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This is a3-day digital event consists of 32 world-class experts in the field of parenting who are sharing their inside secrets, tactics, and other methods they have used in order to be the best possible wife, mother, and person. It is hosted by Lauren and Desi who are two experts on the topic. They will share their secrets and tricks to overcome their issues in the pertinent conversation. In addition to that, you will get full access to talk with some of the best knowledgeable people in the field who will help you with your problems. The other thing about this conference is that it will allow you to connect and network with people you have an interest in. Some of the experts talking are probably also talking about some of your issues outside of the realm of being a mother such as legal issues, politics, how to start a business, the psychology of being a mother and ways to fill your time. It is hosted on a specific time but you can always catch up with the speakers on what they have said at their conference by watching the videos. The people are also very friendly and helpful and that is great because it helps you engage with your local community. Read more here...

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Do Child Care Arrangements and Structured Out of School Activities Mediate Poverty Effects

Children from low-income families are most likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school activities. These patterns point to working poor and near-poor families as those whose children may be most at risk for extended exposure to poor-quality care centers and less likely to be involved in structured activities that may lead to the enrichment and development of skills and competencies. Correlational, longitudinal, and experimental research also identifies the quality of child care and participation in organized activities as important contributors to children's intellectual and academic development and probably to social-emotional competence as well. The next step in testing a media-tional model is to determine whether features of child care and the types of out of school activities account for the relations of family poverty to children's outcomes. The evidence available is somewhat conflicting....

Poverty And Child Development

Poor children are more likely to experience problems with school readiness and academic performance, and are at least twice as likely to be kept back in school as children from higher income families (see Corcoran, 1995 Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 1997a Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 National Center for Children in Poverty, 1999). Material deficiencies related to poverty (e.g., malnutrition, inadequate health and child care, homelessness or unsafe housing conditions and neighborhoods, and insufficient schools) have detrimental effects on children's motivation and ability to learn, and can contribute to social and emotional difficulties, hamper learning, academic performance, and cognitive development (Korenman, Miller, & Sjaastad, 1995 Kotch & Shackelford, 1989). In adolescence, poverty or economic hardship predicts delinquency (Sampson & Laub, 1994) and depression and loneliness (Lempers, Clark-Lempers, & Simons, 1989). There are several problems with the threshold. A family's income is defined by...

Family Income and Early Child Care

The effects of poverty on children may be mediated not only by parents and the home environment, but by the early care and educational environments in which many children spend time. Most American children from all income levels spend significant amounts of time in nonmaternal care during their early years. A 1999 Survey by the National Survey of America's Families shows that 73 of children under age 5 with employed parents were in nonparental child-care arrangements, primarily center-based care and care by relatives (Sonenstein, Gates, Schmidt, Bolshun, 2002). The work requirements set forth by the 1996 welfare law dramatically increased the number of children who require care while parents are working. Whereas the AFDC-based welfare system was originally intended to allow single mothers to remain at home to care for young children, the new TANF-based system is motivated by the goal of making single mothers economically self sufficient. As a result, low-income parents, especially...

Disentangling Concepts Emotional Control Versus Regulation

Others, theorists, notably Kopp (1982) and Block and Block (1980), have made distinctions between emotion control and emotion regulation. Kopp (1982), for example, discussed self-control and self-regulation as stages in the child's development of behavior regulation. In the stage of self-control, the child has the ability to comply with the caregiver's demands and directives in the absence of the caregiver. Though emitted by the child, the behavior is rigid, conforming to the original directive. In contrast, the stage of self-regulation involves the flexible guiding of behavior. The child's behavior at this point is actively and flexibly adjusted to meet the demands of new situations. We concur with this distinction between control and regulation however, we do not see these as developmental stages but, rather, as a continuum of regulation which is a function both of development and individual differences among children. While for Kopp (1982) the stage of self-control is not...

Caregiver Differences

A number of researchers have conceptualized emotion regulation as developing within the context of the parent-child relationship (e.g., Gianino & Tronick, 1988). Parent-child interaction involves mutual regulation in which caregiver and child each modulate the affect of the other (e.g., Tronick, 1989). The parent-child context may be characterized as more unresponsive and poorly coordinated in which case, the parent fails to recognize the child's emotional needs or ignores the child's existing capabilities or smoothly coordinated with matching of parent and child affect (Field, 1994).

The Pennsylvania Child And Family Development Project

The Minnesota group's early research validating classifications of attachment security based on behavior in the Strange Situation proved to be extremely important in shaping my investigatory endeavors. Having received only minimal training in attachment theory as a graduate student at Cornell University in the mid-1970s, but a great deal on the role of family, community, cultural and historical context in shaping human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1978), I found the prospect of integrating these two distinct research traditions pregnant with opportunity. In fact, because my doctoral research had focused upon parenting and infant development, with a special concern for fathering as well as mothering and husband-wife as well as parent-child relationships (Belsky, 1979a,b), it proved rather easy to extend my research horizon to incorporate ideas from attachment theory into my ecologically-oriented program of research on early human experience in the family. What was principally required...

Mothering And Attachment Security

Like others, I was fascinated by Ainsworth's (1973) sensitivity hypothesis and used my first longitudinal study of marital change across the transition to parenthood to examine the relation between mothering observed on three occasions during the first year of the infant's life and infant-mother attachment security assessed at 12 months. In this study, 56 Caucasian mothers and their infants from working- and middle-class Caucasian families residing in and around the semi-rural central Pennsylvania community of State College where Penn State University is located were observed at home when infants were 1, 3, and 9 months of age. During each observation period, mothers were directed to go about their everyday household routine, trying as much as possible to disregard the presence of the observer. This naturalistic observational approach is one that I have used in all the research to be described. In order to record maternal and infant behavior, we noted the presence or absence every 15...

Category Representations of Humans versus Nonhuman Animals Exemplars versus Prototypes

An additional experiment conducted by Quinn and Eimas (1998) provided further evidence that infants represent humans differently from nonhuman animal species. Because 3- to 4-month-olds have greater exposure to human than to nonhuman animals, even if the set of humans is limited to parents or immediate family members, it is an arguable consequence that infants represent the highly familiar human exemplars individually. Also plausible is the view that the less frequently encountered animals are represented by means of a summary prototype (Quinn, 1987). To investigate these possibilities, one group of 3- to 4-month-olds was familiarized with 12 humans, and another with 12 cats. Both groups were administered two preference tests. A novel cat was paired with a novel human in one (the test of categorization), and a novel member of the familiar category was paired with a familiar member

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

A very significant development in reminding also occurs around 3 years of age which allows for even greater flexibility in memory reinstatement. In addition to physical and representational reminders, by three years of age children are engaging in verbal conversations about past events with their parents (Fivush, 1991 Hudson, 1990b Nelson, 1993 Nelson & Fivush, 2000, 2004). Although children begin talking about the past sometime between 16 and 20 months (Eisenberg, 1985), children under three years of age show little evidence of being able to use language alone to reinstate event memories. When they engage in joint reminiscing between the ages of 2 to 3, however, conversations about past events provide an important reinstatement context for autobiographic memories. Several studies have shown that participation in parent-child conversations about past events enhances children's event recall, especially when parents provide complex and elaborate accounts of events (McCabe & Peterson,...

Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

In one version of gender schema theory, Bem (1981) proposes that children develop gender schemas by virtue of the pervasive gender messages in society and that sex-typing occurs when children's self-concept and self-esteem gets assimilated into gender schemas. Interestingly, Bem's theory also focuses on individual differences in the degree of being sex-typed. She asserts that individual differences schemas and sexism schemas can replace gender schemas when children are encouraged to process information according to the variability within groups and the historical roots and consequences of sex discrimination (Bem, 2000).

An Ecological Model Of Human Development

Over the past decade, there has been a surge of research directed at understanding the ways in which multiple settings or contexts influence child development (Brooks-Gunn, Duncan, Klebanov, & Sealand, 1993 Burton, Allison, & Obeidallah, 1995 Seidman, 1991). This research has indicated that contexts such as families, peers, schools, and neighborhoods exert an important influence on For the assessment of the quality of closest same-sex friendship and the quality of relationships with mother and father, we used a 20-item version of Furman and Buhrmester's (1985) Network of Relationships Inventory. This measure investigates multiple dimensions of relationship quality (i.e., intimacy, affection, reliable alliance, satisfaction, companionship, conflict and antagonism) using a 5-point Likert Scale. The positive dimensions (i.e., intimacy, affection, reliable alliance, satisfaction, and companionship) were highly correlated with each other and thus, for the purposes of our study, were summed...

The Neighborhood Context

Our research also indicates that adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhood shape the quality and characteristics of their friendships. In our qualitative studies, Black and Latino boys often report choosing not to spend time with neighborhood friends because doing so meant being stopped and harassed by policemen or by groups of boys looking for trouble (Way, 1998). As a consequence, some of the boys chose instead to spend time alone or with family members. For example, one male Puerto Rican sophomore stated in his interview that he did not have friends from the neighborhood because he did not like hangin' with people getting killed (Way, 1998, p. 119) instead preferring to stay at home during non-school hours. Similarly, when a Black 11th-grade male was asked why he thought he had not found a close friend he could trust, he replied that backstabbing which was typical in his neighborhood led people to further diss one another in order to feel important (Way, 1998, p. 118). After...

Summary of Quality of Friendships Qualitative Data

Moreover, results from our qualitative findings suggest that in addition to the sharing of secrets, closeness was based on sharing money, physical and emotional protection, and having family friend connections. Again, it is unclear whether these elements of closeness are unique to the ethnic minority low SES, urban adolescents in our studies, or whether similar variations in the meaning of closeness would be evident for youth of different backgrounds. It is likely, however, that the sharing of money is more relevant for those who have less money than for those for whom money is not a concern. Similarly, protection from harm may be particularly critical for those raised in environments where they do not feel safe. Finally the value of family friend connections might be especially important for those adolescents coming from cultures in which family relationships are strongly emphasized. Fictive kin has been explored for decades in the research on African American family relationships...

Historical Background

Another source of evidence comes from Condon's (1987) ethnography on Inuit adolescents in the Canadian Arctic. Condon explored conceptions of the transition to adulthood by asking young people in their teens to assign life stage categories to various people in the community and explain the reason for their designations. Their responses reflected a variety of criteria for the transition to adulthood, including marriage, parenthood, chronological age, and employment. Most important was establishing a permanent pair-bond by moving into a separate household with a prospective spouse a marriagelike relationship, but not necessarily involving a formal ceremony or legal tie. Chronological age also mattered young people living with a prospective spouse but remaining in the parental household of one partner or the other were considered adults if they were beyond their teen years.

The Broader Ecology Of Attachment Security

Belsky Process Model 1984

Through this point I have considered what might be referred to as classical determinants of attachment security, namely those considered in most developmental theorizing about the origins of secure and insecure attachment (Belsky, Rosenberger, & Crnic, 1995a). But an ecological perspective on human development, one that underscores the fact that the parent-child dyad is embedded in a family system (Belsky, 1981), which is itself embedded in a community, cultural, and even historical context (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), suggests that if one wants to account for why some infants develop secure and others insecure attachments to mother, father, or even child-care worker, then there is a need to look beyond the proximate determinants of mothering and temperament. Toward this end, we undertook a series of inquires using data collected as part of our longitudinal studies based upon a contextual model of the determinants of parenting that I advanced more than a decade ago which highlights the...

HOME and Socio Emotional Development

Findings by Bakeman and Brown (1980) Lamb et al. (1988) Erickson, Stroufe, and Egeland (1985) Mink and Nihira (1987) Bradley, Caldwell, Rock, Barnard, Gray, et al. (1989), Caughy, DiPietro & Strobino, 1994, and Bradley and Corwyn (2000, 2001) suggested that particular parenting practices may interact with both particular child characteristics (e.g., quality of attachment, difficult temperament, self-efficacy beliefs, level of disability) and broader ecological factors (e.g., marital quality, support from extended family, participation in day care, family conflict, overall family style) to affect the course of social development. Moreover, the study by Plomin, Loehlin, and DeFries (1985) showing little relation between HOME and behavior problems in adopted children but a significant, yet small (.23), relation for nonadopted children suggests that genetic factors may play a role. Perhaps it would be fair to characterize studies of parenting child development relations done prior to 1980...

Family Process Models

Bronfenbrenner's (1995) bioecological theory and Belsky's (1984) process model of parenting have provided useful frameworks for guiding research on parenting and child development. During the 1990s, several scholars have provided additional framing for those interested in more fully delineating how the resources available to families (or lack thereof) are implicated in parenting and child functioning (Conger, Wallace, Simons, McLoyd, & Brody, 2002 McLoyd, 1990). Generically, these frameworks can be organized under the rubric, family process models of parenting. They attempt to explicate how the resources available to parents affect parental mood, expectations, and mental health, which in turn affect quality of parenting (i.e., a cycle of exchanges between parent and child) and how that helps shape the course of behavioral development. In these models, very specific mechanisms linking the availability of resources to child adaptive functioning are stipulated. This has the advantage not...

Psychological Meaning Of Pubertal Change Meaning of Pubertal Changes to Girls

Brooks-Gunn and colleagues have also examined the significance of breast and pubic hair development to adolescent girls in the fifth and sixth grades (Brooks-Gunn, 1984 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). The majority of girls (82 ) reported that breast growth was more significant to them than pubic hair growth because other people can tell. Girls also reported that mothers talked to them more about their breast than their pubic hair development. Onset of breast growth was associated with positive peer relationships, greater salience of sex roles linked with reproduction, and a positive body image, while the onset of pubic hair growth was not (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988). However, girls were likely to experience teasing by family members and boys about their breast development (Brooks-Gunn, Newman, Holderness, & Warren, 1994 Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1988).

Peer Social Status and Emotion Regulation

Overall, the results showed that children's understanding of display rules for anger is complex and related to context, gender, and age. Children reported masking anger more often with teachers than with peers. Boys' masking of anger increased with age, but girls' reported use of display rules decreased with age. Contrary to hypotheses, this study found that aggressive children did not differ consistently from nonaggressive peers in their understanding of display rules for anger even highly aggressive children reported frequently that they would mask expressions of anger. Understanding of display rules may not account for individual differences in aggressive behavior, perhaps because aggressive children fight impulsively when they are furious and are unlikely to invoke display rules even if they know exactly what those rules are.

Messages Sent Versus Messages Received

The empirical literature on racial ethnic socialization has, in part, focused on understanding the nature and content of the racial ethnic socialization messages that parents transmit to their children. Many of these studies have utilized in-depth interviews with African American and other ethnic minority parents to identify the most prominent themes that emerge when parents are asked to consider the role of race and ethnicity in their parenting practices (e.g., Marshall, 1995 Thornton, Chatters, Taylor, & Allen, 1990). In this section, we attempt to describe more fully the different types of racial ethnic socialization messages that parents may communicate and the consequences of such messages for children's adaptation and well being. These include (a) emphasizing racial and ethnic pride, traditions, and history (termed cultural socialization ) (b) promoting an awareness of racial prejudice and discrimination (termed preparation for bias ) (c) issuing cautions and warnings about...

Midgley And Adler 1984 Reference

T., Quay, H. C., & Conners, C. K. (1991). National survey of problems and competencies among four to sixteen year olds. Monographs for the Society of Research in Child Development, 56(3). Alexander, K. L., & Entwise, D. (1988). Achievement in the first two years of school Patterns and processes. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(2, Serial No. 218). Alexander, K. L., Dauber, S. L., & Entwisle, D. R. (1993). First-grade classroom behavior Its short- and long-term consequences for school performance. Child Development, 64, 801-803. Asher, S. R., Hymel, S., & Renshaw, P. D. (1984). Loneliness in Children. Child Development, 55, 1456-1464. Burhans, K. K., & Dweck, C. S. (1995). Helplessness in early childhood The role of contingent worth. Child Development, 66, 1719-1738. Butler, R. (1989a). Interest in the task and interest in peers' work A developmental study. Child Development, 60, 562-570. Butler, R. (1989b). Mastery versus...

When the Children Cannot Yet Talk About Friendships

We define an affective relationship as one that includes feelings of affection or what would be called love in adult-child relationships. Toddler affective relationships have attributes of friendship common to the 'best friendships' which provide older children with emotional security and closeness (Howes, 1996 Howes, with Unger et al., 1992). These early friendship relationships appear to be formed in a way similar to adult-child attachment relationships (Howes, 1996). In the following section, we will examine supports for these assumptions about early friendship formation. This definition was first used in a year-long longitudinal study of five peer groups (Howes, 1983). The children ranged in age from 10 months to 5 years. Each peer group was composed of same-age children. Eight times over the course of the year, we observed each child's interaction with every potential partner in the group. These observations were used to identify friend pairs. To test the assertion that toddler...

Prevalence And Psychological Consequences Of Exposure To Community Violence

Based on the community violence studies of the early 1990s, between 44-82 of school-aged children and youth are exposed to community violence, depending on definitional criteria, methodology, and sample characteristics (Overstreet, 2000 Stein, Jaycox, Kataoka, Rhodes, & Vestal, 2003). According to the early studies, by the end of elementary school, almost all children residing in high crime innercity areas of Washington and New Orleans had heard (98 ) or witnessed (90 ) moderate to severe levels of violent occurrences (Richters & Martinez, 1993 Osofsky, Wewers, Hann, & Fick, 1993). School-aged children exposed to community violence are at risk for an array of problematic behavior including lower self-competence (Farver, Ghosh, & Garcia, 2000), high levels of distress (Martinez & Richters, 1993), depression (Durant, Getts, Cadenhead, Emans, & Woods, 1995), post-traumatic stress disorder (Fitzpatrick & Boldizar, 1993 Jaycox, Stein, Kataoka, Wong, Fink, Escudero, & Zaragoza, 2002),...

The Functions of Friendships Between Very Young Children

Can peers provide other child experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy Do children who grew up together sharing the common resources of the child care center have a different kind of social interaction than acquaintances Do cross-sex peers and cross-ethnic peers who became friends in the context of child care form nontraditional relationships Each of these questions describes a potential function of friendship experiences of social support, trust, and intimacy a context for mastering social interaction and a context for engaging with children who are unlike the self. The first of these functions has received the most research attention research on the third function is just emerging. We expect that older children or adolescents derive feelings of social support, trust, and intimacy from their relationships with friends (Howes, 1996). It is difficult to directly apply these constructs to the friendships of very young children. There are, however, several pieces of evidence...

Potential Explanations for the Decreasing Age of Pubertal Onset

(Graber, Brooks-Gunn, & Warren, 1995 Moffitt, Caspi, Belsky, & Silva, 1992 Surbey, 1990). Lower warmth in parent-child relationships has been associated with earlier age at menarche after controlling for the effect of maternal age at menarche and level of breast development (Graber et al., 1995). Father's absence in the childhood years has been predictive of earlier maturation (Ellis & Garber, 2000 Surbey, 1990). In girls not living with their biological parents, the presence of a stepfather rather than the absence of a father was more strongly associated with earlier pubertal maturation (Ellis & Garber, 2000). A Polish study found that age of menarche in girls who experienced stressful family dysfunction was 0.4 years earlier than age of menarche in girls from families free of major trauma. Mechanisms for the relationship between family stress and early puberty are not clear. Estrogens may play a role, as there is an increasing body of evidence showing effects of stress on estrogen...

Theoretical And Empirical Considerations

Specifically, Scheer et al. (1994) surveyed adolescents aged 13-19 about the criteria they viewed as marking the transition to adulthood. Participants were asked to mark one of eight options as the most important factor for them in becoming adults, with the options based on a previous interview study (Scheer & Palkovitz, 1995). The top three responses were taking responsibility for my actions, making my own decisions, and financial independence having a job. Legal age thresholds and role transitions such as marriage, parenthood, and finishing education ranked low.

Friendship As Affective Relationships

Sociocultural influences also played a role in the research interest in friendships between very young children. When infants and toddlers had daily experiences within the stable peer groups of child care, parents and child care teachers began to notice that the children had preferences among their peers (Hartup, 1983 Rubenstein & Howes, 1976, 1979 Rubin, 1980). These preferential playmate relationships appeared to parents and teachers as friendships. Teachers and parents reported that these emerging friendships helped children separate from their parents at the beginning of the child care day. The children would greet the preferred peer and join in play with him or her as part of the ritual for parents saying good-bye. In the following sections, we will discuss the process of friendship formation in very young children and the functions of these early friendships.

Distinguishing Two Types Of Narrative

Two common forms of narrative discourse during the preschool years are personal narratives and fantasy stories. In personal narratives children report their personal experiences in contexts like parent-child conversation and dinner-table talk (Aukrust & Snow, 1998 Blum-Kulka, 1997 Ochs, Taylor, Rudolph, & Smith, 1992 Peterson & McCabe, 1992). In fantasy stories children narrate fictional happenings in the context of everyday pretend play, initially with the support of mothers or other older family members, but with increasing autonomy as children get older (Haight & Miller, 1993 Sachs, Goldman, & Chaille, 1984). Competent renditions of these two forms of narrative generally share some important features a focus on a protagonist or protagonists and a set of related actions that these actors carry out the reporting of supportive details such as setting or character attributes the use of a range of strategies for linking events together and tying actions to consequences and the inclusion...

The Parenting Environment

The parenting environment is best understood not only on the basis of the activities and objects it contains or generates, but also on the basis of its instrumentality for child care and child rearing (Korosec-Serafty, 1985). For individual parents there is a sense of boundary to the spaces where parenting takes place, but what actually constitutes the boundary varies across parents and time depending on an array of cultural, familial, personal, and child factors (Belsky, 1984 Bronfenbrenner, 1995). In effect, what is appropriated to the idea of the home environment is the meaning of the acts, objects, and places connected to parental caregiving. Different families may utilize different geographic settings to be part of the parenting environment (e.g., the street beside the house, the backyard, a neighborhood park). The parenting environment encompasses the locations where the activities of parental caregiving take place (Rapoport, 1985).

The Developmental Sequelae Of Infantmother Attachment Security

In addition to affording an opportunity to evaluate the effects of early child care on infant-mother attachment security, data collected as part of the NICHD Study enabled me to explore individual differences in the future social and cognitive functioning of some 1,000 children studied in the course of investigating the long-term consequences of early child care experience. Drawing upon data gathered when children were 3, I examined two separate issues with respect to the developmental sequelae of early attachment security. Ever since the Minnesota investigators whose work was summarized earlier in this chapter started to chronicle the developmental consequences of attachment security and insecurity, demonstrating that early attachment predicted multiple aspects of later child development, there has been confusion about the developmental process by which early security comes to be related to later child functioning. Although some have mistakenly attributed to students of attachment...

Summary of the Family Context

Previous social learning based studies and our own research show parental monitoring and guidance to be linked with better perceptions of friendship quality. Extending this research, our concurrent and longitudinal findings indicate that adolescents' perceptions of their parents' rules and or attitudes about friendships are also important components of how parents influence their children's friendships. The association, however, between parents' attitudes and the quality of adolescent friendships appears mediated by adolescents' perceptions of parental closeness. Those adolescents who reported feeling closer to their parents were more likely to heed the warnings of their parents about friendships than those who felt less close to their parents. Additional qualitative research is needed to further understand how adolescents, despite warnings by family members of the hazards of peer relationships, continue to find and maintain close friendships with non-familial peers.

Future Directions

And what of the rest of the world, the vast regions and diverse areas not discussed in this chapter Africa, Asia, Central America, Eastern Europe Clearly there is much that remains to be discovered about how young people around the world think about what it means to be an adult. Of particular interest are the conceptions of adulthood that exist among young people in traditional, tribal cultures that are as yet little touched by globalization or industrialization. Here is where the sharpest contrast may be found to the individualistic conception of adulthood favored by many young people in industrialized societies. Many of these cultures are more collectivistic in their values than industrialized countries are, and their criteria for adulthood may be expected to vary accordingly, perhaps with greater emphasis on marriage, parenthood, and culture-specific roles that entail obligations to others. We can only speculate at this point, but this is certainly an important and compelling topic...

Parental Relationships and Childrens Peer Relations

In addition, there is very little previous research investigating how mothers respond to their children's engaging in, or being victimized by social aggression. To date, we have no knowledge of any maternal behaviors related to children's social aggression. Presently, there is no systematic study examining how much mothers know of their child's involvement in social aggression, nor about specific maternal reactive or instructive behaviors related to social aggression. Investigating these variables may inform our understanding of why some children develop and utilize these behaviors more than others. An important next step in understanding the origins of social aggression is the comprehensive investigation of specific parenting characteristics and aspects of the family environment that may contribute to these behaviors in children.

Summary of the Neighborhood Context

Strikingly, our quantitative analyses have suggested few gender or ethnic differences in the association between various contextual-level variables and adolescent friendships. However, our qualitative data has indicated that gender and ethnicity shape the ways in which adolescents experience contexts such as schools, neighborhoods, and friendships. For example, our interviews suggest that Black and Latino students' frustration with the preferential treatment by teachers shown toward Asian American students in school creates a hostile peer climate for Asian American students. Furthermore, boys, particularly Black and Latino (the boys who are most likely to be the victims of violence in urban areas), express frustration with the violence and backstabbing in their neighborhoods and respond by keeping to themselves rather than spending time with their friends outside of school. Finally, the wariness of adolescents' parents toward non-familial friends may be influenced by being a part of...

Financial Independence

Although independent decision making and financial independence rank high as criteria for the transition to adulthood, and both have connotations of independence from parents, it is interesting to note that several studies of relationships with parents among adolescents and emerging adults emphasize that these forms of independence do not signify emotional separation from parents. This literature stresses that autonomy (independence of thought and behavior) and relatedness (emotional closeness and support) are complementary rather than opposing dynamics in parent-child relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood in the American middle class (Arnett, 2004 Allen, Hauser, Bell, & O'Connor, 1994 Ryan & Lynch, 1989 O'Connor, Allen, Bell, & Hauser, 1996). In fact, it is a consistent finding in these studies that young people who are more self-reliant also report closer relationships to their parents. In the present study, this is reflected in the finding that not deeply tied to...

Emotion Management Versus Emotional Integration

Our theory that children move toward more autonomous regulation does not imply that they increasingly manage their emotions apart from others. Autonomous self-regulation of emotion is not synonymous with regulation that is independent from others or is accomplished alone. Autonomous regulation may actively involve others. In fact, emotion regulation can be conceptualized as a mutual process in which caretakers and children influence each other in ongoing ways. Such mutual regulation is a quality of close relationships and is the context within which children develop regulatory strategies (Cole, Teti, & Zahn-Waxler, 2003).

Economic Conditions and Welfare Policy

Economists and scholars concerned with welfare policy have been concerned primarily with how economic conditions and policies influence adults' work, income, and life choices and, secondarily, with how these aspects of parents' lives affect their children (e.g., Hauser & Sweeney, 1997 Haveman & Wolfe, 1994 see Foster 2003 for economists' approaches to child development). One question they often pose is, how important is family income per se, above and beyond the other factors associated with poverty (e.g., depression, education level) To what extent are the correlates of poverty due to factors other than income (e.g., single mother families, low parent education) Some argue that how children develop is based less on monetary resources and more on parenting practices and skills, role modeling, moral character, and other familial characteristics. Some believe the solution to poverty is to provide income to the poor rather than try to change their family structures, education levels, and...

Social Experiences

In short, a mother's tendency to talk to her children about mental states, to be mind minded in Meins' terms, may be important to theory of mind primarily because it reveals psychological sensitivity toward her child (Harris, in press). Mothers of securely attached children develop ways of communicating that promote a sense of agency and independence in their children (DeRosnay & Harris,

Selfworth Theory

Because children spend so much time in classrooms and are evaluated so frequently there, Covington argued that they must protect their sense of academic competence in order to maintain their sense of self-worth. One way to accomplish this goal is by using those causal attribution patterns that enhance one's sense of academic competence and control attributing success to ability and effort and failure to insufficient effort (Covington & Omelich, 1979 Eccles et al., 1982). Attributing failure to lack of ability is a particularly problematic attribution that students usually try to avoid. However, school evaluation, competition, and social comparison make it difficult for many children to maintain the belief that they are competent academically. Covington (1992) discussed the strategies many children develop to avoid appearing to lack ability. These include procrastination, making excuses, avoiding challenging tasks, and most importantly, not trying. Although...

Nonmaternal Care

A variety of observations about and explanations of these findings linking extensive nonmaternal care in the first year of life with elevated rates of insecure attachment have been offered. Consider first the fact that more than half of the children who experience early and extensive infant day care were classified as secure such variation in response to early day care suggests that separation per se is probably not the principal cause of the elevated rates of insecurity that have been repeatedly chronicled. Consider next that the quality of child care in the United States is known to be limited thus, elevated rates of insecurity may have as much, or more, to do with the nature of the care infants receive when cared for by someone other than mother than by the fact that mother is not providing the care. Especially notable in this regard is the fact that toddlers are more likely to develop secure attachments to those who care for them in child care when these caregivers are more...

Test Anxiety

The nature of anxiety may also change with age. Typically, researchers in this area distinguish between two components of anxiety a worry component and an emotional physical component. Wigfield and Eccles (1989) proposed that anxiety initially may be characterized more by emotionality, but as children develop cognitively, the worry aspect of anxiety should become increasingly salient. This proposal also remains to be tested, but we do know that worry is a major component of the thought processes of highly anxious fifth and sixth graders (Freedman-Doan, 1994). This hypothesis also points to the importance of middle childhood for the development of performance anxiety because these cognitive changes occur most rapidly during the 6- to 9-year-old period of life (Harter, 1998).

Why Am I Doing This

Achievement goal theory is the newest motivational approach to understanding children's engagement in various skill-based activities like school and sports (see Midgley, 2002). This theory focuses on why children think they are engaging in particular achievement-related activities and what they hope to accomplish through their engagement. Although the work related to this theory has progressed independently of the work discussed earlier on the valuing of an activity and on intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, the concepts have strong theoretical links to these other theoretical perspectives. We include it in this chapter because individual differences in goals are likely to affect task engagement, as well as the relations of performance outcomes and engagement in mental health and ability self-concepts.

Welfare Receipt

Even if we agree that family income and material resources affect child development, there are many questions about the pathways and processes by which these effects take place. What experiences occur in children's worlds as a result of poverty or affluence And, what are some of the important individual differences in the experience of poverty that lead to better or worse outcomes for children Two theoretical models provide hypotheses about environmental influences associated with poverty one based on resources and one positing on socialization processes (Huston, 2002). Both emphasize the environments of poverty as links between income and child development. In the following section, we ask whether family economic resources predict the socialization environments in which children develop. If so, to what extent do these socialization environments mediate the effects of economic resources on child outcomes We examine three socialization contexts family, child care, and out of school...


The final set of items included 3 items that assess egalitarianism (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you .People are all equal, no matter what the color of their skin or where they come from. ), 2 items that assess cultural socialization (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you You should be proud to be insert racial ethnic group . ), and 3 items that assess preparation for bias (e.g., How often have you told your child have your parents told you racial ethnic group people are more likely to be treated unfairly or poorly than are other people. ). Several issues merit attention in this regard. First, although Egalitarianism and Cultural Socialization are conceptually distinct, they were not empirically distinct in the present sample, as revealed by a principal axes factor analysis. Notably, Hughes (2003) also found Egalitarianism and Cultural Socialization were indistinguishable empirically in a sample of urban African American...


Although longitudinal and correlational studies have demonstrated that parenting practices mediate the effects of poverty, experimental studies of welfare and employment policies, including the New Hope study, consistently show little or no evidence that employment and income changes affect parenting practices. Instead, these experimental studies suggest that participation in programs such as New Hope affects the type and quality of child care and out of school activities children engage in, and that these are the pathways by which policies that increase income and offer child-care resources affect children's developmental outcomes. Poverty predicts the amount, type, and quality of nonmaternal care that children receive, and the amount and types of out of school activities in which they participate. Children from low-income families are more likely to receive home-based and low-quality child care and less likely to participate in center-based care and structured out of school...

Promotion of Cell Cell Adhesion

Cell-cell adhesion molecules, typically cadherin family members and desmo-somal members, are essential for cancer cells to adhere to each other and to remain in the tumour as a mass. Loss or dysfunction of these molecules will result in the increase of cell invasiveness and motility. These molecules have been firmly demonstrated to act as metastasis inhibiting molecules in clinical studies (24). Compelling evidence indicates a reverse relationship between these molecules and capability of invasion metastasis. Thus, agents capable of up-regulating the expression and or the function of these molecules may have a role in the intervention of cancer metastasis. Some of the agents are known to have such properties, including gamma linolenic acid (GLA), tamoxifen, IGF-I, oestradiol, retinoic acid, and some hormones (for reviews see refs 3,5, and chapter 5).

The Supergene Family Of Chemotactic Cytokines

The fact that multiple chemotactic agents possess little in the way of cell specificity remained at odds with the microscopic pathology of certain acute and chronic diseases, which are characterized by specific leukocyte populations. For example, many acute inflammatory reactions with a bacterial etiology are dominated by the presence of neu-trophils, whereas many chronic immune reactions are characterized by the presence of specific mononuclear leukocyte populations. Insight into this long-standing enigma has been provided by discoveries demonstrating that a family of chemotactic cytokines, called chemokines, possess a relatively high degree of specificity for the elicitation of leukocyte subpopulations (2,23,27,28). These chemokines belong to related polypep-tide groups, identified by the location of cysteine residues near the amino terminus that comprised the primary amino acid structure (Table 1). In one supergene family, the two amino terminal cysteines are separated by a...

Inhibition of Extracellular Matrix ECM Degradation

The ECM proteins are degraded by extracellular or cell associated proteolytic enzymes that are secreted by both tumour cells and stromal cells and belong to two classess metalloproteases (collagenases etc.) which are a family of zinc-dependent enzymes that degrade all of the major components of the extracellular matrix, and serine proteases (urokinase-type plasminogen activator, or u-PA) which have a highly reactive serine residue in their active site (details of these enzyme can be seen in Chapter 5 by Noe and collegues). MMP family members contain a HEXGH motif in the active site and a PRCGVPD sequence in the pro-domain that maitain enzyme latency. The activation of the enzymes is via a mechnism known as cysteine switch (8), in which cleavage of the pro-domain destablizses the inhibitory interation


Abstract Annexins comprise a conserved family of proteins characterised by their ability to bind and order charged phospholipids in membranes, often in response to elevated intracellular calcium. The family members (there are at least 12 in humans) have become specialised over evolutionary time and are involved in a diverse range of cellular functions both inside the cell and extracellularly

Primary Induction Failure

Several studies have shown that some patients who fail primary induction therapy can still be cured if treated with allogeneic transplantation. For example, the European Bone Marrow Transplant Group reported long-term survival in 20 of such patients treated with matched sibling transplantation.36 These results emphasize the importance of HLA-typing patients and family members at the time of diagnosis so that valuable time will not be lost should induction therapy fail. This is particularly important if the patient does not have a matched sibling and an alternative source of stem cells, such as a matched unrelated donor or unrelated cord blood, must be identified.

Quality Control And Quality Assurance Issues With Molecular Tests

There are certain unique ethical issues raised by molecular tests, especially those pertaining to testing for genetic diseases by virtue of their predictive nature and the implications of positive findings for insurability, employment, and other family members. Although not widespread, there have been instances of adverse effects and discrimination as a result of genetic testing, even for recessive mutations (4,76-78). Information in the medical record is legally recognized as private and confidential (3,76). Pathologists, clinicians, and health care workers should not disclose confidential information to others without the patient's consent, actual or implied. With current information technology and the numerous personnel with legitimate access to medical records in electronic form, there has been a perceived need for new regulations and technology to provide greater security of the data and maintain confidentiality. Laboratories performing molecular testing have a heightened role to...

Health Risks Associated with Single Parent Families

While there appears to be a consensus that children of single parents, especially of single mothers, exhibit behaviors that range from antisocial to increased teenage pregnancy, there is contradictory evidence about increased health risks associated with single-parenthood. Harris and colleagues (1999) reported a very well designed study comparing adolescents from intact families, single-parent families, and blended families coping with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). Data on wide-ranging medical, social, and psychological factors were collected on 119 adolescents and their primary caregivers. Of these, 65 resided in intact families, 38 in single-parent families, and 16 in blended families. Adolescent subjects had an average age of 14.3 years. A number of studies, however, have reported on the negative consequences of single-parenthood and nontraditional families on the management of their children's diseases. Soliday et al. (2001) found that in a group of 41 parents of children with...

Depression and Single Parents

One study that did not clearly fall into the above categories investigated the question of family transmission of depression from mother to child. A sample of 115 white, middle-class mothers (mean age 39.6 years) and their children (mean age 13.1 years) was compared with an African-American, predominantly single-mothers group (mean age 32.9 years) and their children (mean age 8.6 years) for maternal depression and depression in their children (Jones et al., 2000). A critical finding was that maternal depression was predictive of child depressive symptoms. No direct evidence was found for a higher rate of depression in single mothers and their children. The quality of the mother-child relationship was also found to have a nonsignificant effect. The strongest support emerged for transmission of depressive symptoms from mother to child. Eamon and Zuehl (2001) also found that maternal depression in single mothers influenced their children's emotional problems directly and indirectly...

Other Members of the Fold

In summary, the tubulin superfamily consists of the subunits that make up the microtubules, but also closely related proteins that are all likely to be involved in the assembly and function of the centrosome, and of the microtubules of the cen-triole basal body. It seems likely that the reason that large swaths of eukaryotic groups do not have some of these family members is that they either lack basal bodies and flagella, or have variations on the conserved theme. Likely all of the conserved tubulin families have already been identified in the available genome sequences, but there is still much room for black sheep to have developed in organisms that specialize in the ciliated lifestyle.

Atr Gene Polymorphisms And Hypertension

For AT1R gene, the silent A1166C SNP has been associated with the severe form of essential hypertension, and in particular in resistant hypertensive patients taking two or more antihypertensive drugs (9,24). The C allele was particularly overrepresented in Caucasian hypertensive subjects with a strong family history (25), and it was also significantly more frequent in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension, whereas ACE I D and AG M235T polymorphisms were not associated with predisposition to development of hypertension in pregnant women (26). However, a significant interaction between the ACE I D and AT1R A1166C polymorphisms in terms of influence on BP variation has been reported (27), but their linkage mechanism remains unclear. Henskens et al. (28) recently confirmed an association of both these polymorphisms with BP in healthy nor-motensive subjects, although synergistic effects did not seem to be present in these studies ACE D allele and AT1R C allele were associated with...

Staying in Control of the Interview Setting

Second, there are legitimate interruptions that take a few minutes to manage. For example, the secretary at your seven-year-old daughter's school telephones your office, indicating your child is ill and needs to be picked up from school. This interruption may require five minutes for the interviewer to contact a friend or family member who is free to pick up the child. In this situation, the interviewer should inform the client that a short break from their session is necessary, apologize, and then make the telephone calls. On returning to the session, the interviewer should apologize again, offer restitution for the time missed from the session (e.g., ask the client Can you stay an extra five minutes today or Is it okay to make up the five minutes we lost at our next session ), and then try, as smoothly as possible, to begin where the interview had been interrupted.

Therapeutic Approaches and Changing Family Patterns

Sargent (2001) has given clear recognition to the needs of many if not most single-parent families that extends well beyond the parameters of systems-based family therapy. He noted that more than 60 of American children live some part of their childhood in a single-parent household. In recognition of the vulnerabilities of these families, Sargent recognizes the following stressors of single parenthood economic concerns need for social support relationship issues of children with noncustodial parents balance among home, child rearing, and work relationship with and support from the extended family balance between nurturance and limit setting for children throughout development maintaining a positive relationship with children and between siblings time pressures the need for a fulfilling personal and social life recognizing one's strengths and accomplishments collaboration with the noncustodial parent health concerns of parent and children negotiations with school, child care providers,...

Ligand Binding Domains

A possible site for long-chain FA binding in the extracellular domain of CD36 has been identified with an alignment comparing CD36 sequence with that of a representative member of the lipocalin family of cytosolic FA binding proteins 16 . Members of this family may exhibit as little as 20 sequence identity but share a common and distinct structural motif. The region comprising amino acids 127-279 of CD36 exhibits homology to human muscle FA binding protein (M-FABP) throughout 73 of its sequence, although identity is only 14.5 . Secondary structure predictions indicate this sequence may consist of a single a-heli-cal region interposed between regions of sheets similar to the known structure of M-FABP and other lipocalin family members. It is also of interest that of the amino acids conserved throughout the lipocalin family, Arg126 and Tyr128 of M-FABP, which interact with the FA carboxyl group and are necessary for FA binding, are conserved in this alignment (Arg272 and Tyr275 of...

Identification Of The Cellulose Synthaselike Genes

The CSL proteins contain the GT-2 family signature as well as the conserved U domains containing catalytic aspartic acid residues and QXXRW motif (Table 3-2). Members of the superfamily differ in their size, topology, and predicted physical properties. A major difference between the proteins of the CSL and CESA families is the lack of the zinc-binding domain in most CSL family members (Richmond and Somerville 2000). This may indicate that CSL proteins do not participate in forming complexes to the same degree as the CESA proteins and supports a possible function of these enzymes in making single polymer chains rather than mul-

CD137L Structure and Expression

CD137L is a 34 kD glycoprotein with probable involvement of the N-linked sites, and possibly also the three putative O-linked sites (Goodwin et al., 1993). Under reducing conditions, CD137L has an apparent MW of 97 kD suggesting that it is a disulfide-linked homodimer. The C terminal 200 residues of full-length recombinant CD137L appear to contain glycosylation sites and at least one interchain disulfide bond capable of generating homodimers. This region has the lowest degree (14-16 ) of sequence identity with various other family members. Based on sequence data, CD137L has a tertiary structure very similar to that of TNF and LT- a, which is consistent with its being oligomeric. The region between strands D The C-terminal residues of TNF and LT-a together form p-strand I, an integral part of the tertiary fold. There are seven extra C-terminal residues in CD137L these probably form a flexible tail that does not exist in other family members. This putative tail is reminiscent of the...

Why Is My Husband So Angry

In this case, the question of burden is relevant. When Mr. Elmer withdrew from his family, much of the responsibility for child care and household activities fell firmly on the shoulders of Mrs. Elmer. She also had to contend with vastly reduced family income. Perhaps she could have coped with these added responsibilities if she did not have to live under the threat of abuse. It is also noteworthy that she lost a reliable partner, who had been a source of much support for her.

Regulation of FATP expression

Or protein levels associated with physiologic or pathophysiologic changes in cellular LCFA utilization 49, 50 , it is possible that post-translational modifications or alterations in subcellular localization serve as an important means of regulation of FATP1 function. Moreover, these studies do not examine potential changes in expression of other FATP family members.

Targets for Selective Intervention

Based on these criteria, a number of diastolic membrane currents can be eliminated as potential targets. IK1 is selectively expressed in secondary rather than primary pacemaker tissues, but altering its magnitude affects the action potential duration (Miake et al. 2002). It is unknown whether IKdd is present in the SA node although it is present in atrium (Wu et al. 1999) . Unfortunately, as stated above, nothing is known about its molecular origins. The T-type calcium current is expressed in both primary and secondary pacemaker regions, as is the Na Ca exchanger. Neither provides current selectively at diastolic potentials. The cardiac isoform of the TTX-sensitive sodium current is absent in primary pacemaker cells and present in Purkinje fibers however, its contribution is not selectively limited to diastole. It contributes to the upstroke of the action potential and helps determine the action potential duration and conduction velocity. If is activated selectively at diastolic...

Significance of FATPs

Whether FATP family members function as transporters for LCFAs remains to be established. Although functional studies suggest these proteins play a role in LCFA import in mammalian cells, several questions remain. First, the membrane topology for each of these proteins does not resemble those of polytopic membrane transporters for hydrophilic substrates. Many transporters are predicted to have transmembrane domains (4-12 per transporter) consisting of primarily a-hel-ical structures of 17 or more amino acids that span the phospholipid bilayer and form a three-dimensional channel through which substrate passes. Second, gain and loss of function studies are potentially confounded by cellular metabolic compensations. Third, tight coupling of transport and esterification render measurements of transport alone difficult. Fourth, loss of function studies may be complicated by compensatory upregulation of expression of other highly related protein family members. Regardless of the exact...

Case Illustration Mrs Gardner

The rest of the family members learned to fend for themselves. The first troublesome event was Ann's theft of some articles from a neighbor's house for which she had no use whatsoever. She made no effort to conceal her crime and was easily found out by her father. He did not make an issue of it, but had a quiet talk with her. When Mrs. Gardner discovered this transgression, she severely chastised Ann and made her return the articles and apologize to the neighbor. This was the beginning of Ann's rebellious behavior.

Other Potential Nosocomial Exposures

Hospital visitors should not be permitted to visit if they have any fever or respiratory illness. Visitors should wash their hands before and after leaving the patient's room. In outbreak settings such as respiratory viruses in the community, it may be prudent to restrict visitation to immediate family members.

Regional Distribution of HCN Isoforms and MiRP1

If a selective pharmacology is to be developed, it is useful to know not only regional differences in biophysical properties but also the regional distribution of the HCN family members and all auxiliary subunits in the relevant cardiac regions, as well as the potential functional differences that these regional distributions would induce. A number of studies employing either RNase protection assays (RPAs) or quantitative RT-PCR have examined the distribution of HCN isoforms in various cardiac regions in canine and rabbit heart (Shi et al. 2000 Shi et al. 1999 Han et al. 2002). A number of generalizations can be made. First, the SA node has the highest levels of HCN transcripts, and the dominant isoform ( 80 ) is HCN4. It also contains some HCN1. Ventricular muscle contains predominantly HCN2 and has a much lower expression of HCN transcripts in general. Midway between these two extremes is the Purkinje fiber with about one-third the expression level observed in the SA node, about 40...

Empowering the Client

Women's health groups and disease-focused social movements have long negotiated between objectives of empowerment and protection as they articulate their identities. The first edition of Our Bodies, Ourselves, published in 1973, served as the modern, empowered woman's bible that launched a generation of women's health activism. It popularized the phrase Knowledge is Power, and it emphasized the importance of an individual's control over her body through knowledge, particularly in the face of what the authors perceived to be a paternalistic medical establishment Finding out about our bodies and our bodies' needs, starting to take control over that area of our lives, has released for us an energy that has overflowed into our work, our friendships, our relationships with men and women, and for some of us, our marriages and parenthood. 16 Simultaneously, however, the book

The Interplay Of Innate And Adaptive Antitumor Immunity

As discussed earlier, innate immunity functions not only to direct antitumor effects but also to stimulate the generation of adaptive immune responses through the presentation of tumor antigens by DCs. Studies have shown that the type of stimuli present in the tumor microenvironment dictates the type of program for DC activation, thereby directing adaptive responses toward either protective immunity or tolerance (Gabrilovich, 2004). The detection of danger signals elicited by stress or cell death and interactions with other innate cells appears to be important for triggering DC activation. Thus, NK cells that recognize NKG2D ligand-positive, MHC class I-deficient tumors NKT cells that detect CDld-presented lipids and y8-T cells that recognize CD1-presented antigens can all interact productively with DCs. In this cross-talk, cytokines, B7 family members, and CD40 play critical roles.

Clients Journey through the Professional Organizations System

ASCO, by contrast, suggested that health-care professionals (e.g., oncologists, primary-care physicians) use a client's family history to determine access. It asked health-care professionals to recommend testing only if clients had (1) at least two family members with breast cancer and one with ovarian cancer, (2) at least three family members diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 50, or (3) had or was one of two sisters with breast and or ovarian cancer under the age of 50.22 Although this restriction would neither provide the additional protections accorded to research subjects nor enhance broader understandings of breast cancer genetics by contributing to the investigational process, it would be of clinical value to the client. ASCO argued that the limitation would increase the utility of testing and future risk-management options for clients, because the mutations found in those with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer would be more likely connected to future...

Defining the Roles of System Participants

There was, however, one important difference between the traditional patient and the identity of the new BRCA-testing client. While the doctor-patient relationship was usually considered an interaction between individuals, many of these organizations identified the client as part of a family in which there may be a history of cancer. In fact, ASCO suggested that access to care be limited according to a client's family history of breast and ovarian cancer. As was discussed in the introduction, many scholars have suggested that this transformation of the client from an individual to a member of a family is one of the major new challenges posed by genetic medicine. Diagnoses of genetic risk and disease now have repercussions far beyond the individual client, as family members must take this information into account as they make their own health-care and lifestyle decisions. We shall see, however, that even this implication of genetic medicine depends on the architecture of the testing...

Familial HDLdeficiency and ABCA1

Interestingly, obligate heterozygotes for TD mutations have approximately 50 of plasma HDL, but normal LDL levels 138 . Studying 13 different mutations in 77 heterozygous individuals, Clee et al. described a more than 3-fold risk of developing coronary artery disease in affected family members and earlier onset compared with unaffected members 139, 140 . However, these results seem to be biased towards the atherosclerotic phenotype, since the prevalence of splenomegaly is much higher in the European group of ABCA1 deficiency patients 46 . These authors also reported an age-dependent modification of the ABCA1 heterozygous phenotype 140 .

Function and Regulation of ABC Transporters in Lipid Transport

Due to the strong interest in the primary drug-transporting ABC proteins, other aspects of cellular functions, such as lipid homeostasis, of this large transporter superfamily has been for long time remained unknown and unappreciated. The first implication that ABC proteins could participate in lipid binding and or transport came from mdr2 knockout mice, which displayed a complete absence of phospholipids from bile and as a consequence developed liver disease 194 . Subsequently, the translocation of phospholipids by the human homolog MDR3 (ABCB4) was demonstrated 61, 62, 195, 196 . Only a few years later, the identification of the sterol-responsiveness of ABCA1 40 and of other ABC family members 41 had paved the way for the identification of the gene defect in HDL deficiency 6-8 , which was a major clue in proving the importance of ABC transporters in macrophage cholesterol efflux. In a similar manner, the discovery of the genetic defect in 5-sitosterolemia has identified ABCG5 and...

Pain Behaviors and Marital Relations

All patients suffering from chronic pain conditions engage in pain behaviors. Coping with pain often translates into avoidance of certain activities and engaging in others. A not so far-fetched example would be a patient who avoids lifting any heavy or even not so heavy objects, and spends a great deal of time in inactivity. These pain behaviors are frequently encouraged by a caring partner and other family members. Engaging in pain behaviors and their reinforcement by a partner led to the development of psychological intervention that attempted both to eliminate pain behaviors engaged in by the patient and to discourage the partner from supporting or reinforcing such behaviors. There are only a few reports of interventions with spouses, and they are discussed in Chapter 10.

HIV Infection in Children

An estimated 3 million children are infected with HIV, and an estimated 13 to 23 of these children develop an encephalitis characterized by nodules of microglial cells and multinucleated giant cells similar to those in infected adults. Perivascular lymphocytic infiltrations are prominent. In addition, vascular and parenchymal

Other Metastasispromoting Genes

An enhanced metastatic potential is also reported following introduction of H-Ras family members into rodent and human cells (120,121,156,157,158). A number of candidate effector molecules have been implicated as mediators of these metastatatic phenotypes including type IV collagenase (121) and the lysosomal cysteine proteinase, cathepsin L

Managing Hierarchical Associations

While the Associations table can manage arbitrary N-ary data, that does not mean that every association in the database must be stored this way. Use of the Associations table should be restricted to represent highly heterogeneous facts (where both the number and the nature of the axes vary greatly). Facts best managed in the orthodox fashion include parent-child relationships, a special category of binary relationship. These are seen quite commonly in the NS, for example, with receptors (which have subtypes), and anatomical structures (which have substructures).

Megalin as a Signaling Receptor

Megalin possesses a longer cytoplasmic tail (209 amino acids in human, 213 in rat) than other LDL-R family members with unique sequence motifs 79, 80 (Fig. 4.2). In particular human megalin has three IFxNPxY domains acting as coated pit internalization sequences 136 and or phosphotyrosine interaction domains 137 , four Src homology 3 (SH3) binding regions conforming to the Xp PpXP SH3 binding site consensus recognition motif 138 , and one Src homology 2 (SH2) recognition motif for the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3-kinase 139 . In addition, there are multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, casein kinase II, and cAMP cGMP-dependent protein kinase 80 . These findings suggest that megalin may have signaling or trafficking functions in addition to, or distinct from, those of other LDLR family members.

Educating Cardiac Patients and Relatives

A cardiovascular event is of course also a major negative event for family members. In order for spouses and family members to be able to provide adequate social support, they themselves need support. Spouse and family support can be offered in a group format in cardiac rehabilitation programs. There is evidence that socially isolated CHD patients are at significantly increased risk of further events. These patients need more active support interventions. In sum, the family can be an important asset in

Regulation of Signaling Molecules

More recently, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins have been identified as potent inhibitors of cytokine signaling (Fig. 3). The first family member, cytokine-induced SH2-containing protein (CIS) is induced by erythropoietin (EPO) and IL-3, and associates with tyrosine-phosphory-lated EPO or IL-3 receptors (18). CIS is thought to regulate cytokine signaling by acting as an adapter protein that recruits a negative regulator, or by blocking the phosphotyrosines of the activated receptor that normally bind to STATs. Although transgenic mice overexpressing CIS have severe defects in T-cell development (19), the importance of CIS in vivo is undefined. The second SOCS family member, SOCS-1 (a.k.a. JAB and SSI-1), was cloned by three different groups (20-22). The same gene was cloned as an inhibitor of IL-6 signaling, a JAK-binding protein, and a protein with an SH2 domain similar to STAT's. Other members of the SOCS family, SOCS-2 through SOCS-7, were identified in an analysis...

Synaptic Functions of Reelin

Several studies suggest that reelin together with VLDL and apoER2 receptors are involved in synaptic plasticity (Fig. 1). Reeler mice show abnormal LTP in some layers of the hippocampus (Ishida et al. 1994) and even heterozygous reeler mice exhibit a decrease of dendritic spine density on cortical and CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus (Liu et al. 2001). Application of reelin to wild-type hippocampal slices produces a significant increase in LTP (Weeber et al. 2002). Application of receptor-associated protein RAP, a specific and broad-spectrum inhibitor of ligand binding to all low density lipoprotein receptor family members, almost completely blocks LTP (Liu et al. 2001 Weeber et al. 2002). A modest decrease in short-term potentiation is observed in VLDL receptor-deficient mice, although LTP in these mutants is nearly identical to that of the wild-type mice. However, apoER2 mice were strongly impaired in LTP. Importantly, when reelin was applied to slices from VLDL...

Evaluating Interpersonal Style

Did you have any brothers or sisters (If so, how many ) What memories do you have of time spent with your siblings Who was your closest sibling and why Who were you most similar to in your family Who were you most dissimilar to in your family Do you remember your first day of school How was school for you (Did you like school ) What was your favorite (or best) subject in school What subject did you like least (or were you worst at) Do you have any vivid school memories Who was your favorite (or least favorite) teacher What made you like (or dislike) this teacher so much Were you ever suspended or expelled from school Describe the worst trouble you were ever in when in school. Were you in any special or remedial classes in school Do you remember having many friends in school What kinds of things did you do for fun with your friends Did you get along better with boys or girls What positive (or negative) memories do you have from relationships you had with your friends in elementary...

The Effects on Children

A 14-year-old boy, whose mother had persistent headache following an automobile accident, reported that his father was yelling at him for no reason. His mother could hear from her bed the angry outbursts of her husband, which she found to be very distressing. In therapy, the father acknowledged that he was taking his anger out on his son (a fine illustration of indirect and masked message) for his frustration with what had happened to his wife. He and his wife had a wonderful partnership, and now everything was put at risk because of an accident. His frustration and anger did not have any legitimate outlet and found inappropriate expression. He could not tell his wife about his disappointment and anger because he knew that she was just as upset or perhaps even more so. The boy complained that he had no one to talk to. His father was angry and he did not wish to upset his mother with his problems. His only recourse was to withdraw. His 10-year-old sister was spared his father's anger...

The Nature of Inheritance

It is the combination of alleles from our mothers and fathers that help determine what traits we have. The environment in which the alleles are used also plays a role. Just as two people reading the same set of instructions may build slightly different dollhouses, embryos developing in slightly different environments may vary in appearance. Part of the reason you do not look exactly like your siblings is because you each developed in dissimilar conditions. These conditions could include your mother's nutrition during pregnancy, the presence of toxic compounds in her environment, or even the number of other siblings in your family at the time of your birth. Two of the important questions in the nature versus nurture debate mentioned in the introduction focus upon the relative importance of the environment of development and the aspects of the environment that most strongly affect the result of the instructions.

Structure And Function Of Histone Acetyltransferases

A second family of histone HATs was named the MYST family, after its founding members MOZ, yeast YBF2 (renamed Sas3), yeast Sas2, and TIP60. Proteins in this family share a C2H2 zinc finger and an HAT domain that together comprises the MYST domain (Yang, 2004). Outside this domain, which encompasses approximately 370 amino acids, the overall homology between family members is very limited, and they differ substantially in other structural domains and size (Yang, 2004). Two mammalian members of the family, MOZ (monocytic leukaemia zinc finger protein) and MORF (MOZ related factor) however display significant homology, both in amino acid sequence and in domain architecture. As depicted in Fig. 1b, MOZ and MORF contain 2 PHD-type zinc fingers in the C-terminus and a centrally located MYST domain. In addition, a repression domain was found in the N-terminus, while the C-terminus contains an activation domain (Champagne et al., 1999a, 2001). Despite their high degree of homology MOZ and...

The Meaning of Social Support

Two conclusions can be drawn from the above. First, positive social support is important for the prognosis of CHD patients. This entails emotional (understanding and acceptance of feelings), appraisal (good advice and opportunity to discuss how to manage the new life situation), informational (knowledge about CHD, risk factors, and lifestyle), and instrumental (help with practical problems). All of these aspects should be included in comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention. Second, in order for spouses and family members to be able to provide adequate social support, they themselves need social support. There is evidence that when spouses exhibit higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower sense of control than the patient, the patient's psychosocial adjustment to illness is adversely affected.6 It is a good investment to offer some structured support to spouses and family members of CHD patients. There are at least three reasons for this. First, family...

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Darwin made occasional visits to health resorts or to see Ras in London. As time went on, he left Down House less and less often, but he had many visitors. Some were family members, but others were Darwin's scientific friends Henslow, Lyell, and others. One welcome guest was Joseph Hooker (1817-1911), a botanist whom Darwin had met in 1839. Later, Hooker recalled his first impression of Darwin a rather tall and rather broad-shouldered man, with a slight stoop, an agreeable and animated expression when talking, beetle brows, and a hollow but mellow voice. Hooker admired Darwin and dreamed of making voyages of scientific exploration like the one Darwin had made in the Beagle eventually he traveled to Antarctica and the Himalaya Mountains. Hooker became Darwin's closest confidant and was to emerge as one of the staunchest supporters of Darwin's ideas. In 1850 Darwin became acquainted with a young zoologist named Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-95), who had just returned from a round-the-world...

Historical Context

The organ transplantation industry is the subject of Coma. Each day in 2001 63 people in the United States received an organ transplant another 16 on the waiting list died because organs were unavailable. Driver's licenses and living wills may have an advance donor directive however, family members often have the final word. Therefore, potential donors should tell family members of their wishes in advance. Living donors cannot donate if it is life-threatening, with uncoerced,

Frequent Inactivation Of Atm In Sporadic Leukemias

Those missense ATM mutations found in cancer patients but not in either AT patients or normal controls also are likely to be class 2 mutations (e.g., the missense mutations seen in T-PLL 227 ). These cancer patients may not have a strong family history or a particularly early age of onset, given that the penetrance of class 2 ATM mutations may still be low compared to that of BRCA1 and BRCA2. In addition, because class 2 mutations are missense mutations, they would be missed by the protein truncation test (PTT) screening assays frequently used in initial surveys of ATM mutations in cancer patients (209,210).

Anticipating the test

Alice I think I thought I will go along there and there will be some answer to it. If they said well 'yes your family history shows a leaning toward it being genetic', then they would have taken the blood test and come back and said well 'these are the three things that you're susceptible to'. I think I thought it would be like they would do those tests when they say 'oh you're allergic to this and this' to come back and say 'well you're likely to get A, B and C'.

Clients Journey through the Proposed National System

Once at the regional genetics clinic, the moderate- or high-risk client typically met with a specialist in genetics and received counseling about the meaning of BRCA testing and its risks and benefits. If the high-risk client chose to pursue laboratory analysis, one of her family members who had been affected by breast or ovarian cancer had to be tested first. Mackay and Zimmern argued that this would increase the likelihood that a mutation found in a family was linked to disease incidence and thus would enhance the utility of the test results. If the family member consented to laboratory analysis of her BRCA genes, the health-care professional sent her blood to the in-house laboratory. If she tested positive for a BRCA mutation, then the client originally interested in testing (as well as other family members) could be tested for the same mutation. Even if no affected relatives of the high-risk client could be tested first, however, she would still have access to additional...

Mechanotransduction Mechanisms in Visceral Afferents

Mechanotransduction is fundamental to the perception of distension, contraction, mucosal contact, and a number of other visceral stimuli. Understanding the molecular basis of mechanotransduction may therefore hold the key to designing effective therapies for visceral pain. The number of candidate molecules as mechanotransducers is increasing with the discovery of novel molecules and improved understanding of established molecules. The major candidates are two families of ion channels the degenerin epithelial sodium channel (DEG ENaC) family, and the TRP family. The DEG ENaCs in mammals comprise mainly of the acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) and ENaCs (191,192). Candidate TRP channels in mechanotransduction are TRPV1, V4, C1, and A1 (109,193-195). ASICs were first implicated in mechanotransduction by their close relation to invertebrate channels, without which there are deficits in touch perception (196). It is clear from knockout, patch clamp and expression studies that ASIC1, 2, and...

Primary Structure of Caspases

Caspases Structure

Caspases are synthesized as zymogens consisting of an N-terminal prodomain followed by a large subunit of about 20 kD, named p20, and a small subunit of about 10 kD, named p10 (Fig. 1 and 2). In a number of procaspases the p20 and p10 subunits are separated by a small linker sequence. Caspase prodomains range in length from 5 amino acids for murine caspase-6 to 219 amino acids for caspase-10. The large N-terminal prodomains of mammalian caspases generally encompass protein-protein interaction modules such as the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and death effector domain (DED). The prodomains of zebrafish caspy and caspy2 contain a PYRIN motif, originally found in PYRIN.25 CSP-1 and -2 in C. elegans and STRICA in Drosophila also have large prodomains. However, their role in protein-protein interactions is still unclear and no known motifs were identified in these domains so far. Modules such as CARD, DED and probably PYRIN allow caspases to be recruited in protein complexes resulting...

Regulation Of Tight Junctions

Peripheral protein such as the MAGUK family members. The assembly and function of tight junctions are highly regulated, by events such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, by kinases (such as protein kinase C and GTPase). In addition to the control of paracellular permeability, it is also involved in the cell-cell adhesion.

Assessing Client Self Control and Past or Familial Attempts

Finally, always ask if the client has threatened or attempted suicide in the past, or if close friends or family members have attempted or committed suicide. Nearly three-fourths of people who ultimately commit suicide have a history of previous attempts (Resnik, 1980) and the greater the lethality of previous attempts, the higher the present risk. Additionally, for complex reasons, past suicide attempts or completions among a client's friends or family members are associated with increased loss of control and suicidal behavior.

Tight Junctions A Critical Structure In The Control Of Cancer Invasion And Metastasis

Its main function is to control the paracellular diffusion of ions and certain molecules. Although the structure has been known for decades, the molecular composition of the tight junction has only been recognised in the past decade. Molecules making up tight junctions include the transmembrane proteins occludin, claudin and paracellin, and cytoplasmic proteins, MAGUK family members. The structure has now been demonstrated as also having a role in the control of cancer cell penetration of the endothelium and in the development of cancer.

CD137 and Regulatory T Cells Treg

The concept of suppressor T cells exits for decades as a mechanism for the regulation of peripheral tolerance, though the molecular evidence for this phenomenon is largely unknown. During the last ten years, the identification of CD4+CD25+ cells as a suppressor T cell subtype by Sakaguchi and colleagues have triggered explosive growth of knowledge in this field (Sakaguchi, 2004). In normal mice, approximately 10 of CD4+ T cells express CD25. These cells are anergic when stimulated via their TCR but can proliferate in presence of IL-2. CD4+CD25+ cells can inhibit a variety of types of immune responses, both in culture and in vivo. The development of CD4+CD25+ seems to be IL-2-dependent and requires endogenous B7-CD28 interaction, as the absence of IL-2, IL-2R, CD80 CD86, or CD28 results in a dramatic reduction of Treg number in peripheral lymphoid tissues (Bluestone and Abbas, 2003). Besides CD25, Foxp3, a Forkhead family transcriptional factor, is emerging as a promising signature for...

Lecticans Differentially Contribute to Synapse Formation and Function

Neurocan Molecular Structure

A final group of extracellular molecules to be discussed in the context of synaptic functioning are the CSPGs of the lectican family (for a review see Yamaguchi 2000). This family comprises four abundant components of brain ECM aggrecan and versican as broadly expressed CSPGs and neurocan and brevican as nervous system-specific family members. Because of manifold post-translational modifications each lectican occurs in several isoforms alternative splicing, differential addition of CS side chains, variable glycosy-lation and controlled proteolytic cleavage yield a whole plethora of discrete molecular species with slightly different spatial and temporal expression patterns, interaction partners and network-forming properties.

Mitochondrial Checkpoints of TCell Activation and Apoptosis

Ppp Ribose Serine

Fig. 1. (continued) (ROS) production, inositol and ADP-ribose serve as precursors for second messengers inositol phosphates and cADP-ribose, respectively. Dehydroascorbate (DHA) is imported through glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). DHA is metabolized through the PPP, thereby enhancing GSH levels. DHA also increases surface expression of Fas-R (93). Glutathione reductase and TRX reductase synthesize GSH and reduced TRX (TRX-DT) at the expense of NADPH. Formulation of the PPP and its efficiency to provide NADPH is dependent on the expression of G6PD and TAL (14,15). AWm is controlled by intracellular GSH NADH NADPH levels integrity of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC), largely comprised of adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT inner membrane) voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC outer membrane) and translocation and dimerization of pro- and antiapoptotic bcl-2 family members in the intermembrane space (34). Phosphorylation of BAD by mitochondria-anchored PKA results in...

Disorders with Hypokalemia and a Normal or High ECF Volume

Treatment For Hyperkalemia

(GRA), however, also have elevated plasma aldosterone levels with suppressed PRA. These patients typically have the onset of hypertension in early adulthood and a strong family history of hypertension, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular events. The hypersecretion of aldostero-ne in these patients is suppressed with the - Clinical picture The onset of severe hypertension may occur in early adulthood. There is often a strong family history of hypertension and early onset of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Interestingly, hypokalemia is not present in a significant number of these patients.

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