Of the Human Visual Pathway

Arrangement Fibres Optic Nerve

Nearly a half of all cortical neurons are devoted to the processing of visual information. The afferent visual pathway from the retina to the primary visual cortex has four neuronal elements Fig. 3.1 . First neuron photoreceptors Second neuron bipolar cells Third neuron retinal ganglion cells and their axonal processes, including the chiasm and optic tracts Fourth neuron geniculocalcarine neurons Surface area of the cerebral retina is about 30 cm2 Fig. 3.1. Schematic diagram of the human visual...

Bruckner Test Strabismus

Ckner Test

Ammann test no further deterioration of acuity when viewing the chart through a neutral density filter an amblyopic eye behaves as if it is already dark-adapted Pathological Ammann test, i.e., there is further deterioration of acuity when viewing the chart through a neutral density filter the patient with an injury or an episode of inflammatory activity plausibly associates the cause of the poor vision. In all likelihood, the event was only a cause for drawing attention to the eye and discovery...

How To Heal Eyes Naturally Tilted Optic Nerve Drusen

Optic Tract

The differential diagnosis of optic atrophy in children Fig. 19.6. a Lesion of the right optic tract with an incongruous, homonymous quadrantic hemianopia to the left. Optic discs The disc of the right eye has temporal pallor with a shallow excavation, while the disc of the left eye has a bow-tie pattern of pallor, evident in both the nasal and temporal disc quadrants. This finding is easily missed, when a direct ophthalmoscope is not used. b Visual field testing static perimetry...

Headache from a Neuro Ophthalmic Point of View

Tension Headache Diagram

Headache is the most frequent cause for cooperative interaction between neurologists and ophthalmologists. Frequently, patients are seen first by their primary care physicians, and are then referred to ophthalmologists for further testing and management, chiefly to rule out ocular sources of pain. From there, they are commonly referred to neurologists, to be sure that something serious will not be missed. The diagnostic classification of headache is at first glance extraordinarily confusing or...