External Forces And The Periodontium

I he periodontium exists for the purpose of supporting teeth during function and depends on the stimulation it receives from function for the preservation of its structure. Therefore a constant and sensitive balance is present between external lorces and the periodontal structures.

Alveolar bone undergoes constant physiologic remodeling in response to external forces, particularly occlusal forces. Bone is removed from areas where it is no longer needed and added to areas where it is presently needed. Ihe socket wall reflects the responsiveness ot alveolar bone to external forces. Osteoblasts and newly formed osteoid line the socket in areas of tension; osteoclasts and bone resorption occur in areas of pressure. Forces exerted on the tooth also influence the number, density, and alignment of cancellous tmbeculae. I'he bony tra-beculae are aligned in the path ol the tensile and compressive stresses to provide maximal resistance to the occlusal force with a minimum of bone substance (Fig. 2-.U).4U(K When forces are increased, tile cancellous bony trabeculae increase in number and thickness, and bone may be added to the external surface of the labial and lingual plates.

The periodontal ligament also depends on stimulation provided by function to preserve its structure.

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