Congenital Obstructive Hydrocephalus

Obstruction to CSF circulation commonly occurs at the aqueduct of Sylvius due to atresia or severe stenosis. Less often, the obstruction is at the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle, as occurs in the Arnold-Chiari and the Dandy Walker malformations (see Chapter 12).

TABLE 2.8.

Hydrocephalus

Obstructive

Congenital

Malformations Cerebral Cranial

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Inflammation

Hemorrhage

Undetermined

HYDROCEPHALUS

Acquired t

Neoplasm Inflammation Hemorrhage Metabolic

Nonobstructive

Excessive Formation of CSF

Plexus papilloma Hypo/hyper-vitaminosis A

Hydrocephalus ex vacuo

Brain atrophy

Defective Absorption of CSF

Dural sinus thrombosis

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