Hydrocephalus Ex Vacuo

Hydrocephalus ex vacuo (passive hydrocephalus) results from a reduction of the brain volume, mostly of the hemispheric white matter. It commonly occurs in neu-rodegenerative diseases, hereditary metabolic diseases, chronic infectious diseases, chronic postanoxic enceph-alopathies, and following head injuries. On CT scan and MRI, the subarachnoid space is widened due to convo-lutional atrophy.

Grossly, the cerebral cortex is variably thin, and the white matter is reduced in amount. The lateral ventricles and the third ventricle are enlarged, whereas the aqueduct and fourth ventricle usually remain normal (see Fig. 2.21).

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