Effects Of Smoking On The Prevalence And Severity Of Periodontal Disease

Gingivitis

Controlled clinical studies have demonstrated that in human models of experimental gingivitis, the development of inflammation in response to plague accumulation is reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers (Table 14-1).(U" In addition, cross-sectional studies have consistently demonstrated that smokers present with less gingival inflammation than nonsmokers. svSI These data suggest that smokers have a decreased expression ol clinical inflammation in the presence of plague accumulation when compared with nonsmokers. The microbiologic, immunologic, and physiologic factors that might account for this observation are discussed in detail later.

Periodontitis

Although gingival inflammation in smokers appears to be reduced in response to plague accumulation when compared with nonsmokers, an overwhelming body of data

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