Cytoplasmic argyrophilic and tau positive inclusions

These features are characteristic of several neurodegen-erative diseases collectively referred to as tauopathies (see Fig. 2.6).

Viral nuclear inclusions. These inclusions are found in herpes simplex encephalitis, subacute sclerosing panen-cephalitis, and in progressive multifocal leukoencepha-lopathy, in which the astrocytes are transformed into large atypical cells.

Neoplastic transformation. Astrocytes have the capacity to proliferate into a variety of relatively benign or malignant astrocytomas constituting the most common glial tumors.

FIGURE 2.6

Pathology of astrocytes. A. Gemistocytic (reactive) astrocytes display a large eosinophilic glassy cytoplasm with short processes and a peripherally displaced nucleus (HE). B. Fibrillary astrogliosis beneath the pia mater. Fibrous astrocytes showing numerous fine fibrillated processes (Holzer stain). C. Alzheimer's type 2 astrocytes display a large vesicular nucleus with scanty chromatin and a prominent nucleolus (HE). D. Rosenthal fibers in an astrocytoma appear as eosinophilic rod-shaped, homogenous structures (HE). E. Corpora amylacea around blood vessels (HE). F. Argyrophilic astrocytic plaque in cortical basal degeneration (Gallyas). G. Bergmann astrocytes replace degenerated Purkinje cells in cerebellar cortex (HE).

FIGURE 2.6

Pathology of astrocytes. A. Gemistocytic (reactive) astrocytes display a large eosinophilic glassy cytoplasm with short processes and a peripherally displaced nucleus (HE). B. Fibrillary astrogliosis beneath the pia mater. Fibrous astrocytes showing numerous fine fibrillated processes (Holzer stain). C. Alzheimer's type 2 astrocytes display a large vesicular nucleus with scanty chromatin and a prominent nucleolus (HE). D. Rosenthal fibers in an astrocytoma appear as eosinophilic rod-shaped, homogenous structures (HE). E. Corpora amylacea around blood vessels (HE). F. Argyrophilic astrocytic plaque in cortical basal degeneration (Gallyas). G. Bergmann astrocytes replace degenerated Purkinje cells in cerebellar cortex (HE).

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