Bibliography

Arslan, O. (2001). Neuroanatomical basis of clinical neurology. New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group.

Esiri, M. M., and Perl, D. (2006). Oppenheimer's diagnostic neuropathology: a practical manual, 3rd ed. London: Hodder-Arnold.

TABLE 1.3.

Basic Immunohistologic

Stains

Markers

Cell/Tissue

NFP ___

NeuN

Synaptophysin

J^s-Neuron

S-100 protein

NSE -----

GFAP

Astrocyte

APP

Axonal degeneration

CD3

T cells

CD20

B cells

CD68

Macrophages

Cytokeratin

Epithelial filament

Desmin------

Fibroblast

Vimentin-

Endothelial cell

AƟ peptide

Amyloid

MBP

Myelin

a-Synuclein ā€”ā€”

TAU

]^^^=^Neuronal/glial inclusions

Ubiquitin .____

NFP: neurofilament protein, Neu N: neuronal nucleus, NSE: neuron-specific enolase, GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein, APP: amyloid precursor protein, MBP: myelin basic protein. *For tumor-related immunohistologic stains, see Chapter 11.

- REVIEW QUESTIONS -

1. You are examining an atrophic brain. The patient's clinical diagnosis is dementia, probably Alzheimer's disease. Which of the following stains is most appropriate to confirm the diagnosis?

A. Kluver-Berrera stain

B. Hematoxylin-eosin

C. Cajal stain

D. Bielschowsky stain

3. You are examining a tumor in a hematoxylin-eosin-stained section and would like to identify the cells of astrocytic origin. Which stain would you choose?

A. PAS stain

B. Vimentin

C. S-100 protein

D. GFAP

E. Bodian stain

2. Gross section of the pons shows a large infarct destroying parts of the basis and tegmentum. To identify the fiber tracts and neurons involved, which is the most appropriate stain?

A. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)

B. Kluver-Berrera stain

C. Holzer stain

D. Nissl stain

E. Gallyas stain

4. You are examining a large brain. The patient's clinical diagnosis is psychomotor regression, probably lipid storage disease. Which is the most appropriate stain to confirm the diagnosis?

A. Best carmine

B. Congo red

C. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH)

E. Von Kossa stain

INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL NEUROPATHOLOGY / 5

5. All of the following stains are useful to demonstrate pathology of axons except:

A. Bielschowsky stain

B. Kluver-Berrera stain

C. Amyloid precursor protein (APP)

D. Gallyas stain

E. Bodian stain

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)

CHAPTER 2

Basics

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