Congenital Rubella Infection

Since the introduction of rubella vaccine (1969), the rubella syndrome is rare. Grossly, the brain is small and atrophic. The histology is distinguished by (a) vascular changes with necrosis, fibrosis, and mineralization of vessel's walls; and (b) perivascular infiltrations and multifocal inflammatory necrosis. Rarely, the rubella syndrome progresses slowly, presenting several years later as a panencephalitis leading to dementia and severe neurologic deficits. Diffuse demyelination and gliosis are the underlying pathology.

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