Bone Marrow As A Source Of Cells For Brain Repair

Hematopoietic and Nonhematopoietic Stem Cells Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from bone marrow were first identified for their ability to reconstitute blood lineages they were subsequently shown to differentiate into skeletal and cardiac myocytes, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes. Surprisingly, bone marrow-derived HSCs have been recently described to trans-differentiate into neuroectodermic cell types, e.g., neurons and glial cells (3). Despite some skepticism regarding their capacity...

Adrenal Medulla Tissue Transplants

The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, which is found just above the kidneys. The tissue contains fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, Schwann cells, neurons, and chromaffin cells (35). The chromaffin cells secrete a variety of factors and neurotransmitters, including dopamine. In general, this type of transplant is an autograft, where the host also serves as the tissue donor. This would normally eliminate the need for immunosuppression, but autologous...

Stem Cells

Stem cells can be derived from either embryonic or adult tissue sources and are divided into different classes depending on when they are present and on their differentiation capacity. There are two categories based on when they appear during the lifetime of the organism embryonic stem (ES) cells occur during early embryonic development, and somatic or adult-derived stem cells are present in different tissues in the fully developed organism. It is important to clarify that the term embryonic...

Transplantation Of Nt2n Cells In Stroke Patients

The preclinical studies (see above) demonstrating successful implantation of human-derived NT2N neurons into rat brains paved the way for limited clinical trials. The target stroke patients chosen were at a chronic stage because laboratory data indicated the possibility of reversing motor symptoms associated with a stable stroke. The Food and Drug Administration approved phase I clinical trials of transplantation of NT2N neurons to evaluate this therapy in patients with stable stroke. NT2N...

References

L., Reynolds, B. A., et al. 1999 Turning brain into blood a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. Science 283, 534-537. 2. Sanchez-Ramos, J., Song, S., Cardozo-Pelaez, F., et al. 2000 Adult bone marrow stromal cells differentiate into neural cells in vitro. Exp. Neurol. 164, 247-256. 3. Largaespada, D. A. and Verfaillie, C. M. 2000 Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow. Nature 418, 41-49. 4. Friedenstein, A. J....

Neural Transplantation Of Primary Fetal Striatal Tissue

Dissection Ganglionic Eminences

The relatively focal loss of medium spiny GABAergic projection neurons in the striatum presents an opportunity to explore neural transplantation as a strategy for cell replacement and circuit reconstruction. The medium spiny neurons of the caudate nucleus and putamen form part of a complex circuitry of parallel feedback loops involving discrete areas of cortex and subcortical structures. The medium spiny neurons receive major inputs from the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and substantia nigra pars...

Potential Clinical Applications Of Bmscs In Neurologic Injury And Disease

Since the discovery that a subpopulation of cells within the adult bone marrow may be able to differentiate into neural lineages, BMSCs have become an appealing alternative to traditional donor populations, including fetal neural tissue, neural stem cells, and embryonic stem cells, which are encumbered by significant limitations. First and foremost, utilization of fetal brain and embryonic tissues is fraught with ethical concerns. Procurement of embryos for embryonic stem cells, fetuses for...

58. Emerich D.f. Hemendinger R. And Halberstadt C.r. The Testicular-derived Sertoli Cell Cellular Immunoscience To

R., Paty, B. W., et al. 2002 Successful islet transplantation continued insulin reserve provides long-term glycemic control. Diabetes 51,2148-2157. 2. Shapiro, A. M., Lakey, J. R., Ryan, E. A., et al. 2000 Islet transplantation in seven patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a glucocorticoid-free immunosuppressive regimen. N. Engl. J. Med. 343, 230-238. 3. Balistreri, W. F., Bucuvalas, J. C., and Ryckman, F. C. 1995 The effect of immunosuppression on growth and...

Fetal Vm Tissue Transplants

Fetal VM tissue transplanted into the dopamine-depleted caudate of the striatum always had better success than adrenal medulla grafts 50,51 . Despite being allografts the host is not the donor but is the same species as the donor , fetal VM tissue appeared to induce less immunorejection and gliotic scarring than did adrenal grafts 52-54 . The immune reaction was not substantially different than that seen in sham surgeries 44 . Fetal VM tissue placed into the dopamine-depleted caudate increased...

Sertoli Cells Is There A Role In Transplantation

A relatively long history of research identifies the testes as an immunologically privileged transplant site 25 . As early as the 1940s, intratesticular grafts of human breast sarcoma were shown to remain viable in guinea pig recipients. Discordant tissues, including skin, parathyroid fragments, pancreatic islets, and insulinoma tissue, were also shown in varying degrees to survive and function in the testes. More recent studies in large animals have demonstrated that xenogeneic islets survive...