Greek Hygiene

1. The current standard of living index is the Human Development Index, which measures longevity (sanitation and health services), knowledge (education), and income (a certain standard of domestic life). See Sudhir Anand, Human Development Index: Methodology and Measurement, Human Development Report Office Occasional Papers, 12 (United Nations Development Programme, 1994). Public health impacts are notoriously difficult to assess, since all ancient-world demographic statistics are necessarily constructed from relatively slight evidence; but see Mirko Grmek, Diseases in the Ancient Greek World, trans. M. and L. Muellner (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press), 91-2 and passim. See also Robin Osborne, Greece in the Making, 1200-479 BC (London: Routledge, 1996).

2. R. E. Wycherley, How the Greeks Built Cities (London: Macmillan, 1962), 198-204.

3. George Ryley Scott, The Story of Baths and Bathing (London: T. W. Lawrie, 1939), 30.

4. Serge Lancel, Carthage: A History, trans. A. Nevill (Oxford: Blackwell, 1995). On the Greek public fountains, and balneology, see Rene Ginouves, Balaneutikë: Recherches sur le bain dans l'antiquité grecque (Paris: Editions E. de Boccard, 1962).

5. Wycherley, How the Greeks Built Cities, 177; David M. Robinson and J. Walther Graham, Excavations at Olynthus, pt. vm: The Hellenic House: A Study of the Houses Found at Olynthus with a Detailed Account of those Excavated in 1931 and 1934 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1938), 199-201.

6. Jean-Nicolas Corvisier, Sante et societe en Gnce ancienne (Paris: Economica, 1985), 68-9.

7. Inge Nielson, Thermae et Balnea (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press, 1990), 7.

8. Henry E. Sigerist, 'Religious Medicine: Asclepius and his Cult', in Sigerist, A History of Medicine, ii: Early Greek, Hindu, and Persian Medicine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961); for a modern study, see Robert Parker, Miasma, Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); and id., Athenian Religion: A History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 175.

9. On temple baths, see Ginouves, Balaneutikë, passim.

10. Parker, Miasma, Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion, 307.

11. Walter Burkert, The Orientalising Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992); on fragmentation, Parker, Miasma, Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion, 210, 304-7.

12. Parker, Miasma, Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion, app. 2: 'The Cyrene Cathartic Law', 332-51, 335, 339.

13. Ibid. 322-3. The translation of the word 'honest' comes from 'to have hosia'.

14. See generally E. Norman Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1930); Mark Golden, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998); David Sansone, The Genesis of Sport (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988).

15. See also Harold D. Evjen, 'The Origins and Functions of Formal Athletic Competition in the Ancient World', in William Coulson and Helmut Kyrileis (eds.), Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Olympic Games, 5-9 September 1988 (Athens: Aohna, 1992); Roland Renson, Pierre Paul de Nay, and Michel Ostyn (eds.), The History, the Evolution and Diffusion of Sports and Games of Different Cultures, Proceedings of the International Association for the History of Physical Education and Sport, Apr. 1975 (Brussels, 1976).

16. Lucian, 'Anacharsis, or Athletics', in Lucian, trans. A. M. Harmon (London: Heinemann; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1925), iv. 11, 13-15, 19.

17. But girls and young women (in Sparta especially) did participate in public games. See Golden, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, 128-9; Allen Guttmann, Women's Sports: A History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 23-4. For Amazonian sports, see Lyn Webster Wilde, On the Trail of the Women Warriors (London: Constable, 1999).

18. Golden, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, Olympic schedule table 2, p. 20.

19. Wycherley, How the Greeks Built Cities, 175-97, 143, ch. vi and passim.

20. Corvisier, Santé et société en Grèce ancienne, 54-5; Nielson, Thermae et Balnea, 1, 9-10.

21. Golden, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, 65-9.

22. N. J. Richardson, 'Panhellenic Cults and Panhellenic Poets', in D. M. Lewis, John Boardman, J. K. Davies, and M. Ostwald (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, 2nd edn. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), v: The Athletes: Background and Careers, 232-6.

23. The Dialogues of Plato, v: The Republic, trans. Benjamin Jowett (London: Sphere Books, 1970), 175; Jacques Jouanna, Hippocrates, trans. M. B. DeBevoise (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 166-7. See also G. E. R. Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practises of Ancient Greek Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 19-20; satirical comments by Philostratus on the art of gymnastics, in Robert Brophy and Mary O'Reilly Brophy, 'Medical Sports Fitness: An Ancient Parody of Greek Medicine', in K. A. Rabuzzi and R. W. Daley (eds.), Literature and Medicine, viii (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).

25. Golden, Sport and Society in Ancient Greece, 68.

26. The 2001 Australian cricket team had large dustbins of iced water provided after the game for all players when on tour—'some of us spend half an hour ''in the bin'', the body feels great after it'—and travel with a dietitian, masseur, psychologist, and coach. Interview in The Ashes, BBC TV, 15 Aug. 2001.

27. H. A. Harris, Sport in Greece and Rome (London: Thames & Hudson, 1972), 112-32; Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World, passim.

28. Grmek, Diseases in the Ancient Greek World, 92, 99; see generally Mark Nathan Cohen, Health and the Rise of Civilisation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989).

29. See G. E. R. Lloyd, 'The Hot and the Cold, the Dry and the Wet in Greek Philosophy', Journal for Hellenic Studies, 84 (1964), 92-106; Vivian Nutton, 'Humoralism' (1), in Bynum and Porter (eds.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 283, 286.

30. Donald J. Harper, Early Chinese Medical Literature: The Mawangdui Medical Manuscripts (London: Kegan Paul International, 1998), 110-12 and passim. Recently discovered Mawangdui and Zhang-jishan medical manuscripts from around 400-200 bce found in aristocratic tombs at Hubei and Hunan in central north-eastern China revealed a body of macrobiotic hygiene literature that was 'far more extensive' than previously thought. I am indebted to Dr Vivienne Lo for this reference.

31. Jouanna, Hippocrates, 156-7; Kenneth G. Zysk, Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 5-6. G. E. R. Lloyd discusses the crucial concept of 'semantic stretch' for words such as katharsis, pharmaka, therapeia, and hygieia in his In the Grip of Disease: Studies in the Greek Imagination (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 9-11 and passim.

32. See the classic description by L. J. Rather, 'The Six Non-Naturals: The Origins of a Doctrine and the Fate of a Phrase', Clio Medica, 3 (1968), 337-47; see also Harold J. Cook, 'Physical Methods', in Bynum and Porter (eds.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 940.

33. 'A Regimen for Health', in Hippocratic Writings, ed. Lloyd, trans. J. Chadwick and W. N. Mann (London: Penguin, 1987), 272-6.

34. On temperance, see especially Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, ed. J. L. Ackrill and J. O. Urmson, trans. David Ross (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), book 10 and passim.

35. Hippocratic Writings, Aphorisms, 211-12.

36. Ibid. 161. See also Andrew Shail and Gillian Howie (eds.), Menstruation: A Cultural History (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), esp. Luigi Arata, 'Menses in the Corpus Hippocraticum', and Monica H. Green, 'Flowers, Poisons and Men: Menstruation in Medieval Western Europe'.

37. For miaino (and all other Greek translations given here), see H. W. and F. G. Fowler (eds.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (Oxford, 1964); see also 'Airs, Waters, Places', in Hippocratic Writings. On miasma, see Owsei Temkin, 'An Historical Analysis of the Concept of Infection', in Temkin, The Double Face of Janus, and Other Essays in the History of Medicine (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977); and more generally Margaret Pelling, 'Contagion/Germ Theory/Specificity', in Bynum and Porter (eds.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine.

38. Hippocratic Writings, 168-9.

39. T. P. Wiseman, Clio's Cosmetics: Three Studies in Greco-Roman Literature (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1979), 8.

40. Anne Carson, 'Putting her in her Place: Women, Dirt, and Desire', in D. Halperin, J.J. Winkler, and F. I. Zeitlin (eds.), Before Sexuality: The Construction of the Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 154-5; Camille Paglia, Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson (London: Penguin, 1991), 6-28, 54-5; Helen King, Hippocrates' Women: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece (London: Routledge, 1998).

41. Plato, Gorgias, trans. Walter Hamilton (London: Penguin, 1981), 465 (pp. 46-7).

42. Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Days, ed. M. L. West (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), pp. 52-3, lines 496-563.

43. Plato, The Republic, 401 (p. 169), 431 (p. 203).

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