Asceticism

1. See generally Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, i: An Introduction, ii: The Use of Pleasure, iii: The Care of the Self, trans. Robert Hurley (London: Penguin, 1986); on askesis, ii. 72-7. See also generally Peter Brown, The Making of Late Antiquity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), and id., 'Asceticism: Pagan and Christian', in Averil Cameron and Peter Garnsey (eds.), The Cambridge Ancient History, xiii: The Late Empire, AD 337-425 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

2. William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience, ed. Martin E. Marty (London: Penguin, 1985), 392-9.

3. Ilana Friedrich Silber, Virtuosity, Charisma and Social Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 80-6, 211-22.

4. Jean Levi, 'The Body: The Daoists' Coat of Arms', in Michel Feher, Ramona Nadeff, Nadia Tazi, and E. Alliez (eds.), Fragments for a History of the Human Body (New York: Zone; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989), pt. iii, pp. 114-17. See also the comments of Marcel Mauss, Sociology and Psychology Essays, trans. Ben Brewster (1950; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), 122; and the sociological studies of his friend the religious historian Marcel Granet, The Religion of the Chinese People, trans. Maurice Freedman (1922; Oxford: Blackwell, 1975). See also Francesca Bray, 'Chinese Medicine', in

W. F. Bynum and Roy Porter (eds.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, 2 vols. (London: Routledge, 1993), i. 728-54; Philip S. Rawson, 'The Body in Tantra', in J. Benthall and T. Polhemus (eds.), The Body as a Medium of Expression (London: Penguin/Allen Lane, 1975).

5. Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, trans. Maxwell Staniforth (London: Penguin, 1964), 93; see also Michel Foucault, Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault, ed. L. H. Martin, H. Gutman, and P. H. Hutton (London: Tavistock, 1988), 22-30.

6. Arnobius, The Case against the Pagans, trans. George E. McCracken (Westminster, Md.: Newmans; London: Longmans Green, 1949), Attack on Philosophy: The Mortality of the Soul, book ii, paras. 4 and 10, pp. 116-17, 121-2.

7. See Brown, The Making of Late Antiquity, 7-9; Jacob Neusner, Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism in Talmudic Babylon (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America,1986), p. x; W. T. Whitley, 'Sects (Christian)', in J. Hastings (ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1913); see also Henry Wace and William Coleman Piercy, A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century AD; with an Account ofthe Principal Sects and Heresies (London: John Murray, 1911). The sectarian history of these regions is extraordinarily dense; among the Judaic Christian sects alone, main groups included the Gnostics, Manichaeans, Nazarenes, Copts, Nestor-ians, and Ebionites, with smaller groups of Marcosians, Monarch-ians, Melchizedekites, Montanites, and Novationists.

10. Jacob Neusner, 'The Idea of Purification in Ancient Judaism', Haskell Lectures 1972-3, with a critique by Mary Douglas, repr. in Neusner, Studies in Judaism in Late Antiquity from the First to the Seventh Century, i (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973), 535, 7; Peter Brown, Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 35-6.

13. The belief that their martyred prophet had been miraculously revived from the dead, and deified, has been described as a 'stunning suspension of the inflexible laws of the normal', especially in an era when the sciences were apparently so dominant; see Brown, Body and Society, 38-9, 44. Celsus, for example, roundly attacked Christianity for its belief in miracles; see the line-byline rebuttal of this (lost) work in Origen, Contra Celsum, trans. H. Chadwick (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953), 31 and passim.

14. Lloyd P. Gerson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plotinus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); J. A. M. Guckin, 'Christian Asceticism and the Early School of Alexandria', in W. J. Shiels (ed.), Monks, Hermits and the Ascetic Tradition (Oxford: Ecclesiastical History Society/Blackwell, 1985), 30-1.

15. St Augustine, Confessions, trans. R. S. Pine-Coffin (London: Penguin, 1961), book vi, pp. 129-30 and passim. See also Henry Chad-wick, Augustine: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 17-26; Peter Brown, Augustine of Hippo (London: Faber & Faber, 1967); Brown, 'Asceticism', 602, 605-8, 614. Augustine died quoting Plotinus.

16. St Athanasius, 'On Sickness and Health', in David Brakke, Athanasius and the Politics ofAsceticism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 310-11, app. d. See also Michael Williams, 'Divine Image— Prison of Flesh: Perceptions of the Body in Ancient Gnosticism', in M. Feher et al. (eds.), Fragments for a History of the Human Body, 128-47.

17. Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2001), 104-5. The verdict of Edward Gibbon, that they were 'horrid and disgusting', has remained; but though their skin was unwashed, since they ate and drank very little, their evacuations were probably not very great.

18. Caroline Walker Bynum, 'The Female Body and Religious Practice in the Late Middle Ages', inFeher etal. (eds.), Fragments for a History of the Human Body, 162-3; Brown, Body and Society, 441-2.

19. Including the so-called 'libertine sects'; see Henry C. Lea, A History of Sacerdotal Celibacy, 2 vols. (London: Williams & Norgate, 1907), i. 20-1.

20. Abbott, A History of Celibacy, 102-4.

21. On the 'democracy' of asceticism, see Brown, 'Asceticism', 614 and passim; as far as I know, he does not address anarchism.

22. Ibid. 616 and passim.

23. Colin Spencer, The Heretics Feast: A History of Vegetarianism (London: Fourth Estate, 1993), 128-9.

24. See St Athanasius, 'Second Letter to Virgins', in Brakke, Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism, app. b, p. 299; Lea, A History of Sacerdotal Celibacy, 56. See also Joyce E. Salisbury, Church Fathers, Independent Virgins (London: Verso, 1991); Elizabeth Schussler Fiorenza, In Memory of Her: A Feminist Theological Reconstruction of Christian Origins (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).

25. St Ambrose, Concerning Virginity, in Henry Wace and Philip Schaff (eds.), A Select Library ofNicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: A New Series, 14 vols. (Oxford: Parker, 1890-1900), vol. x, book i, ch. vii, pp. 32, 39. The easiest way to access this text is via the Catholic site <http:// www.newadvent.org/fathers/ 34071.htm>. See also Mary Laven, Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the Renaissance Convent (London: Penguin, 2002).

26. St Jerome, Letter 45, in Wace and Schaff (eds.), A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vi. 3-5, <http://newadvent.org/fathers/3001.htm>.

27. Ambrose, Concerning Virginity, book iii, chs. ii-iii, <http://new advent.org/fathers/34073.htm>; id., On the Duties of the Clergy, book i, ch. xviii, <http://newadvent.org/fathers/34011.htm>; Brakke, Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism, app. b, p. 294.

28. Ambrose, Concerning Virginity, book i, pp. 37, 39.

29. Abbott, A History of Celibacy, 96; Brown, Body and Society, 157-8.

30. Augustine's statement of his washing habits in De Sermone Domini in Monte is noted by Henry Chadwick, 'The Ascetic Ideal in the

History of the Church', in Shiels (ed.), Monks, Hermits, and the Ascetic Tradition, 16 n. 70; Brown, Body and Society, 283-4.

31. Ambrose, Duties of the Clergy, 77-80; Exodus 28: 42.

32. Jerome, see esp. Letters 45 and 125; see also J. N. D. Kelley, Jerome: His Life, Writings and Controversies (London: Duckworth, 1975).

33. St Athanasius, 'Dangers of the Public Bath', in 'Second Letter to Virgins', 297-8.

34. William Popper, 'Purification (Muslem)', in Hastings (ed.), The Encyclopaedia ofReligion and Ethics, 497.

35. On Olympias, see Brown, Body and Society, 283; Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind, 88-91; Dorothy Porter, Health, Civilisation and the State: A History of Public Health from Ancient to Modern Times (London: Routledge, 1999), 20-3; Ralph Jackson, Doctors and Diseases in the Roman Empire (London: British Museum Press, 1988), 133-6; on local hospitals in Egypt, see Peter von Minnen, 'Medical Care in Late Antiquity', in P. J. van der Eijk, H. F. Horstmanhoff, and P. H. Schrijvers (eds.), Ancient Medicine in its Socio-Cultural Context, i (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995).

36. The Christian Church 'had become, in effect, an institution possessed of the ethereal secret of perpetual self-reproduction', and as such was an entirely new type of public institution (Brown, Body and Society, 120-1). See also Richard Fletcher, The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity, 371-13S6 AD (London: HarperCollins, 1997).

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