Conodonts Neural Networks

Aldridge, R.J., Jeppsson, L. and Dorning, K.J. (1993) Early Silurian oceanic episodes and events. Geology, 150 501-513. Aldridge, R.J. and Mabillard, J.E. (1985) Microfossil distribution across the base of the Wenlock Series in the type area. Palaeontology, 28 89-100. Aldridge, R.J. and Purnell, M.A. (1996) The conodont controversies. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 11 463-468. Anderson, M.J. (2001) A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26 32-46....

Taxon

FIGURE 6.1 Block diagram of and automatic taxon identification system based on classical pattern-recognition system design. FIGURE 6.1 Block diagram of and automatic taxon identification system based on classical pattern-recognition system design. A sensor uses real-world signals as input and converts these into electrical energy. The range of sensors available for measurement of real-word signals is very wide and includes temperature, light, acoustic, vibration, chemical, humidity,...

Systematics Association Special Volumes

The New Systematics (1940) Edited by J.S. Huxley (reprinted 1971) 2. Chemotaxonomy and Serotaxonomy (1968)* Edited by J.C. Hawkes 3. Data Processing in Biology and Geology (1971)* Edited by J.L. Cutbill Scanning Electron Microscopy (1971)* The Changing Flora and Fauna of Britain (1974)* Biological Identification with Computers (1975)* Lichenology Progress and Problems (1976)* Edited by D.H. Brown, D.L. Hawksworth and R.H. Bailey Key Works to the Fauna and Flora of the British Isles and...

Artificial Neural Network Architecture

Despite the decision to continue working with cascade correlation ANNs, there was a recognized need to change the way our ANNs were structured in order to address two separate issues one a common criticism of automated identification systems in general and the other specific to back-propagation approaches Classification of unknowns. One problem many automated identification systems face is the proper classification of unknowns (i.e. images from species the system was not trained to recognize...

Reliability And Precision Of The Automatic Measurements

As a rule, differences between wings of individuals belonging to the same species are small. For example, venation of two honeybee subspecies - Apis mellifera carnica and A. m. ligustica - differs mainly by lengths of a cubital vein, which are 0.56 and 0.59 mm, respectively (Nazzi, 1992). This difference is small in comparison with precision of the venation measurements 0.023 mm for the ocular micrometer and 0.007 mm for the tablet (Daly et al., 1982). The measurements of the wing length and...

The Editor

Norman MacLeod (BSc, MSc, PhD, FGS, FLS) is the current Keeper of Palaeontology at The Natural History Museum, London, and is responsible for all operations of The Natural History Museum's Department of Palaeontology. These include the research, curation and conservation activities of 46 staff members along with those of an approximately equal number of students, scientific associates, honorary research fellows, contract employees, volunteers, etc. MacLeod was born in Augsburg, Germany to...

Use Of Daisy To Infer Class Membership Statistically

Given the potential barriers to successful species identification, some of which have been raised in the previous section, it is clear work remains to be done if DAISY and similar systems are to realize their full potential. For example, work is currently in progress to determine whether clustering statistics derived from jacknife testing of training material can be used to (better) identify the classes to which this training material belongs. This will be especially useful in those situations...

How Good Are People At Sorting

Experience plays an important part in sorting objects. Try a test yourself. Look at the central image in Figure 3.9 and measure the time it takes you to count the objects listed on the right-hand side. The more familiar you are with a type of scene, the quicker sorting can be. However, trying to be too fast can increase errors as the eye skips whole sections of the field of view. This is probably due to the properties of saccadic eye movement and the spotlight of attention mentioned earlier....