Toxoplasmosis

Congenital toxoplasma infection is estimated at 1 per 1,000 to 1 per 10,000 live births. The infection may manifest at birth with chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, and intracranial calcifications. Late manifestations are mental retardation and seizures. Grossly, the atrophic brain displays small necrotic granulomas, and necrotic tissue may line the ventricles. The histology is characterized by a granulomatous meningoencephalitis consisting of multiple focal areas of necrosis, granulations, mono-nuclear cell infiltrations, and mineralization. The Toxo-

plasma gondii organisms are enclosed in cysts that may rupture and release the organisms. Obstructive hydrocephalus due to ependymitis is common.

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