Bibliography

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Medana, I. M., & Esiri, M. M. (2003). Axonal damage: a key predictor of outcome in human CNS diseases. Brain, 126, 515-530.

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- REVIEW QU

1. Neurofibrillary tangles are encountered in:

A. Normal aging

B. Down syndrome

C. Postencephalitic parkinsonism

D. None of these

E. All of these

2. Lewy bodies are diagnostic of:

A. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

B. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease

C. Peroxisomal diseases

D. Progressive supranuclear palsy

E. Arteriosclerotic parkinsonism

3. Axonal spheroids:

A. Result from swelling of Golgi type 2 axons

B. Occur in hippocampus

C. Characterize viral diseases

D. Result from shearing injuries of axons

E. Are fixation artifacts

4. A glial scar is produced by:

A. Oligodendrocytes

B. Alzheimer's type 2 astrocytes

C. Fibrillary astrocytes

D. Rosenthal fibers

E. Schwann cells

5. The major function of oligodendrocytes is:

A. Phagocytosis of tissue debris

B. Replacement of lost tissue

C. Protection against bacterial invasion

D. Formation of blood-brain barrier

E. Formation of myelin

STIONS -

6. The term Wallerian degeneration in the CNS refers to:

A. Degeneration of axons beginning in their distal ends

B. Degeneration of axons and their myelin sheaths proximal to transection

C. Degeneration of axons and their myelin sheaths distal to transection

D. Degeneration of neurons that have lost their synaptic connections

E. Degeneration of neurons that project to denervated neurons

7. All of the following statements concerning vasogenic edema are correct except:

A. It is associated with dilutional hyponatremia.

B. It results from the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

C. It is associated with expanding mass lesions.

D. It causes herniations.

E. It affects chiefly the white matter.

8. Increased intracranial pressure associated with a mass lesion can cause all of the following except:

A. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

B. Pituitary necrosis

C. Isolated abducens nerve palsy

D. Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo

E. Hippocampal herniation

9. If a 40-year-old woman, diagnosed with an acute right subdural hematoma, suddenly develops a right ptosis with a dilated pupil nonreac-tive to light, the most likely cause is:

A. Acute hydrocephalus

B. Occipital lobe infarct

C. Laceration of ipsilateral pedunculus

D. Laceration of contralateral pedunculus

E. Transtentorial hippocampal herniation

10. All of the following statements concerning normal pressure hydrocephalus are correct except:

A. It manifests with gait disorder.

B. It can develop after purulent meningitis.

C. It can complicate a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

D. MRI shows normal ventricles and enlarged subarachnoid space.

E. MRI shows large ventricles and normal or mildly enlarged subarachnoid space.

11. All of the following statements concerning cerebral changes in physiologic aging are correct except:

A. Lipofuscin accumulates in the perikaryon of the neurons.

B. A few cortical neurons display neurofibrillary tangles.

C. Pyramidal neurons in hippocampus display Hirano bodies.

D. Neurons of dentate gyrus display Pick bodies.

E. A few neuritic plaques occur in the Ammon's horn.

12. Artificial cerebral changes include all of the following except:

A. Dissolution of the granular cell layer in the cerebellar cortex

B. Dilated pericellular spaces

C. Spiky neurons

D. "Swiss-cheese" brain

E. Corpora amylacea

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)

CHAPTER 3

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