References

Shimamura, A.P., Neuropsychological perspectives on memory and cognitive decline in normal human aging., Sem. Neurosci., 6, 387, 1994. 2. Detoledo-Morrell, L., Geinisman, Y., and Morrell, F., Age-dependent alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity relation to memory disorders, Neurobiol. Aging, 9, 581, 1988. 3. Ingram, D.K., London, E.D., and Goodrick, C.L., Age and neurochemical correlates of radial maze performance in rats, Neurobiol. Aging, 2, 41, 1981. 4. Liu, P. et al., Hippocampal...

Neuropsychology Of Aged Rodents

Although a comprehensive review of studies examining spatial learning in aged animals is beyond the scope of this chapter, we will attempt to summarize recent reports in a number of areas relating to spatial cognition in aged subjects. 1. Age-Related Impairments in Spatial Learning As has already been noted, spatial learning in the water maze is commonly used to assess hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in aged rodents. This is probably because the water maze does not require food or...

Vascular Reactivity

Age-Related Changes in Vascular Reactivity Although decreases in vascular density and alterations in vessel ultrastructure have the ability to contribute to decreased blood flow and tissue dysfunction with age, alterations in vascular tone (basal vessel diameter) and vascular reactivity (dynamic changes in vessel diameter) are equally important because matching blood flow to tissue metabolic demand is critical for normal cellular function. Despite recent advances in the field, there are...

Neurodegenerative Pathology within the Hippocampus

Dna Profiles

The hippocampus is a prime target for expression profiling studies due to its central involvement in learning and memory and failure in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD and ischemia. Indeed, microarray analysis has been utilized in the hippocampus for a variety of downstream genetic analyses in animal models, including regional hippocampal studies of alcohol consumption 159 , aging 120 , amyloid overexpression 143, 160 , antidepressant administration 161 , axotomy 145 ,...

Stress And Glucocorticoid Effects On Learning And Memory

The ability of stress and GCs to affect learning and memory has been extensively documented, particularly in the hippocampus where GC receptors are highly expressed. It has been shown that the levels of GCs at the time of learning and testing, as well as the cumulative history of GC exposure prior to learning and testing, are each capable of influencing learning and memory. In rodents, transient alterations in GC levels produced by a single injection of exogenous corticosterone cause...

Remyelination and Aging

As we continued to examine the effects of aging on nerve fibers, it was noticed that in cross sections of the vertically oriented bundles of nerve fibers in both the primary visual and prefrontal cortices of older monkeys examined by electron microscopy, there is an increase in the frequency of occurrence of profiles of paranodes 65 . Paranodes occur at both ends of a length of myelin, adjacent to the nodes of Ranvier, and they are the sites where the lamellae of myelin gradually terminate. In...

Astrocytes

As their name might suggest, astrocytes are star-shaped neuroglial cells that have numerous processes radiating from their cell bodies. Under the electron microscope, these cells have pale nuclei with very little clumping of the chromatin. The cytoplasm is also pale, which distinguishes these cells from oligodendrocytes and microglial cells, both of which have dark cytoplasm. A unique component of the cytoplasm of astrocytes is the 9-nm-thick intermediate filaments, which occur throughout the...

Qp35625b728 2007

Visit the Taylor amp Francis Web site at http www.taylorandfrancis.com and the CRC Press Web site at http www.crcpress.com Series About the Changes in Cognitive Function in Human Successful vs. Unsuccessful Aging in the Rhesus Mark B. Moss, Tara L. Moore, Stephen P. Schettler, Ronald Killiany, and Douglas Rosene Neuropsychology of Cognitive Aging in Joshua S. Rodefer and Mark G. Baxter SECTION II Quantifying Aging-Related Changes in the Brain Design-Based Stereology in Brain Aging Christoph...

Oligodendrocytes

Oligodendrocytes are the neuroglial cells that form the myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. As far as is known, this is their only function. As their name suggests, these cells have few visible processes, so that in light microscopic preparations of young animals stained by one of the silver stains or by Perl's reaction for ferric iron which is relatively abundant in oligodendrocytes, along with ferritin and transferrin 78, 79 , a few wispy, undulating processes can be seen leaving...