Anders, K. H., Becker, P. S., et al. (1993). Multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy with pontine predilection in immunosup-pressed, patients: a clinicopathologic review of 16 cases. Human Pathol 24, 897-904.

Antony, D. C., Montine, T. J., Valentine, W. M., & Graham, D. G. (2001). Toxic responses of the nervous system. In C. D. Klassen (Ed.), Casarett and Doull's toxicology, the basic science of poisons, 6th edition (pp. 14-19; 535-563). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Eto, K. (2000). Minamato disease Neuropathology 20, 14-19.

Harper, C. (1998). The neuropathology of alcohol-specific brain damage, or does alcohol damage the brain? J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57, 101-110.

Victor, M., Adams, R. D., & Collins, G. H. (1971). The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: contemporary neurology series. Philadelphia, F. A. Davis.


1. Patients with Wernicke encephalopathy present with all of the following except:

A. Spastic paraparesis

B. Mental changes

C. Extraocular muscle palsy

D. Nystagmus

E. Cardiac arrhythmias

2. Which of the following statements concerning Wernicke encephalopathy are incorrect:

A. The lesions are situated in the hypothalamus.

B. The disease is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.

C. The lesions are common in the pontine basis.

D. The lesions display petechial hemorrhages.

E. The periaqueductal region often is involved.

3. The Korsakoff amnestic syndrome may coexist with Wernicke's encephalopathy. In this case, the lesions that account for the amnestic syndrome are situated in the:

A. Ammon's horns

B. Mammillary bodies and/or dorsomedial nuclei of the thalami

C. Frontal lobes

D. Left temporal lobe

E. Both temporal lobes


4. Concerning subacute degeneration of the spinal cord, all of the following are correct except:

A. It presents with spastic-ataxic paraparesis.

B. It is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.

C. The Romberg sign is negative.

D. Spongy degeneration occurs in the cerebral white matter.

E. The posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord show spongy degeneration.

5. Alzheimer's type 2 astrocytes are characteristic of:

A. Hypoglycemic encephalopathy

B. Central pontine myelinolysis

C. Hepatic encephalopathy

D. Alcoholic cerebellar degeneration

E. None of these

6. Cortical cerebellar degeneration occurs in:

A. Dilantin toxicity

B. Mercury toxicity

C. Chronic alcoholism

D. None of these

E. All of these

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)


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