Activation And Regional Cbf Patterns In Normal Individuals And In Pd

The classical view of the basal ganglia function under normal circumstances is that of a structure in which five separate parallel circuits, under dual control by the direct and indirect pathways, subserve specific areas of the neocortex. These segregated pathways thus process cortical information from the supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PMC) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) lateral orbitofrontal cortex anterior cingulate area and oculomotor cortex. Their role seems to...

References

Thomas P, Hazif-Thomas C, Saccardy F, Vandermarq P. Loss of motivation and frontal dysfunction. Role of the white matter change. Encephale 2004 30 52-59. 2. O'Sullivan M, Morris RG, Huckstep B, Jones DK, Williams SC, Markus HS. Diffusion tensor MRI correlates with executive dysfunction in patients with ischaemic leukoaraiosis J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004 75 441-447. 3. van der Knaap MS, Naidu S, et al. New syndrome characterized by hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and...

Lysosomal Disorders

Krabbe Disorder Infants

Lysosomal disorders may present as a classic leukodystro-phy or a leukoencephalopathy associated with systemic manifestations. The disorders discussed are not exhaustive of lysosomal disease with white matter disorders and are meant to be representative. Metachromatic leukodystrophy is also known as MLD metachromatic leukoencephalopathy cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, metachromatic form sulfatide lipidosis arylsulfatase A deficiency arylsulfatase A (ARSA) deficiency and cerebro-side sulfatase...

Mitochondrial Cytopathies

Mitochondrial disorders are caused by mutations of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA encoded genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Mutations in these critical genes are associated with specific clinical syndromes with diverse presentations (99,100). Because mitochondria are present in many of our organs and play a key role in energy metabolism, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies often present as multisystem disorders that may manifest with neurologic, cardiac, endocrine, gastrointestinal,...

Presynaptic Da Function

18F fluorodopa FDOPA is the radioligand used mostly for quantifying the nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction in PD. This tracer measures the rate of FDOPA decarboxylation and subsequent storage in the dopaminergic nerve terminals. FDOPA uptake is estimated by using a striatal occipital ratio SOR striatal occipital - 1 9,10 or influx constant K computed from dynamic data 11-13 . It has been established that FDOPA uptake is reduced in the posterior putamen but relatively preserved in the...

Summary

Gradient Echo Parkinson Disease

At present, conventional magnetic resonance imaging MRI shows no convincing structural changes in Parkinson's disease PD itself, but it may be useful in helping to distinguish PD from other neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndromes. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy MRS also may provide useful information in distinguishing PD from disorders such as multiple system atrophy. The general field of MRI and MRS is evolving rapidly, and a number of new developments may provide relevant information. Novel...