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1. Neurologic manifestations commonly encountered in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are:

A. Paresthesias in extremities

B. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

C. Difficulty with balance

D. Sudden loss of vision

E. Urinary retention


2. The histologic features of an acute MS plaque include all of the following except:

A. Perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations

B. Breakdown of myelin

C. Axonal swelling

D. Capillary proliferation

E. Lipid-laden macrophages

3. Early axonal damage in MS plaque is best revealed in paraffin section with:

A. Luxol fast blue

B. Antibodies to P-APP

C. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH)

D. Cresyl violet

E. None of these

4. The current view on the pathogenesis of MS is:

A. Reactivation of a dormant viral infection

B. An autoimmune reaction to myelin

C. Acute infection with papovavirus

D. All of these

E. None of these

5. The severity of neurologic deficits best correlates with:

A. Virulence of an infective virus

B. Degeneration of axons

C. Loss of astrocytes

D. Loss of oligodendrocytes

E. Loss of myelin

6. The term shadow plaque refers to:

A. Partially demyelinated plaque

B. Remyelinating plaque

C. Chronic inactive plaque

D. None of these

E. All of these

7. Potential risk factors for MS include:

A. Familial occurrence

B. Infection with varicella-zoster virus

C. Association with HLA-DR2

D. All of these

E. None of these

8. Encephalitis that develops following smallpox vaccination is characterized by all the following except:

A. It presents with perivenous demyelination.

B. It presents with perivenous inflammation.

C. It has a remitting-relapsing course.

D. It has a monophasic course.

E. It is more common in women.

9. Devic disease is characterized by demyelination predominantly in the:

A. Pons and spinal cord

B. Optic nerves and spinal cord

C. Optic nerves and pons

D. Pons and cerebellum

E. Optic nerves and cerebral hemispheres

10. The MRI features of MS plaques include:

A. They appear as hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images.

B. They appear as black holes on T1-weighted images.

C. Acute plaques enhance with contrast.

D. The lesions are not specific.

E. Periventricular distribution is common.

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)


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