Trypanosomiasis

Trypanosomiasis presents under two forms.

American trypanosomiasis or Chagas' disease has a high incidence in South and Central America. Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative protozoa, is carried in the feces of insects. Humans are infected with the excreted protozoa through an insect bite. The disease mainly afflicts children.

An acute infection presents as a microglial nodular encephalitis. Parasites are found within the cytoplasm of glial cells. Chronic infection presents with disorders of the autonomic nerves, cardiomyopathy, and changes of the digestive tract (mega-viscera). Cerebral infarcts are complications of the cardiac pathology.

A reactivated form of the disease is associated with immunosuppression, chiefly AIDS. The pathology is a multifocal necrotizing, hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis.

African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is caused by Trepanosoma brucei. The pathology is a

FIGURE 6.29

Entameba histolytica abscess. A 7-year-old girl with Down syndrome died 2 weeks following an acute Entameba histolytica enterocolitis. The brain shows a poorly demarcated abscess in the temporal lobe with purulent necrotic walls.

FIGURE 6.29

Entameba histolytica abscess. A 7-year-old girl with Down syndrome died 2 weeks following an acute Entameba histolytica enterocolitis. The brain shows a poorly demarcated abscess in the temporal lobe with purulent necrotic walls.

meningoencephalitis with perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrations.

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