1. See generally Fernand Braudel, Civilisation and Capitalism, 15th-1Sth Century, 3 vols., trans. Sian Reynolds (London: Collins, 1981-4), i: The Structures of Everyday Life; Raffaella Sarti, Europe at Home: Family and Material Culture 1500-1S00 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002). The celebrated twenty-seven volumes of Alfred Franklin, La Vie priveée d'autrefois: Arts, meétiers, mode, mœurs, usage des parisiens du XIIe au XVIIIe siecle (Paris: Plon, 1887-1902) have recently been superseded by Philippe Aries and George Duby (eds.), A History of Private Life, i-v (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 1987-94).
2. Einhard and Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne, trans. Lewis Thorpe (London: Penguin, 1969), 133, 77; Henry Maguire (ed.), Byzantine Court Culture from 829 to 1204 (Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks, 1997).
3. M. A. Manzalaoui (ed.), Secretum Secretorum: Nine English Versions (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), introd. and 'Regimen Sani-tatis: The Booke of Good Governance and Guyding of the Body', 3-9 and passim. See generally C. Stephen Jaeger, The Origins of Courtliness: Civilising Trends and the Formation of Courtly Ideals (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985), 113-75, 179, and passim; Aldo Scaglione, Knights at Court: Courtliness, Chivalry, and Courtesy from Ottonian Germany to the Italian Renaissance (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991).
4. As for example in the many editions of Hugh Rhodes's The Book of Nurture for Menservants and Children (with Stans puer ad mensam) (London: Abraham Veale, 1550?). See generally Norbert Elias, The Civilising Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations, trans. Edmund Jephcott (1939; Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), pt. 2 and passim.
5. Sarti, Europe at Home, 151.
6. Notker the Stammerer, Two Lives of Charlemagne, introd., 30, 131.
7. See Notker, 'Shaving the Devil', in Notker, Two Lives of Charlemagne: 'The bishop who broke the Lenten fast and then made penance by washing the poor, including the Devil' (introd., 30, 115-17).
8. John Julius Norwich, The Normans in Sicily: The Normans in the South 1016-1130 and, The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194 (London: Penguin, 1992), 464, 599-602, 765-7.
9. Francois Boucher, A History of Costume in the West, trans. John Ross (London: Thames & Hudson, 1987), 171-6; David Jacoby, 'Silk in Western Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade', report vii, in Jacoby, Trade, Commodities, and Shipping in the Medieval
Mediterranean (Aldershot: Variorum, 1997), 462; Norwich, The Normans in Sicily, 492.
10. On bards, see John Mathews (ed.), The Bardic Source Book: International Legacy and Teachings of the Ancient Celts (London: Bland-ford, 1988), esp. 26-42; Daniel Corkery, 'The Bardic Schools', see also David Crystal (ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 34-9.
11. The Owl and the Nightingale: Cleanness. St Erkenwald, trans. Brian Stone (London: Penguin, 1977), 77-8, 84, 100.
12. French tapestry La Dame a licorne embroidered at the end of 15th century, now at the Musee des Thermes, Paris. See Georges Vigar-ello, Concepts of Cleanliness: Changing Attitudes in France since the Middle Ages, trans. Jean Birrell (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press/Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1988), 28; Wilhelm Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland (Jena, 1897; Berlin: H. Barsdorf, 1905), 12-13; believed trans. as the History of Public Morality in Germany (Jena, 1906) (no copies found). I am very grateful to Hedi Stadlen for translating the German used here.
13. Sir Nicholas Harris Nicholas, History of the Orders of Knighthood of the British Empire, 3 vols. (London: William Pickering &John Rodwell, 1842), iii. 5-7, 11-15; John Anstis, Observations Introductory to an Historical Essay upon the Knighthood of the Bath (London, 1725). The ceremonial sequence is painted in full in a medieval Garter Book reproduced in Anthony Wagner, Nicolas Barker, and Ann Payne (eds.), Medieval Pageant: Writhe's Garter Book: The Ceremony of the Bath and the Earldom of Salisbury Roll (London: Roxburghe Club/Quaritch, 1997). Actual bathing ceased in 1815, when the mature officers of Waterloo were made companions en masse, and was not revived (personal communication, Garter Herald at Arms).
14. Francis Packard, 'Note on the History of the School of Salerno', in Humphrey Mitford (ed.), The School of Salernum: Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum (London: Humphrey Mitford, 1922), 14-15; Fielding H. Garrison, 'The History of the Regimen Sanitatis', ibid. 56-7. On Salerno hydraulics, see The Trotula: An English Translation of the
Medical Compendium of Women's Medicine, ed. and trans. Monica Green (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 6 and nn. 18, 19; also Paulo Squatriti, Water and Society in Early Medieval Italy, AD 400-1000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).
15. Porter, The Greatest Benefit to Mankind, 106-9. In the 1840s medical historians reported that there was nothing left in the town of Salerno—no remains, no library, and only one doctor, who did not even own a copy of the Salerno Regimen (Mitford (ed.), The School of Salernum, 39-40).
16. Macbeath, Regimen Sanitatis, trans. H. Cameron Gillies (Glasgow: Robert Maclehose, 1911), col. ix, pp. 38-9; Luis Garcia-Ballester, Roger French, Jon Arrizabalaga, and Andrew Cunningham, Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 1-29, 274. See generally Miriam Usher Chapman, Lay Culture, Learned Culture: Books and Social Change in Strasbourg, 1480-1599 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982); Michael McVaugh and Nancy G. Siraisi (eds.), Renaissance Medical Learning: Evolution of a Tradition (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990).
17. Aristotle's Secrets was still going strong in the 18th century: see Roy Porter, '''The Secrets of Generation Display'd'': Aristotle's Masterpiece in Eighteenth-Century England', in R. P. Maccubbin (ed.), ''Tis Nature's Fault': Unauthorised Sexuality during the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 7-21; Mary E. Fissell, 'Making a Masterpiece: The Aristotle Texts in Vernacular Medical Culture', in Charles E. Rosenberg (ed.), Right Living: An Anglo-American Tradition of Self-Help Medicine (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
18. Nicholas Orme, From Childhood to Chivalry: The Education of the English Kings and Aristocracy 1066-1530 (London: Methuen, 1984), 88-90 and passim. A Vienna tacuinum thought to be of Arabic origin, reproduced with tacuinums from Liege, Paris, and Rouen, in Luisa Cogliati Arano, The Medieval Health Handbook: Tacuinum Sanitatis (London: Barrie & Jenkins; New York: George Braziller, 1976), fo. 4.
19. Mitford (ed.), The School of Salernum, 78. On iocunditas, hilaritas, and affabilitas, see Jaeger, The Origins of Courtliness, 116-18.
20. Garrison, 'The History of the Regimen Sanitatis', 60-1. For plague regimens, see Jon Arrizabalaga, 'Facing the Black Death: Perceptions and Reactions of University Medical Practitioners', in GarciaBallester et al., Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death.
21. Glenn Hardingham, 'The Regimen Sanitatis in Late Medieval England', unpub., Cambridge, 2003; I am grateful for his assistance, and English regimens are starting to be surveyed. But see Paul Slack, 'Mirrors of Health and Treasures of Poor Men: The Use of Vernacular Medical Literature in Tudor England', in Charles Webster (ed.), Health, Medicine and Mortality in the 16th Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); see also Virginia Smith, 'Cleanliness: The Development of Idea and Practice in Britain, 1770-1850', Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1985.
22. W. G. Hoskins, The Making of the English Landscape (London: Penguin, 1978); Montague Fordham, The Rebuilding of Rural England (London: Hutchinson, 1924); Christopher Dyer, Everyday Life in Medieval England (London: Hambledon, 1994), 139, 165; Anthony Emery, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales, 1300-1500, i (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
23. Guest latrines in Sir Roger Vaughan's improved hall-house at Tretower, Wales, in 1450 (C. A. Raleigh Radford and David M. Robinson (eds.), Tretower Court and Castle (Cardiff: Welsh Historic Monuments, 1986), 10). Edward Ill's two plumbed palaces were Westminster and King's Langley; my thanks to Dr Ian Mortimer for this reference from his forthcoming book The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, ch. 12. See also Lawrence Wright, Clean and Decent: The History of the Bath and Loo (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980), 35-8.
24. A detailed survey of London legislation and practice can be seen in Mark Jenner, 'Early Modern English Conceptions of ''Cleanness'' and ''Dirt'' as Reflected in the Environmental Regulation of London', D.Phil. thesis, Oxford University, 1991. On urban water provision generally, see Squatriti, Water and Society in Early Medieval
Italy, 16; Roberta J. Magnusson, Water Technology in the Middle Ages: Cities, Monasteries and Waterworks after the Roman Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001), 18-24, 33; and a classic study of water technology by Andre Guillerme, Les Temps de l'eau: La Cite, l'eau et les techniques. Nord de la France. Fin IlIe— début XIXe siècle (Paris: Editions du Champ Vallon/Presses Universitaires de France, 1983).
25. Wright, Clean and Decent, 28-30; Mark Girouard, Life in the French Country House (London: Cassell, 2000), 52; on furniture history and changing attitudes to body space, see also the classic work by Sigfried Giedon, Mechanisation Takes Command: A Contribution to Anonymous History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948), 266 and passim.
26. Braudel, Civilisation and Capitalism, 285-90.
27. Christine de Pizan, The Treasure of the City of Ladies, or, The Book of the Three Virtues, trans. Sarah Lawson (London: Penguin, 1985), 148.
28. Boucher, A History of Costume in the West, 145-222; Francoise Piponnier and Perrine Mane, Dress in the Middle Ages, trans. Caroline Beamish (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 22-3, 40-4, 99-102; Elias, The Civilising Process, 138-9.
29. Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 41; Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a French Village 1294-1324 (London: Penguin, 1980), 141.
30. [The Noble Lyfe and Nature of Man, of Bestes, Serpentys, Fowles and Fissches...] An Early English Version ofHortus Sanitatis... 1521, ed. Noel Hudson (London: Quaritch, 1954), 65; Francoise Piponnier, 'The World of Women', in Christiane Klapisch-Zuber (ed.), A History of Women in the West, ii: Silences of the Middle Ages (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994), 330; Eileen Power, 'The Menagier's Wife', in Power, Medieval People (1924; London: Folio Society, 1999), 127.
31. The Trotula, 54-5, 60-1, and passim; Women's Secrets: A Translation of Pseudo-Albertus Magnus's 'De Secretis Mulierum' with Commentaries, ed. and trans. Helen Rodnite Lemay (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992), passim; Lynette R. Muir, Literature and Society in Medieval France: The Mirror and the Image 1100-1500
(London: Macmillan, 1985), 128; Montserrat Cabré;, 'Cosmetics in the Middle Ages', unpub., Wellcome Unit, Cambridge, Feb. 1992.
32. See the survey of early cosmetic literature in Florence E. Wall, 'Historical Development of the Cosmetic Industry', in Edward Sagarin (ed.), Cosmetics, Science and Technology (New York: Interscience Publishers, 1957), 19-26 and passim.
33. Monica H. Green, 'The Possibilities of Literacy and the Limits of Reading: Women and the Gendering of Medical Literacy', Essay VII in Green, Women's Healthcare in theMedieval West: Textand Contexts (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000).
34. 'Book on the Conditions of Women', in The Trotula, 73.
35. Ibid. 185 nn. 174-5; the full, uncut passage reproduced in Alexandra Barratt, Women's Writing in Middle English (London: Longman, 1992).
36. 'On Treatments for Women', in The Trotula, 91, 142.
38. Leslie G. Matthews, The Royal Apothecaries, Wellcome Historical Medical Library, ns 13 (London, 1967), 18-19; Aytoun Ellis, The Essence of Beauty: A History of Perfume and Cosmetics (London: Secker & Warburg, 1960), 11.
39. 'On Treatments for Women', 205; 'On Women's Cosmetics', 11314. The reference to 'steambaths beyond the Alps' comes from the uncut version in Barratt, Women's Writing in Middle English.
40. Wall, 'Origins and Development', 27.
41. Green, 'The Possibilities of Literacy and the Limits of Reading', 36 and passim; see also Montserrat Cabre, 'From a Master to a Lay-woman: A Feminine Manual of Self-Help', Dynamis: Acta Hisp. Med. Sci. Hist. Illus. (2000), 20: 391 n. 56.
42. Luis Garcia-Ballester, Michael R. McVaugh, and Agustín Rubio-Vela, 'Medical Licensing and Learning in Fourteenth Century Valencia', Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 79/6 (1989), 36-8 n. 13. On 16th-century figures, see Margaret Pelling, 'Appearance and Reality: Barber-Surgeons, the Body, and Disease in Early Modern London', in L. Beier and R. Finlay (eds.), London 1500-1700: The Making of the Metropolis (London: Longman, 1986).
43. Garcia-Ballester et al., 'Medical Licensing and Learning in Fourteenth-Century Valencia', 30-3.
44. Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (London: Rou-tledge & Kegan Paul, 1981), 83.
45. Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland, 28-9, 9; Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 30.
46. Mikkel Aaland, Sweat: The Illustrated History and Description of the Finnish Sauna, Russian Bania, Islamic Hammam, Japanese Mushi-buro, Mexican Temescal and American-Indian and Eskimo Sweatlodge (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Capra, 1978), 60.
47. There are many illustrations in Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland; and in Mitford (ed.), The School ofSale-rnum; but see the larger collection in Alfred Martin, Deutsches Badewesen in Vergangenen Tagen. Nebst einem Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Wasserheilkunde (Jena, 1906).
48. Paul B. du Chaillu, The Land of the Midnight Sun: Journeys through Sweden, Norway, Lapland, and Northern Finland, 1882, quoted in Wilhelm Paul Gerhard, Modern Baths and Bathhouses (New York: Wiley, 1908), ch. xvii, pp. 288-92.
49. Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland, 5, quoted from Guarinonius, Die Grewel der Verwustung (1610). See also the many German bath-books noted in Miriam Usher Chapman, Lay Culture, Learned Culture: Books and Social Change in Strasbourg, 1480-1599 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 105.
50. Alfred Martin, 'The Bath in Japan', Ciba Symposia, 1/5 (1939), 135 and passim.
51. Pizan, The Treasure of the City of Ladies, 154.
52. George Ryley Scott, The Story of Baths and Bathing (London: T. Werner Lawrie, 1939), 77-80.
53. Henry Card, The Reign of Charlemagne: Considered Chiefly with Reference to Religion, Laws and Literature and Manners (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1807), 54.
55. Malcolm Letts, Bruges and its Past (London: A. G. Berry, 1924), quoted in Elspeth Morris (ed.), The Dorothy Dunnett Companion (London: Michael Joseph, 1994), 191-2 (illustrating the dramatized canal journey in Dunnett's novel Niccolo Rising).
56. Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 30, 24.
57. Francis Gagens, Wiesbaden: Its Hot Springs, and their Efficacy and Application, trans. Christian William Kreidel (Wiesbaden, 1851), 3-6; B. Fricker, The Swiss Thermal Watering Places ([1881?]), no page number.
58. Arano, 'Spring', in Tacuinum Sanitatis, Paris, fo. 103.
59. Elias, The Civilising Process, 178-9; Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 23-5; Jacques Rossiaud, Medieval Prostitution, trans. Lydia G. Cochrane (Oxford: Blackwell, 1988), ch. 8 and passim.
60. Rudeck, Tractatus de Cursu Mundi (1397), in Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland, 16-21.
61. Ibid. 22; the illustration is from Breslau.
62. Rossiaud, Medieval Prostitution, 5.
63. Margaret Wade Labarge, Women in Medieval Life (London: Hamilton, 1986), 199-201; J. B. Post, 'A Fifteenth-Century Customary of the Southwark Stews', Journal of the Society of Archivists, 5 (1976), 422-8.
64. The picture on the cover of Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, and often shown elsewhere.
65. Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 27; Johannes Fabricius, Syphilis in Shakespeare's England (London: Jessica Kingsley, 1994), 81-3.
66. Rudeck, Geschichte der Öffentlichen Sittlichkeit in Deutschland, 39.
67. Vigarello, Concepts of Cleanliness, 9-11, 32-4; Rossiaud, Medieval Prostitution, chs. 7, 9, and passim. Both downplay syphilis in favour of plague.
68. Claude Quétel, History of Syphilis, trans. Judith Braddock and Brian Pike (London: Polity Press, 1990), 70.
70. Fabricius, Syphilis in Shakespeare's England, 25; Quetel, History of Syphilis, 71, 66.
72. Pelling, 'Appearance and Reality', 7, 196, and passim; Fabricius, Syphilis in Shakespeare's England, 72-7.
73. Fabricius, Syphilis in Shakespeare's England, 81,110. See also Kevin P. Siena, Venereal Disease, Hospitals and the Urban Poor: London's 'Foul Wards', 1600-1800 (Rochester, NY: Woodbridge, University of Rochester Press, 2004).
74. George Cross, 'Celibacy (Christian)', in Hastings (ed.), The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 271-5.
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