Types of Edema

Three types of edema are vasogenic, cellular, and interstitial. Vasogenic edema, the most common, is generally associated with mass lesion, infarction, hematoma, and traumatic and inflammatory lesions. The edema, generalized or focal, results from a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier and escape of fluid and protein into the intercellular space, chiefly into the white matter.

Cellular (cytotoxic) edema results from an accumulation of fluid in the cytoplasm of the neurons, glial cells, and capillary endothelium, which swell and may suffer irreparable damage. Cellular edema develops in a wide range of disorders: ischemic-hypoxic states, hypo-osmolality states associated with dilutional hyponatre-mia, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, osmotic dysequilibrium syndrome of hemodialysis, head injuries, diabetic ketoacidosis, and Reye syndrome.

Interstitial edema is associated with chronic hydrocephalus. Fluid infiltrates the periventricular white matter around the frontal and occipital horns through a disrupted ependymal layer.

is usually proportional to the rate of growth of the mass: It is most extensive around fast-growing lesions.

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