Bibliography

Bernat, J. L. (1997). Systemic hypoperfusion brain injury In K. M. A. Welch, D. J. Caplan, et al. (Eds.) Primer on cerebrovascular diseases (pp. 289-292). San Diego: Academic Press.

Ginsberg, M. D., Hedley-Whyte, E. T., & Richardson, E. P., Jr. (1976). Hypoxic-ischemic leukoencephalopathy in man. Arch Neurol, 33, 5-14.

Hogan, R. E. (2001). Mesial temporal sclerosis Clinicopathological correlations. Arch Neurol, 58, 1484-1486.

Kinney H. C., Samuels, M. A. (1994). Neuropathology of the persistent vegetative state. A review. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 53, 548-558.

Leestma, J. E. (2001). Neuropathology of brain death. In E. F. M. Wijdicks (Ed.). Brain death (pp. 45-60). Philadelphia: Lippin-cott-Wilkins.

Multi-Society Task Force on PVS, The. Medical aspects of the persistent vegetative state. (1994). N Engl J Med, 330, 1499-1508.

Plum, F. & Posner, J. B. (1980). The diagnosis of stupor and coma, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.

- REVIEW QU

1. Ischemic neurons reveal:

A. Swollen cytoplasm

B. Pale staining with eosin

C. Bright eosinophilia in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections

D. Enlarged nucleus

E. Bluish discoloration of cytoplasm in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections

2. The characteristic pattern of cortical neuronal losses in cerebral hypoxia is:

A. Haphazard

B. Laminar

C. Perivascular

D. None of these

E. All of these

STIONS -

3. The neural tissue elements most vulnerable to hypoxia are:

A. Oligodendrocytes

B. Astrocytes

C. Neurons

D. Axons

E. Myelin

4. The cerebral regions most vulnerable to hypoxia are:

A. Hippocampus

B. Neocortex

C. Purkinje cells

D. All of these

E. None of these

5. In delayed death from carbon monoxide, the site of cerebral pathology is the:

A. Putamen

B. Pallidum

C. Ammon's horn

D. Thalamus

E. Red nucleus

6. All of the following statements concerning brain death are correct except:

A. It is caused by permanent cerebral global ischemia.

B. Lack of response to noxious stimuli is present.

C. Brainstem reflexes are present.

D. EEG is isoelectric.

E. Patient is apneic.

7. The zone of the hippocampus most vulnerable to hypoxia is:

A. CA1 (Sommer's sector) of Ammon's horn

B. CA2 zone

C. CA4 zone

D. Presubiculum

9. All of the following statements concerning cerebral hypoxia are correct except:

A. It develops during an acute cardiorespiratory arrest.

B. Histotoxic hypoxia can be caused by cyanide.

C. Ischemic hypoxia develops when the blood flow falls below 18 mL/100 g/min.

D. Hypothermia aggravates ischemic brain damage.

E. Hyperglycemia aggravates ischemic brain damage.

10. The brains of patients kept for some time on mechanical ventilation show all of the following except:

A. Poor fixation

B. Dusky discoloration

C. Myelin pallor

D. Pituitary necrosis

E. Leukocytic infiltration

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)

8. Cerebral changes encountered in the brains of patients who had suffered from chronic epilepsy are:

A. Purkinje cell degeneration

B. Ammon's horn sclerosis

C. Astrocytic gliosis in cerebral cortex

D. None of these

E. All of these

CHAPTER 4

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