitro glucuronization of 3-hydroxy-phenyl-trimethyl ammonium by rat liver microsomes, Drug Metabol. Dispos., 5, 15, 1977.

36. Fromberz, K. and Pellmont, B., Pharmakologische wirkung des mestinon, "Roche" Schweiz. Med. Wschr., 49, 1187, 1953.

37. Husain, M.A., Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., The excretion and metabolism of oral 14C-pyridostigmine in the rat, Br. J. Pharmacol., 34(2), 445, 1968.

38. Burdfield, P.A., Calvery, T.N., and Roberts, T.B., In vitro metabolism of neostigmine and pyridostigmine, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 25(4), 428, 1973.

39. Chan, K., Davison, S.C., Dehghan, A., and Hyman, N., The effect of neostigmine on pyridostigmine bioavailability in myasthenic patients after oral administration, Meth. Find. Exper. Clin. Pharmacol., 3, 291, 1981.

40. Calvey, T.N., Chan, K., and Dehghan, A., Kinetics of intravenous pyridostigmine in man, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 11, 406, 1981.

41. Meyer, H.G., Lukey, B.J., Gepp, R.T., Corpuz, R.P., and Lieske, C.N., A radioimmunoassay for pyridostigmine, J. Pharmacol. Exper. Therapeu., 247, 432, 1988.

42. Taylor, T., Hawkins, D.R., Forest, T.J., and Chung, H., Pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine in dogs. J. Pharmaceut. Sci., 80, 353, 1991.

43. Cronnelly, R., Stanski, D.R., Miller, R.D., and Sheiner, L.B., Pyridostigmine kinetics with and without renal function, Clin. Pharmacol. Therapeu., 28, 78, 1980.

44. Marino, M.T., Schuster, B.G., Brueckner, R.P., Lin, E., Kaminskis, A., and Lasseter, K.C., Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of pyridostigmine bromide for prophylaxis against nerve agents in humans, J. Clin. Pharmacol., 38, 227, 1998.

45. Somani, S.M. and Kamemori, G.H., Exercise and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of drugs and chemicals, in Pharmacology in Exercise and Sports, Somani, S.M., ed., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1996, 1.

46. Hobbiger, F., The action of carbamic esters and tetraethylpyrophosphate on normal and curarized frog rectus muscle, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother., 5, 37, 1950.

47. Blaschko, H., Bulbring, E., and Chou, T.C., Tubocurarine antagonism and inhibition of cholinesterase, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemother., 4, 29, 1949.

48. Desmedt, J.E. and LaGrutta, G., Sur le mode d'action de l'ester dimethyl carbamique de la 3-hydrosy-methyl pyridine (Mestinon), Rev. Neurol., 91, 457, 1954.

49. Tether, J.E., Mestinon in myasthenia gravis (Preliminary report), Dis. Nervous Syst., 15, 227, 1954.

50. Osserman, K.E., Teng, P., and Kaplan, L.I., Studies in myasthenia gravis, Preliminary report on therapy with mestinon, JAMA, 155, 961, 1954.

51. Schwab, R.S. and Timberlake, W.H., Pyridostigmine (mestinon) in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, NEJM, 251, 271, 1954.

52. Foldes, F.F. and Smith, J.C., The interaction of human cholinesterases with anticholinesterases used in the therapy of myasthenia gravis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 135, 287, 1964.

53. Dirnhuber, P. and Green, D.M., Effectiveness of pyridostigmine in reversing neuromuscular blockade produced by soman, J. Pharm. Pharmac., 30, 419, 1978.

54. Dirnhuber, P., French, M.C., Green, D.M., Leadbeater, L., and Stratton, J.A., The protection of primates against soman poisoning by pretreatment with pyridostigmine, Pharm. Pharmacol., 31, 295, 1979.

55. Lennox, W.J., Harris, L.W., Talbot, B.G., and Anderson, D.R., Relationship between reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition and efficacy against soman lethality, Life Sci., 37, 793, 1985.

56. Anderson, R.J., Chamberlain, W.L., Roesner, M., Dacko, C., and Robertson, D.G., Decreased tetanic contracture of rat skeletal muscle induced by pyridostigmine, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 18, 221, 1986.

57. Gebbers, J.-O., Lotscher, M., Kobel, W., Portmann, R., and Laissue, J.-A., Acute toxicity of pyridostigmine in rats: Histological findings. Arch. Toxicol., 58, 271, 1986.

58. Bowman, P.D., Schuschereba, S.T., Johnson, T.W., Woo, F.J., McKinney, L., Wheeler, C.R., Frost, D., and Korte, D.W., Myopathic changes in diaphragm of rats fed pyri-dostigmine bromide subchronically, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 13, 110, 1989.

59. Blick, D.W., Murphy, M.R., Brown, G.C., Yochmowitz, M.G., Fanton, J.W., and Hartgraves, S.L. Acute behavioral toxicity of pyridostigmine or soman in primates, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 126, 311, 1994.

60. Glikson, M., Achiron, A., Ram, Z., Ayalon, A., Karni, A., Sarova-Pinchas, I., Glovinski, J., and Revah, M., The influence of pyridostigmine administration on human neuromuscular functions—Studies in healthy human subjects. Fund. Appl. Toxicol., 16, 288, 1991.

61. Von Bredow, J.D., Adams, N.L., Groff, W.A., and Vick, J.A., Effectiveness of oral pyri-dostigmine pretreatment and cholinolytic-oxime therapy against soman intoxication in nonhuman primates, Fund. Appl. Toxicol., 17, 761, 1991.

62. Blick, D.W., Kerenyi, S.Z., Miller, S., Murphy, M.R., Brown, G.C., and Hartgraves, S.L., Behavioral toxicity of anticholinesterases in primates: Chronic pyridostigmine and soman interactions, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 38, 526, 1991.

63. Vijayaraghavan, R., Husain, K., Kumar, P., Pandey, K.S., and Das Gupta, S., Time dependent protection by carbamates against inhaled sarin aerosols in rats. Asia Pac. J. Pharmacol., 7, 257, 1992.

64. Koplovitz, I., Harris, L.W., Anderson, D.R., Lennox, W.J., and Stewart, J.R., Reduction by pyridostigmine pretreatment of the efficacy of atropine and 2-PAM treatment of sarin and VX poisoning in rodents, Fund. Appl. Toxicol., 18, 102, 1992.

65. Kluwe, W.M., Efficacy of pyridostigmine against soman intoxication in a private mode, in Proceedings of the 6th Medical Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 1987, 227.

66. Worek, F., Kleine, A., and Szinicz, L., Effect of pyridostigmine pretreatment on cardiorespiratory function in tabun poisoning, Human Exper. Toxicol., 14, 634, 1995.

67. Lintern, M.C., Smith, M.E., and Ferry, C.B., Effects of repeated treatment with pyridostigmine on acetylcholinesterase in mouse muscles, Human Exp. Toxicol., 16, 158, 1997.

68. Husain, K., Vijayaraghavan, R., and Marjit, D.N., Effect of pyridostigmine and physostigmine against acute toxicity of inhaled DFP in rats, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Toxicol., 41, 19, 1990.

69. Hubert, M. and Lison, D., Study of muscular effects of short-term pyridostigmine treatment in resting and exercising rats, Human Exp. Toxicol., 14, 49, 1995.

70. Somani, S.M., Husain, K., Asha, T., and Helfert, R., Interactive and delayed effects of pyridostigmine and physical stress on biochemical and histopathological changes in peripheral tissues of mice, J. Appl. Toxicol., 20, 327, 2000.

71. Augustinsson, K.B. and Nachmansohn, D., Distinction between acetylcholinesterase and other choline ester splitting enzymes, Science, 110, 98, 1949.

72. Wade, O.L. and Bishop, J.M., Cardiac Output and Regional Blood Flow, Blackwell, Oxford, 1962.

73. Rowell, L.B., Blackmon, J.R., and Bruce, R.A., Indocyanine green clearance and estimated hepatic blood flow during mild to maximal exercise in upright man, J. Clin. Invest., 43, 1677, 1964.

74. Ballard, B.E., Pharmacokinetics and temperature, J. Pharm. Sci., 63, 1345-1357, 1974.

75. Francesconi, R., Hubbard, R., and Mager, M., Effects of pyridostigmine on ability of rats to work in the heat. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 56, 891, 1984.

76. Avlonitou, E. and Elizondo, R., Effects of atropine and pyridostigmine in heat-stressed patas monkeys, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 59, 544, 1988.

77. Friedman, A., Kaufer, D., Shemer, J., Hendler, I., Soreq, H., and Tur-Kaspa, I., Pyridostigmine brain penetration under stress enhances neuronal excitability and induces early immediate transcriptional response, Nat. Medicine, 2, 1382, 1996.

78. Verma-Ahuja, S., Husain, K., Verhulst, S., Espinosa, J.A., and Somani, S.M., Delayed effects of pyridostigmine and exercise training on muscle tension in mouse lower extremity, FASEB J., 818, 5, 1999.

79. Kaiser, K.S., Hawksworth, A.W., and Gray, G.G., Pyridostigmine bromide intake during the Persian Gulf War is not associated with postwar handgrip strength, Mil. Med., 165, 165, 2000.

80. Lallement, G., Foquin, A., Baubichon, D., Burckhart, M.-F., Carpentier, P., and Canini, F., Heat stress, even extreme, does not induce penetration of pyridostigmine into the brain of guinea pigs, Neurotoxicology, 19, 759, 1998.

81. Epstein, Y., Seidman, D.S., Moran, D., Arnon, R., Arad, M., and Varssano, D., Heat-exercise performance of pyridostigmine-treated subjects wearing chemical protective clothing, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61, 310, 1990.

82. Kolka, M.A. and Stephenson, M.S., Human temperature regulation during exercise and after oral pyridostigmine administration, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61, 220, 1990.

83. Ram, Z., Molcho, M., Danon, Y.L., Almog, S., Baniel, A.K., and Shemer, J., The effect of pyridostigmine on respiratory function in healthy and asthmatic volunteers, Isr. J. Med. Sci, 27, 664, 1991.

84. Wenger, C.B. and Latzka, W.A., Effects of pyridostigmine bromide on physiological responses to heat, exercise and hypohydration, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 63, 37, 1992.

85. Wenger, B., Quigley, M.S., and Kolka, M.A., Seven-day pyridostigmine administration and thermoregulation during rest and exercise in dry heat, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 64, 905, 1993.

86. Forster, E.M., Forster, J.S., Barber, B.A., Parker, Jr., F.R., Whinnery, J.E., Burton, R.R., and Boll, P., Effect of pyridostigmine bromide on acceleration tolerance and performance, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 65, 110, 1994.

87. Prusaczyk, W.K. and Sawka, M.N., Effects of pyridostigmine bromide on human thermoregulation during cold water immersion, J. Appl. Physiol., 71, 432, 1991.

88. Roberts, D.E., Sawka, M.N., Young, A.J., and Freund, B.J., Pyridostigmine bromide does not alter thermoregulation during exercise in cold air, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 72, 788, 1994.

89. Sharabi, Y., Danon, Y.L., Berkenstadt, H., Almog, S., Mimouni-Bloch, A., Zisman, A., Dani, S., and Atsmon, Survey of symptoms following intake of pyridostigmine during the Persian Gulf War, Isr. J. Med. Sci., 27, 656, 1991.

90. Brooks, G.A. and Fahey, T.N., Exercise Physiology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984, 726.

91. Connolly, R.J., Flow patterns in the capillary bed of rat skeletal muscle at rest and after repetitive tetanic contraction, in Microcirculation, Grayson, J. and Zingg, W., Eds., Plenum Press, New York, 1976.

92. Sahlin, K., Intracellular pH and energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of man with special reference to exercise, Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl., 455, 1, 1978.

93. Hughson, R.L. and Green, H.J., Blood acid-base and lactate relationships studies by ramp work tests, Med. Sci. Sports Exer., 14, 297, 1982.

94. Day, R.E., Effects of exercise performance on drugs used in musculoskeletal disorders, Med. Sci. Sports Exer., 13, 272, 1981.

95. Schwartz, G., Estimating the dimension of a model, Ann. Stat., 6, 461, 1978.

96. Somani, S.M., ed., Pharmacology in Exercise and Sports, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 1996, 1.

97. Powers, S.K., Criswell, D., Lawler, J., Martin, D., Lieu, F., Ji, L.L., and Herb, R.A., Rigorous exercise training increases superoxide dismutase activity in ventricular myocardium, Am. J. Physiol., 34, 2094, 1993.

98. Husain, K. and Somani, S.M., Influence of exercise and ethanol on cholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in blood and brain regions of rat, Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiat., 21, 659, 1997.

99. Husain K. and Somani, S.M., Effect of exercise training and chronic ethanol ingestion on cholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in blood and brain regions of rat, Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiat., 22, 411, 1998.

100. Ott, P., Membrane acetylcholinesterases: Purification, molecular properties and interactions with amphyphilic environments, Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 822, 375, 1985.

101. Babu, S.R., Somani, S.M., and Dube, S.N., Effect of physostigmine and exercise on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in fast and slow muscles of rat, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 45, 713, 1993.

102. Peden-Adams, M.M., Dudley, A.C., EuDaly, J.G., Gilkeson, G.S., and Keil, D.F., Effects of exercise stress on pyridostigmine bromide on immune function parameters in mice, Toxicologist, 54, 162, 2000.

103. Abou-Donia, M.B., Wilmarth, K.R., Jensen, K.F., Oehme, F.W., and Kurt, T.L., Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin: Implications of Gulf War chemical exposures, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 48, 35, 1996.

104. Husain, K. and Somani, S.M., Influence of physical stress and pyridostigmine on cholinesterase activity in blood and brain regions of male and female mice, FASEB J., 818, 1999.

105. Stone, J.G., Matteo, R.S., Ornstein, E., Schwartz, A.E., Ostapkovich, N., Jamdar, S.C., and Diaz, J., Aging alters the pharmacokinetics of pyridostigmine, Anes. Analgesia, 81, 773, 1995.

106. Somani, S.M. and Khalique, A., Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of physostigmine in the rat after intravenous administration, Drug Metab. Dispos., 15, 627, 1987.

107. Somani, S.M. and Khalique, A., Distribution and pharmacokinetics of physostigmine in rat after intramuscular administration, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol., 6, 327, 1986.

108. Giacobini, E., Somani, S.M., Mcllhany, M., Downen, A., and Hallak, M., Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of physostigmine after i.v. administration in beagle dogs, Neuropharmacology, 26, 831, 1987.

109. Hartvig, L., Wiklund, and Lindstrom, B., Pharmacokinetics of physostigmine after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in surgical patients, Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand., 30, 177, 1986.

110. Lukey, B.J., Parrish, J.H., Marlow, D.D., Clark, C.R., and Sidell, F.R., Pharmacokinetics of physostigmine intramuscularly administered to guinea pigs, J. Pharm. Sci., 79, 796, 1990.

111. Unni, L.K. and Somani, S.M., Hepatic and muscle clearance of physostigmine in the rat, Drug Metab. Dispos., 14, 183, 1986.

112. Somani, S.M. and Boyer, A., Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokin., 10, 343, 1985.

113. Johansson, M. and Nordberg, A., Pharmacokinetic studies of cholinesterase inhibitors, Acta Neuro. Scand., S149, 22, 1993.

114. Asthana, S., Greig, N.H., Hegedus, L., Holloway, H.H., Raffaele, K.C., Schapiro, M.B., and Soncrant, T.T., Clinical pharmacokinetics of physostigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease, Clin. Pharmacol. Thera., 58, 299, 1995.

115. Somani, S.M., Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of physostigmine in the rat after oral administration, Biopharm. Drug Dispos., 10, 187, 1989.

116. King, B.F. and Somani, S.M., Distribution of physostigmine and metabolites in brain subcellular fractions of the rat, Life Sci., 41, 2007, 1987.

117. Unni, L.K. and Somani, S.M., Binding of physostigmine to rat and human plasma and crystalline serum albumins, Life Sci., 36, 1389, 1985.

118. Somani, S.M., Unni, L.K., and McFadden, D.L., Drug interaction for plasma protein binding: Physostigmine and other drugs, Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. Toxicol., 25, 412, 1987.

119. Whelpton, R. and Hurst, P. R., The binding of physostigmine to human serum albumin, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 42, 804, 1990.

120. Somani, S.M., Gupta, S.K., Khalique, A., and Unni, L.K., Physiological pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model of physostigmine in the rat, Drug Metab. Disp., 19, 655, 1991.

121. Hemsworth, B.A. and West, G.B., Anticholinesterase activity of some degradation products of physostigmine, J. Pharm. Sci., 59, 118, 1970.

122. Isaksson, K. and Kissinger, P.T., Metabolism of physostigmine in mouse liver microso-mal incubations studied by liquid chromatography with dual-electrode amperometric detection, J. Chromatog., 419, 165, 1987.

123. Somani, S.M., Kutty, R.K., and Krishna, G., Eseroline, a metabolite of physostigmine, induces neuronal cell death, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 106, 28, 1990.

124. Fleisher, J.H. and Harris, L.W., Dealkylation as a mechanism for aging of cholinesterase after poisoning with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate, Biochem. Pharmacol., 14, 641, 1965.

125. Berry, W.K. and Davies, D.R., The use of carbamates and atropine in the protection of animals against poisoning by 1,2,,2-trimethylpropylmethyl phosphonofluoridate, Biochem. Pharmacol., 19, 927, 1970.

126. Heyl, W.C., Harris, L.W., and Stitcher, D.L., Effects of carbamates on whole blood cholinesterase activity: Chemical protection against soman, Drug Chem. Toxicol., 3, 319, 1980.

127. McNamara, B.P., Koelle, G.B., and Gilman, A., The treatment of diisopropyl fluo-rophosphate (DFP) poisoning in rabbits, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 88, 27, 1946.

128. Schoene, K., Steinhanses, J., and Oldiges, M., Protective activity of pyridinium salts against soman poisoning in vivo and in vitro, Biochem. Pharmacol., 25, 1955, 1976.

129. Gordon, J.J., Leadbeater, L., and Maidment, M.P., The protection of animals against organophosphate poisoning by pretreatment with a carbamate, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 43, 207, 1976.

130. Ashani, Y., Leader, H., Raveh, L., Bruckstein, R., and Spiegelstein, M., In vitro and in vivo protection of acetylcholinesterase against organophosphate poisoning by pretreat-ment with a novel derivative of 1,3,1-diolaphosphoriname 2-oxide, J. Med. Chem., 26, 145, 1983.

131. Harris, L.W., Heyl, W.C., Stitcher, D.L., and Moore, R.D., The effect of atropine and/or physostigmine on cerebral acetylcholine in rats poisoned with soman, Life Sci., 22, 907, 1978.

132. Harris, L.W., Stitcher, D.W., and Heyl, W.C., The effects of pretreatments with carba-mates, atropine and mecamylamine on survival and on soman induced alterations in rat and brain acetylcholine, Life Sci., 26, 1885, 1980.

133. Harris, L.W., Lennox, W.J., and Talbot, B.G., Toxicity of anticholinesterase: Interactions of pyridostigmine and physostigmine with soman, Drug Chem. Toxicol., 7, 507, 1984.

134. Inns, R.H. and Leadbeater, L., The efficacy of bispyridinium derivatives in the treatment or organophosphate poisoning in the guinea pig, J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 35, 427, 1983.

135. Karlsson, N., Larsson, R., and Puu, G., Ferrocene-carbamate as prophylaxis against soman poisoning, Fund. Appl. Toxicol., 4, S184, 1984.

136. Leadbeater, L., Inns, R.H., and Pylands, J.M., Treatment of poisoning by soman, Fund. Appl. Toxicol., 5, 225, 1985.

137. Solana, R., Gennings, C., Anderson, D., Lennox, W., and Carter, W., Jr., Absence of effect by pyridostigmine against organophosphate induced lethality and physical incapacita-tion, FASEB J., 3, 3664A, 1989.

138. Lennox, W.J., Harris, L.W., Anderson, D., and Solana, R., Successful pretreatment/ therapy of soman, sarin and VX intoxication, FASEB J., 3, 3683A, 1989.

139. Anderson, D., Harris, L., and Lennox, W., Subacute carbamate plus acute adjunct pre-treatment against nerve agent intoxication, FASEB J., 3, 3867A, 1989.

140. Harris, L.W., Anderson, D.A., Lennox, W.J., and Solana, R.P., Effects of subacute administration of physostigmine on blood cholinesterase activity, motor performance and soman intoxication, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 97, 267, 1989.

141. McDonald, R.B., Hamilton, J.S., Stern, J.S., and Horwitz, B.A., Regional blood flow of exercise-trained younger and older cold-exposed rats, Am. J. Physiol., 256, 41069, 1989.

142. Shand, D.G., Kornhauser, D.M., and Wilkinson, G.R., Effects of route of administration and blood flow on hepatic elimination, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 195, 424, 1975.

143. Frank, S., Somani, S.M., and Kohnle, M., Effect of exercise on propranolol pharmacokinetics, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol., 39, 391, 1990.

144. Somani, S.M., Gupta, S.K., Frank, S., and Corder, N., Effect of exercise on disposition and pharmacokinetics of drugs, Drug Develop. Res., 20, 251, 1990.

145. Dill, D.B. and Costill, D.L., Calculation of percentage changes volumes of blood, plasma and red cells in dehydration, J. Appl. Physiol., 37, 247, 1974.

146. McMaster, S.B. and Foster, R.E., Behavioral and morphological studies of the interaction between exercise and physostigmine, U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Sixth Ann. Chem. Def. Biosci. Rev., August, 629, 1987.

147. Matthew, C.B., Hubbard, R.W., Francesconi, R.P., and Thomas, G.J., Carbamate-induced performance and thermoregulatory decrements restored with diazepam and atropine, Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 58, 1183, 1987.

148. Somani, S.M., Babu, S.R., Arneric, S.P., and Dube, S.N., Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor and exercise on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities in rat brain regions, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 39, 337, 1991.

149. Matthew, C.B., Bowers, W.D., Francesconi, R.P., and Hubbard, R.W., Chronic physostigmine administration in the exercising rat, Report U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Natick, MA, March, 1990.

150. Dube, S.N., Somani, S.M., and Babu, S.R., Concurrent acute exercise alters central and peripheral responses to physostigmine, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 41, 773, 1993.

151. Somani, S.M. and Dube, S.N., Endurance training changes central and peripheral responses to physostigmine, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 41, 773, 1992.

152. Somani, S.M., Giacobini, E., Boyer, A., Hallak, M., Khalique, A., Unni, L., Hannant, M., and Hurley, E., Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics of physostigmine in relation to acute intoxication by organofluorophosphates, Reports submitted to U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick, MD, 1988.

153. Somani, S.M., Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., Isolation and characterization of metabolites of neostigmine from rat urine, Eur. J. Pharmacol., 12, 114, 1970.

154. Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., Distribution and excretion of 14C-neostigmine in the rat and hen, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemotherap., 25, 234, 1965.

155. Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., Metabolism of C -neostigmine in the rat, Br. J. Pharmacol. Chemotherap., 25, 763, 1965.

156. Roberts, J.B., Thomas, B.H., and Wilson, A., Excretion and metabolism of oral

C-neostigmine in the rat, Biochem. Pharmacol., 15, 71, 1966.

157. Somani, S.M. and Anderson, J.H., Sequestration of neostigmine and metabolites by perfused rat liver, Drug Metabol. Dispos., 3, 275, 1975.

158. Somani, S.M., Chan, K., Dehghan, A., and Calvey, T.N., Kinetics and metabolism of intramuscular neostigmine in myasthenia gravis, Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 28, 64, 1980.

159. Calvey, T.N., Somani, S.M., and Wright, A., Differences between the biliary excretion of tri[ C]methyl-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)ammonium iodide in Wistar and Gunn rats, Biochem. J., 119, 659, 1970.

160. Chan, K. and Calvey, T.N., Renal clearance of pyridostigmine in patients with myasthenia gravis, E. Neurol., 16, 69, 1977.

161. Adler, M., Maxwell, D., Foster, R.E., Deshpande, S.S., and Albuquerque, E.X., In vivo and in vitro pathophysiology of mammalian skeletal muscle following acute and subacute exposure to pyridostigmine. Studies on muscle contractility and cellular mechanisms. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review, 1984, 173.

162. Capacio, B.R., Byers, C.E., Anderson, D.R., Matthews, R.L., and Brown, D.E., The effect of ondansetron on pyridostigmine-induced blood acetycholinesterase inhibition in the guinea pig, Drug Chem. Toxicol., 19, 1, 1996.

6 New Approaches to Medical Protection against Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents

0 0

Post a comment