Bibliography

Eberhart, C.G. & Burger, P.C. (2003). Anaplasia and grading in medulloblastomas. Brain Pathol 13, 376-385.

Kleihues, P. & Cavenee, W.K., eds. (2000). Pathology and genetics of tumours of the nervous system. Lyon, France: World Health Organization IARC Press.

Kleihues, P., Louis, D.N., Scheithauer, B.W., et al. (2002). The WHO classification of tumors of the nervous system. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 61, 215-225.

Lamszus, K. (2004). Meningioma pathology, genetics, and biology. J Neuropathol Exp Neuro 63, 275-286.

McLendon, R.E., Bigner, D.D., Bigner, S.H. & Provenzale, J.M. (2000). Pathology of tumors of the central nervous system A guide to histologic diagnosis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Perry, A. & Dehner, L.P. (2003). Meningeal tumors of childhood and infancy. An update and literature review. Brain Pathol 13, 386-408.

Pollack, I.F. & Mulvihill, J.J. (1997). Neurofibromatosis 1 and 2. Brain Pathol 7, 823-836.

Rickert, C.H. (1999). Neuropathology and prognosis of foetal brain tumors. Acta Neuropathol 98: 567-576.

Rickert, C.H. (2004). Prognosis-related molecular markers in pediatric central nervous system tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 63, 1211-1224.

- REVIEW QUESTIONS -

1. Potential risk factors for developing an intracranial tumor are:

A. Familial occurrences

B. Insecticides

C. Irradiation to the head

D. Immunosuppressed states

E. Infection with hepatitis B virus

2. Genes implicated in neurotumorigenesis are:

A. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor gene

B. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene

D. All of these

E. None of these

3. Characteristically, a diffuse astrocytomas, grade 2:

A. Affects chiefly children

B. Commonly occurs in the cerebral hemispheres

C. Often presents clinically with seizures

D. May progress into an anaplastic astrocytoma or a glioblastoma

E. Is rarely associated with mutations in p53 gene

4. Histologic features characteristic of a glioblas-

toma are:

A. Rich vascular supply

B. Rosenthal fibers

C. Pseudopalisading tumor cells around necrosis

D. High mitotic activity

E. Diffusely positive immunostaining with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

5. Primary (de nevo) glioblastoma differs from secondary glioblastoma in that:

A. It affects chiefly elderly individuals.

B. It has a shorter clinical history.

C. It is frequently associated with mutations in p53 gene.

E. None of these.

6. Intracranial tumors that are particularly common in children are:

A. Meningeoma

B. Astrocytoma

C. Brainstem glioblastoma

D. Ependymoma

E. Medulloblastoma

7. Features characteristic of medulloblastomas are:

A. They account for 16% to 20% of all intracranial tumors in children.

B. They grow slowly.

C. They commonly occur in the cerebellar hemispheres.

D. They have a tendency to disseminate via CSF.

E. They may occur in twins.

8. Features characteristic of pilocytic astrocyto-mas are:

A. They account for 20% to 25% of all intracranial tumors in children.

B. They occur in the cerebellar vermis.

C. They grow slowly.

D. They are referred to as "blue cell tumors."

E. They are often cystic.

9. All the following statements concerning oligodendrogliomas are correct except:

A. They grow slowly.

B. They contain psammona bodies.

C. Calcifications are common.

D. They may metastasize outside the nervous system.

E. Tumors with loss of chromosomal arms 1 p and 19 q respond favorably to radiation and chemotherapy and have a longer survival.

10. Clinical features suggestive of pineal gland tumors are:

A. Occurrences in the second and third decades of life

B. Tendency to disseminate via CSF

C. Hearing impairment

D. Vertical gaze palsy

E. Elevated a-fetoprotein in the serum

11. Features characteristic of meningeomas are:

A. Fast growing, invasive tumors

B. Slowly growing encapsulated tumors

C. May develop after therapeutic radiation to the head

D. Preponderance in males

E. Commonly cystic

12. Characteristic features of germinomas include:

A. They are usually situated in the pineal regions.

B. They are radiosensitive.

C. They have a tendency to disseminate via CSF.

D. They are usually situated in the suprasellar region.

E. None of these.

13. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is characterized by:

A. Neurofibromas

B. Optic nerve glioma

C. Bilateral acoustic neurinoma

D. Cafe-au-lait spots

E. Autosomal recessive inheritance

14. Pituitary adenomas may present with all the following except:

A. Amenorrhea

B. Impotence

C. Hemorrhage into the tumor

D. Cortical blindness

E. Visual field defect

15. Extracerebral manifestations associated with capillary hemangiomas in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome are:

A. Retinal angiomatosis

B. Cardiac rhabdomyoma

C. Pheochromocytoma

D. Secondary polycythemia

E. Syringomyelia

16. All the following statements are correct concerning primary cerebral lymphomas except:

A. They are often encountered in immunocompromized individuals.

B. They are associated with the JC virus.

C. Most tumors are large B-cell variant.

D. They are poorly demarcated.

E. They are often multifocal.

17. Commonly encountered tumors in the spinal cord are:

A. Ependymoma

B. Astrocytoma

C. Ganglioglioma

D. Teratoma

E. Myxopapillary ependymoma

18. Neurologic diseases that are associated with carcinomas in the absence of metastases to the nervous system include:

A. Eaton-Lambert syndrome

B. Combined degeneration of the spinal cord

C. Limbic encephalitis

D. Subacute cerebellar degeneration

E. Leigh disease

19. Cerebral lesions produced by X-radiation are:

A. Cortical calcifications

B. Caseaus necrosis of the white matter

C. Sarcoma

D. Coagulative necrosis of the white matter

E. Vascular hyalinosis

20. Metastatic tumors are characterized as:

A. Often multiple

B. Grossly, fairly well circumscribed

C. The most common CNS tumors

D. All of these

E. None of these

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)

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