Slightly raised, yellowish, well-circumscribed plaques in the skin, xanthelasmas appear along the nasal portions of one or both eyelids. They may accompany lipid disorders (e.g., hypercholesterolemia), but may also occur independently.
(Source of photos: Tasman W, Jaeger E (eds): The Wills Eye Hospital Atlas of Clinical Ophthalmology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.)
Conjunctivitis r r
Corneal Injury or Infection
Pattern of Redness
Conjunctival injection: diffuse dilatation of conjunctival vessels with redness that tends to be maximal peripherally
Mild discomfort rather than pain
Not affected except for temporary mild blurring due to discharge
Watery, mucoid, or mucopurulent
Not affected Clear
Bacterial, viral, and other infections; allergy; irritation
Ciliary infection: dilation of deeper vessels that are visible as radiating vessels or a reddish violet flush around the limbus. Ciliary infection is an important sign of these three conditions but may not be apparent. The eye may be diffusely red instead. Other clues of these more serious disorders are pain, decreased vision, unequal pupils, and a less than perfectly clear cornea.
Moderate to severe, superficial
Watery or purulent
Not affected unless iritis develops
Changes depending on cause
Abrasions, and other injuries; viral and bacterial infections
Moderate, aching, deep Decreased
May be small and, with time, irregular
Clear or slightly clouded
Associated with many ocular and systemic disorders
Severe, aching, deep Decreased
Acute increase in intraocular pressure— an emergency
Leakage of blood outside of the vessels, producing a homogeneous, sharply demarcated, red area that fades over days to yellow and then disappears
Absent Not affected
Absent Not affected Clear
Often none. May result from trauma, bleeding disorders, or a sudden increase in venous pressure, as from cough
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