Other Conditions Iatrogenic Complications

Diagnostic procedures and major surgeries for coronary artery and valvular diseases, heart transplant, and various organ and bone marrow transplants carry the highest risk for cerebral hemorrhage and infarction. Subdural and intracranial hemorrhages are rare compli cations of spinal anesthesia. Chiropractic manipulation of the neck poses a potential risk for the dissection of vertebral and carotid arteries.

Among prescription drugs, anticoagulants and fibri-nolytic agents carry the risk of subdural, subarachnoid, and cerebral hemorrhages (Fig. 4.41). The use of oral contraceptives has been associated with thrombotic infarction, and the risk may increase in women over 35 years of age.

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