1. IASP Task Force on Guidelines for Desirable Characteristics for Pain Treatment Facilities. Standards for Physician Fellowship in Pain Management Seattle, WA, 1990.
2. De Laat AP. Pain in Europe. IV. Fourth Congress of the European Federation of IASP Chapters (EFIC). J Orofac Pain 2004;18:69,70.
Stacy BR, Rudy TE, Nelhaus D. Management of patient-controlled analgesia: a comparison of primary surgeons and a dedicated pain service. Anesth Analg 1997;85:130-134.
Werner MU, Soholm L, Rotboll-Nielsen P, Kehlet H. Does an acute pain service improve postoperative outcome? Anesth Analg 2002;95:1361-1372. Srivastava R, Homer CJ. Length of stay for common pediatric conditions: teaching vs nonteaching hospitals. Pediatrics 2003;112:278-281.
Fisher D, Tilford JM, Roberson PK. Relationship of illness severity and length of stay to functional outcomes in the pediatric intensive care unit: a multi-institutional study. Crit Care Med 2000;28:1173-1179.
Feudtner C, Christakis DA, Zimmerman FJ, Muldoon JH, Neff JM, Koepsell TD. Characteristics of deaths occurring in children's hospitals: implications for supportive care services. Pediatrics 2002;109:887-893.
Sakakihara Y, Yoneyama A, Kamoshita S. Chronic ventilator-assisted children in university hospitals in Japan. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1993;35:332-335. Levine CD. Toxic megacolon: diagnosis and treatment challenges. AACN Clin Issues 1999;4:492-499.
Chiu CH, Su LH, He CC, Jaing TH, Luo CC, Lin TY. Perforation of toxic megacolon in non-typhoid Salmonella enterocolitis spares young infants and is immunemediated. Pediatr Surg Int 2002;18:410-412.
Rees DC, Olujohungbe AD, Parker NE, Stephens AD, Telfer P, Wright J. Guidelines for the management of the acute painful crisis in sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol 2003;120:744-752.
Schechter NL, Allen DA, Hanson K. Status of pediatric pain control: a comparison of hospital analgesic usage in children and adults. Pediatrics 1986;77:11-15. Stevens B, Hunsberger M, Browne G. Pain in children: theoretical, research and practice dilemmas. J Pediatr Nurs 1987;2:154-166.
Manuksela EL, Olkkala KT, Korpela R. Measurement of pain in children with self reporting and behavioral assessment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1987;42:37-41. Fradet C, McGrath PJ, Kay J, Adams S, Luke B. A prospective survey of reactions to blood tests by children and adolescents. Pain 1990;40:53-60. Shapiro RS. Health care providers' liability exposure for inappropriate pain management. J Law Med Ethics 1996;24:360-364.
Donovan M, Dillon P, McGuire L. Incidence and characteristics of pain in a sample of medical-surgical inpatients. Pain 1987;30:69-78. Rennick J, Johnston CC, Dougherty G, Platt R, Ritchie J. Children's psychological responses after critical illness and exposure to invasive technology. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2002;23:133-144.
Saxe G, Stoddard F, Courtney D, et al. Relationship between acute morphine and the course of PTSD in children with burns. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:915-921.
Taddio A, Shah V, Gilbert-MacLeod C, Katz J. Conditioning and hyperalgesia in newborns exposed to repeated heel lances. JAMA 2002;288:857-861. Taddio A, Katz J, Ilersich AL, Lane A, Koren G. Effect of neonatal circumcision on pain response during subsequent routine vaccination. Lancet 1997;349:599-603.
22. Andrews K, Fitzgerald M. Barriers to optimal pain management in infants, children and adolescents: biological barriers to paediatric pain management. Clin J Pain 1997;13:138-143.
23. Beeson JM. The neurobiology of pain. Lancet 1999;353:1610-1615.
24. Fitzgerald M, Jennings E. The postnatal development of spinal sensory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:7719-7722.
25. Marsh DF, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M. Opioid systems and the newborn. Br J Anaesth 1997;79:787-795.
26. Turk DC, Okifuji A. Pain terms and taxonomies of pain In: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 2001:17-25.
27. Anand KJS, Hickey PR. Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1321-1329.
28. Perl ER. Cutaneous polymodal receptors: characteristics and plasticity. Prog Brain Res 1996;113:21-28.
29. Mense S. Group III and IV receptors in skeletal muscle: are they specific or polymodal? Prog Brain Res 1996;113:85-100.
30. Cervero F, Lumb BM. Bilateral inputs and supraspinal control of viscero-somatic neurons in the lower thoracic spinal cord of the cat. J Physiol 1988;403:221-237.
31. Mayer EA, Gebhart GF. Basic and clinical aspects of visceral hyperalgesia. Gastroenterology 1994;107:271-293.
32. Garry EM, Moss A, Rosie R, Delaney A, Mitchell R, Fleetwood-Walker SM. Specific involvement in neuropathic pain of AMPA receptors and adapter proteins for the GluR2 subunit. Mol Cell Neurosci 2003;24:10-22.
33. Fitzgerald M, Jennings E. The postnatal development of spinal sensory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:7719-7722.
34. Gunnar MR, Porter FL, Wolf CM, Rigatuso J, Larson MC. Neonatal stress reactivity: predictions to later emotional temperament. Child Dev 1995;66:1-13.
35. Dubin AE, Dionne VE. Action potentials and chemosensitive conductances in the dendrites of olfactory neurons suggest new features for odor transduction. J Gen Physiol 1994;103:181-201.
36. Traub RJ. Spinal modulation of the induction of central sensitization. Brain Res 1997;778:34-42.
37. Millan MJ. The induction of pain: an integrative review. Prog Neurobiol 1999;57: 1-164.
38. Lugo RA, Kern SE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2002;16:5-18.
39. Belpaire FM, Bogaert MG. Binding of alfentanil to human a1-acid glycoprotein, albumin and serum. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1991;29:96-102.
40. Sutton SC. Companion animal physiology and dosage form performance. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004;56:1383-1398.
41. deBoer AG, Moolenaar F, deLeede LG, Breimer DD. Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinet 1982;7:285-311.
42. Lesser E, Chhabra R, Brion LP, Suresh BR. Use of midline catheters in low birth weight infants. J Perinatol 1996;16(3, pt 1):205-207.
43. Carr DB, Jacox AK, Chapman CR, et al. Acute pain management: Operative or Medical Procedures and Trauma. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1992. AHCPR Pub. No. 92-0032.
44. Edwards WT. Optimizing opioid treatment of postoperative pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1990;5(suppl. 1):S24-S36.
45. Lewis N. The needle is like an animal: how children view injections. Child Today 1978;7:18-21.
46. Mathew PJ, Mathew JL. Assessment and management of pain in infants. Postgrad Med J 2003;79:438-443.
47. Bray RJ, Beeton C, Hinton W, Seviour JA. Plasma morphine levels produced by continuous infusion in children. Anaesthesia 1986;41:753-755.
48. Kehlet H, Dahl JB. The value of "multimodal" or "balanced analgesia" in postoperative pain treatment. Anesth Analg 1993;77:1048-1056.
49. Ramsay MAE. Acute postoperative pain management BUMC Proc 2000;13: 244-247.
50. Fitzgibbon DR. Cancer pain: management. In: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 2001, pp. 661-703.
51. Ready LB. Regional analgesia with intraspinal opioids. In: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins; 2001, pp. 1953-1966.
52. Ivanenko A, Tauman R, Gozal D. Modafinil in the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in children. Sleep Med 2003;4:579-582.
53. Besset A, Chetrit M, Carlander B, Billiard M. Use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy: a long term follow-up study. Neurophysiol Clin 1996;26:60-66.
54. Ready LB, Edwards WT. The Management of Acute Pain: Practical Guidelines. Seattle, WA: IASP Press; 1992, pp. 1-79.
55. Kain ZN, Caramico LA, Mayes LC, Genevro JL, Bornstein MH, Hofstadter MB. Preoperative preparation programs in children: a comparative examination. Anesth Analg 1998;87:1249-1255.
56. Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Maranets I, et al. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors. Anesth Analg 2004; 99:1648-1654.
57. Katz J. Pre-emptive analgesia: importance of timing. Can J Anesth 2001 ;48: 105-114.
58. McQuay HJ. Effectiveness of pre-emptive analgesia: a systematic review of clinical studies. Ann Med 1995;27:249-256.
59. Willard PT, Blair NP. Is wound infiltration with anesthetic effective as pre-emptive analgesia? A clinical trial in appendectomy patients. Can J Surg 1997;40:213-217.
60. Ho JW, Khambatta HJ, Pang LM, Siegfried RN, Sun LS. Preemptive analgesia in children. Does it exist? Reg Anesth 1997;22:125-130.
61. Priya V, Divatia JV, Sareen R, Upadhye S. Efficacy of intravenous ketoprofen for pre-emptive analgesia. J Postgrad Med 2002;48:109-112.
62. Park J, Forrest J, Kolesar R, et al. Oral Clonidine reduces postoperative PCA morphine requirements. Can J Anaesth 1996;43:900-906.
63. Goyagi T, Tanaka M, Nishikawa T. Oral Clonidine premedication enhances postoperative analgesia by epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 1999;89:1487-1491.
64. Kain ZN, Sevarino F, Pincus S, et al. Attenuation of the preoperative stress response with midazolam: effects on postoperative outcomes. Anesthesiology 2000;93: 141-147.
65. Puncuh F, Lampugnani E, Kokki H. Use of spinal anaesthesia in paediatric patients: a single centre experience with 1132 cases. Paediatr Anaesth 2004;14:564-567.
66. Portenoy RK, Hagen NA. Breakthrough pain: definition and management. Oncology (Huntingt) 1989;3(8 suppl):25-29.
67. Svendsen KB, Andersen S, Arnason S, et al. Breakthrough pain in malignant and non-malignant diseases: a review of prevalence, characteristics and mechanisms. Eur J Pain 2005;9:195-206.
68. Caraceni A, Martini C, Zecca E, et al. Working Group of an IASP Task Force on Cancer Pain. Breakthrough pain characteristics and syndromes in patients with cancer pain. An international survey. Palliat Med 2004;18:177-183.
69. Gallagher SS, Finison K, Guyer B, Goodenough S. The incidence of injuries among 87,000 Massachusetts children and adolescents: results of the 1980-81 statewide Childhood Injury Prevention Program Surveillance System. Am J Public Health 1984;74:1340-1347.
70. Martinez-Herz SP, Patterson DR, Honari S. Pediatric pain control practices of North American Burn Centers. J Burn Care Rehabil 2003;24:26-36.
71. Huribal M, Cunningham ME, D'Aiuto ML. Endothelin-1 and prostaglandin E2 levels increase in patients with burn. J Am Coll Surg 1995;180:318-322.
72. Kowalske KJ, Tanelian D. Burn pain, evaluation and management. Anesthesiol Clin North Am 1997;15:269-283.
73. Kinsella J, Booth M. Pain relief in burns: James Laing memorial essay 1990. Burns 1991;17:391-395.
74. Treede RD, Meyer RA, Raja SN, et al. Peripheral and central mechanisms of cutaneous hyperalgesia. Prog Neurobiol 1992;38:397-421.
75. Ashburn M. Burn pain: The management of procedure related burn. J Burn Care Rehabil 1995;16:365-371.
76. Martinez-Herz SP, Thurber CA, Patterson DR. Psychological principles of burn wound pain in children. II: Treatment applications. J Burn Care Rehabil 2000;21: 458-472.
77. Thurber CA, Martinez-Herz SP, Patterson DR. Psychological principles of burn wound pain in children. I: Theoretical framework. J Burn Care Rehabil 2000;1: 376-387.
78. Galustyan S, Kim M, Sato TA, Hennes H. Analgesia for children with acute abdominal pain. Acad Emerg Med 2002;9:522.
79. Johnston CC, Gagnon AJ, Fullerton L, Common C, Ladores M, Forlini S. One-wk survey of pain intensity on admission to and discharge from the emergency department: a pilot study. J Emerg Med 1998;16:377-382.
80. Kondev L, Minster A. Headache and facial pain in children and adolescents. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2003;6:1153-1170.
81. Marks SC, Kissner DG. Management of sinusitis in adult cystic fibrosis. Am J Rhinol 1997;11:11-14.
82. Stern RC, Horowitz SJ, Doershuk CF. Neurologic symptoms during coughing paroxysms in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 1988;112:909-912.
83. Lipton RB. Diagnosis and epidemiology of pediatric migraine. Curr Opin Neurol 1997;10:231.
84. Herrick JB. Peculiar elongated and sickle-shaped red blood corpuscles in a case of severe anemia. Arch Intern Med 1910;6:517-521.
85. Pauling L. The normal hemoglobins and the hemoglobinopathies: background. Tex Rep Biol Med 1980;81;40:1-7.
86. Ballas SK. Sickle cell anaemia: progress in pathogenesis and treatment. Drugs 2002;62:1143-1172.
87. Wethers DL. Sickle cell disease in childhood: Part I. Laboratory diagnosis, pathophysiology and health maintenance. Am Fam Physician 2000;62:1013-1020.
88. Serjeant GR, Serjeant BE. Sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia: the Asian haplotype. Reflections on a meeting at Hofuf, September 2003. Ann Saudi Med 2004;24: 166-168.
89. Shapiro BS, Dinges DF, Orne EC, et al. Home management of sickle cell-related pain in children and adolescents: natural history and impact on school attendance. Pain 1995;61:139-144.
90. Benjamin LJ, Swinson GI, Nagel RL. Sickle cell anemia day hospital: an approach for the management of uncomplicated painful crises. Blood 2000;95: 1130-1136.
91. Frush K, Ware RE, Kinney TR. Emergency department visits by children with sickle hemoglobinopathies: factors associated with hospital admission. Pediatr Emerg Care 1995;11:9-12.
92. Jacob E, Miaskowski C, Savedra M, Beyer JE, Treadwell M, Styles L. Management of vaso-occlusive pain in children with sickle cell disease. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2003;25:307-311.
93. Kopecky EA, Jacobson S, Joshi P, Koren G. Systemic exposure to morphine and the risk of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;75:140-146.
94. Docherty SL. Symptom experiences of children and adolescents with cancer. Annu Rev Nurs Res 2003;21:123-149.
95. Topp KS, Tanner KD, Levine JD. Damage to the cytoskeleton of large diameter sensory neurons and myelinated axons in vincristine-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat. J Comp Neurol 2000;424:563-576.
96. Quasrhoff S, Hartung HP. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. J Neurol 2002;249:9-17.
97. Köstler WJ, Hejna M, Wenzel C, Zielinski CC. Oral mucositis complicating chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy: options for prevention and treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2001;51:290-315.
98. Lockhart PB, Sonis ST. Relationship of oral complications to peripheral blood leukocyte and platelet counts in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1979;48:21-28.
99. Wolfe J, Grier HE, Klar N, et al. Symptoms and suffering at the end of life in children with cancer. N Engl J Med 2000;342:326-333.
100. Boman K, Lindahl A, Bjork O. Disease-related distress in parents of children with cancer at various stages after the time of diagnosis. Acta Oncol 2003;42: 137-146.
101. Chibnall JT, Videen SD, Duckro PN, Miller DK. Psychosocial-spiritual correlates of death distress in patients with life-threatening medical conditions. Palliat Med 2002;16:331-338.
102. Lyon ME, Townsend-Akpan C, Thompson A. Spirituality and end-of-life care for an adolescent with AIDS. Aids Patient Care Stds 2001;15:555-560.
103. Jacox AK, Carr DB, Payne R, et al. Management of Cancer Pain: Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services; 1994. AHCPR Pub. No. 94-0592.
104. McDonald AJ, Cooper MG. Patient-controlled analgesia: an appropriate method of pain control in children. Paediatr Drugs 2001;3:273-284.
105. Doyle E, Robinson D, Morton NS. Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with and without a background infusion after lower abdominal surgery in children. Br J Anaesth 1993;71:670-673.
106. Yildiz K, Tercan E, Dogru K, Ozkan U, Boyaci A. Comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with and without a background infusion after appendectomy in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2003;13:427-431.
107. Monitto CL, Greenberg RS, Kost-Byerly S, et al. The safety and efficacy of parent/nurse-controlled analgesia in patients less than 6 yr of age. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:573-579.
108. McDonald AJ, Cooper MG. Patient-controlled analgesia: an appropriate method of pain control in children. Paediatr Drugs 2001;3:273-284.
109. Bai SJ, Koo BN, Kim JH, Doh PS, Kim KH, Shin YS. Comparison of continuous epidural and intravenous analgesia for postoperative pain control in pediatric lower extremity surgery. Yonsei Med J 2004;45:789-795.
110. Blumenthal S, Min K, Nadig M, Borgeat A. Double epidural catheter with ropi-vacaine vs intravenous morphine: a comparison for postoperative analgesia after scoliosis correction surgery. Anesthesiology 2005;102:175-180.
111. Tsui BC, Wagner A, Cave D, Kearney R. Thoracic and lumbar epidural analgesia via the caudal approach using electrical stimulation guidance in pediatric patients: a review of 289 patients. Anesthesiology 2004;100:683-689.
112. Tsui BC, Seal R, Entwistle L, Haugen R, Kearney R. Thoracic epidural analgesia via the caudal approach in pediatric patients undergoing fundoplication using nerve stimulation guidance. Anesth Analg 2001;93:1152-1155.
113. Krane EJ, Dalens BJ, Murat I, Murrell D. The safety of epidurals placed during general anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 1998;23:433-438.
114. Aram L, Krane EJ, Kozloski LJ, Yaster M. Tunneled epidural catheters for prolonged analgesia in pediatric patients. Anesth Analg 2001;92:1432-1438.
115. McClain BC, Redd SA. Barrier flaps for continuous caudal anesthesia in pediatric patients. Anesthesiology 1993;79:400-401.
116. Bubeck J, Boos K, Krause H, Thies KC. Subcutaneous tunneling of caudal catheters reduces the rate of bacterial colonization to that of lumbar epidural catheters. Anesth Analg 2004;99:689-693.
117. Berde C. Regional anesthesia in children: what have we learned? Anesth Analg 1996;83:897-900.
118. Johnson CM. Continuous femoral nerve blockade for analgesia in children with femoral fractures. Anaesth Intensive Care 1994;22:281-283.
119. Maccani RM, Wedel DJ, Melton A, Gronert GA. Femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block for muscle biopsies in children. Paediatr Anaesth 1995;5: 223-227.
120. Duflo F, Qamouss Y, Remond C, et al. Patient-controlled regional analgesia is effective in children: a preliminary report. Can J Anaesth 2004;51:928-930.
121. Tyler DC. Pharmacology of pain management. Pediatr Clin North Am 1994;41: 59-71.
122. Lynn AM, Slattery JT. Morphine pharmacokinetics in early infancy. Anesthesiology 1987;66:136-139.
123. Berde CB. Pediatric postoperative pain management. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989;36:921-940.
124. Velazquez RA, McCarson KE, Cai Y, et al. Upregulation of neurokinin-1 receptor of expression in rat spinal cord by an N-terminal metabolite of substance P. Eur J Neurosci 2002;16:229-241.
125. Garnier M, Zaratin PF, Ficalora G, et al. Up-regulation of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 expression in a model of neuropathic pain and insensitivity to morphine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003;304:1299-1306.
126. Morley JS, Bridson J, Nash T, Miles JB, White S, Makin MK. Low dose methadone has an analgesic effect in neuropathic pain: a double- blind randomized controlled crossover trial. Palliat Med 2003;17:576-587.
127. Miller OF, Bloom TL, Smith LJ, McAleer IM, Kaplan GW, Kolon TF. Early hospital discharge for intravesical ureteroneocystostomy. J Urol 2002;167:2556-2559.
128. Nishina K, Mikawa K, Shiga M, Takao Y, Maekawa N, Obara H. Diclofenac and flurbiprofen with or without clonidine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing elective ophthalmological surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2000;10:645-651.
129. Romsing J, Ostergaard D, Walther-Larsen S, Valentin N. Analgesic efficacy and safety of preoperative vs postoperative ketorolac in psediatric tonsillectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1998;42:770-775.
130. Romsing J, Walther-Larsen S. Perioperative use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in children: analgesic efficacy and bleeding. Anaesthesia 1997;52:673-683.
131. Gupta A, Daggett C, Ludwick J, Wells W, Lewis LA. Ketorolac after congenital heart surgery: does it increase the risk of significant bleeding complications? Paediatr Anaesth 2005;15:139-142.
132. Papacci P, De Francissi G, Iacobucci T, et al. Use of intravenous ketorolac in the neonate and premature babies. Paediatr Anaesth 2004;14:487-492.
133. Prescilla RP, Frattarelli DA, Haritos D, Aranda JV, Edwards DJ. Pharmacokinetics of rofecoxib in children with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2004;26:661-664.
134. Kamen B, Kieran M. Don't throw out the baby with the bathwater! J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2005;27:59-60.
135. Bergendahl HT, Lonnqvisy PA, Eksborg S, et al. Clonidine vs midazolam as premedication in children undergoing adeno-tonsillectomy: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004;48:1292-1300.
136. Broadman LM, Rice LJ, Hannallah RS. Oral clonidine and postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 1996;82:225-230.
137. Sung CS, Lin SH, Chan KH, et al. Effect of oral clonidine premedication on perioperative hemodynamic response and postoperative analgesic requirements for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 2000;38:23-29.
138. Lyons B, Casey W, Doherty P, McHugh M, Moore KP. Pain relief with low-dose intravenous clonidine in a child with severe burns. Intensive Care Med 1996;22: 249-251.
139. Eisenach JC, De Kock M, Klimscha W. a(2)-Adrenergic agonists for regional anesthesia. A clinical review of clonidine (1984-1995). Anesthesiology 1996;85: 655-674.
140. Ambrose C, Sale S, Howells R, et al. Intravenous clonidine infusion in critically ill children: dose-dependent sedative effects and cardiovascular stability. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:794-796.
141. Coudore-Civiale MA, Courteix C, Boucher M. Potentiation of morphine and clomipramine analgesia by cholecystokinin B antagonist CI 988 in diabetic rats. Neurosci Lett 2000;286:37-40.
142. Stacey BR. Management of peripheral neuropathic pain. Am J Phys Rehabil 2005;84(3 suppl):S4-S16.
143. Collins JJ, Kerner J, Sentivany S, Berde CB. Intravenous amitriptyline in pediatrics. J Pain Symptom Manage 1995;10:471-475.
144. Donmez O, Cetinkaya M, Canbek R. Hemoperfusion in a child with amitriptyline intoxication. Pediatr Nephrol 2005;20:105-107.
145. Tallian KB, Nahata MC, Lo W, Tsao CY. Gabapentin associated with aggressive behavior in pediatric patients with seizures. Epilepsia 1996;37:501-502.
146. McGraw T, Stacey BR. Gabapentin for treatment of neuropathic pain in a 12-yr-old girl. Clin J Pain 1998;14:354-356.
147. Gilron I, Orr E, Tu D, O'Neill JP, Zamora JE, Bell AC. A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of perioperative administration of gabapentin, rofecoxib and their combination for spontaneous and movement-evoked pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Pain 2005;113:191-200.
148. Schechter NL, Blankson V, Pachter LM, Sullivan CM, Costa L. The ouchless place: no pain, children's gain. Pediatrics 1997;99:890-894.
149. Wheatley RG, Madej TH, Jackson IJ, Hunter D. The first year's experience of an acute pain service. Br J Anaesth 1991;67:353-359.
150. Guyton AC, Hall JE, eds. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2000;512-565.
151. Pereira J, Lawlor P, Vigano A, Dorgan M, Bruera E. Equianalgesic dose ratios for opioids. A critical review and proposals for long-term dosing. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;22:672-687.
152. Anderson R, Saiers JH, Abram S, Schlicht C. Accuracy in equianalgesic dosing: conversion dilemmas. J Pain Symptom Manage 2001;21:397-406.
153. McClain BC. Yale New Haven Children's Hospital Pediatric Pain Service Postgraduate Guide. New Haven, CT: Yale New Haven Children's Hospital, Department of Anesthesiology; 2001.
Treatment of Acute and Chronic Pain in the Outpatient Setting
Was this article helpful?
Are Constant Headaches Making Your Life Stressful? Discover Proven Methods For Eliminating Even The Most Powerful Of Headaches, It’s Easier Than You Think… Stop Chronic Migraine Pain and Tension Headaches From Destroying Your Life… Proven steps anyone can take to overcome even the worst chronic head pain…