Radiation Injuries

For a discussion of radiation injuries, see Chapter 11. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Graham, D.I., Adams, J.H., Nicoll, J.A.R., et al. (1995). The nature, distribution and causes of traumatic brain injury. Brain Pathol 5, 397-406.

Graham, D.I., Maxwell, W.L., & Nicoll, J.A.R. (1997). Neu-rotrauma: axonal damage in short surviving head injury and the influence of Apolipoprotein E on outcome, Brain Pathol 7, 12851288.

Katayama, Y., Maeda, T., Koshinaga, M., et al. (1995). Role of excitatory amino acid-mediated ionic fluxes in traumatic brain injury Brain Pathol 5, 427-435.

McArthur, D. L., Hovda, D. A. (Eds). (2004). Symposium: traumatic brain injury. Brain Pathol 14, 183-222.

Vos, P.E., Lamers, K.J.B., Hendriks, J.C.M., et al. (2004). Glial and neuronal proteins in serum predict outcome after severe traumatic injury Neurology 62, 1303-1310.


1. Concerning acute subdural hematomas, all of the following are correct except:

A. They are caused by trauma, hematologic diseases or bleeding within metastases.

B. They arise from tearing of bridging veins.

C. They arise from tearing of middle meningeal arteries.

D. They are commonly situated over the fronto-temporal and parietal regions.

E. They are often bilateral.

2. An acute epidural hematoma carries the risk of:

A. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

B. Brainstem hemorrhage

C. Uncal hippocampal herniation

D. All of these

E. None of these

3. When the temple is struck with a heavy object, one can expect:

A. A skull fracture at the site of impact

B. A coup contusion

C. A contre-coup contusion

D. All of these

E. None of these

4. The histopathology of cerebral contusion is characterized by:

A. Loss of cortex in the crest of convolutions

B. Sparing of the external cortical layer

C. Wedge-shaped destruction of the cortex and white matter

D. All of these

E. None of these


5. Histologic changes that account for the persistent vegetative state that may occur following a severe head injury are:

A. Multiple small infarcts

B. Hypothalamic neuronal losses

C. Axonal shearing injuries

D. Cribriform state of the white matter

E. Pontine basis hemorrhage

6. Boxing injuries may manifest with:

A. Dementia

B. Alzheimer fibrillary tangles

C. Parkinsonism

D. All of these

E. None of these

7. Cerebral complications of long-bone fractures are:

A. Fat emboli

B. Petechial hemorrhages in the white matter

C. Pericapillary infarcts

D. All of these

E. None of these

8. Being struck by lightning may cause:

A. Cerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia

B. Cerebral infarct

C. Cerebral hemorrhage in the brain stem

D. Ischemic encephalopathy

E. None of these

(Answers are provided in the Appendix.)


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