Cd

Xanthelasma

Slightly raised, yellowish, well-circumscribed plaques in the skin, xanthelasmas appear along the nasal portions of one or both eyelids. They may accompany lipid disorders (e.g., hypercholesterolemia), but may also occur independently.

(Source of photos: Tasman W, Jaeger E (eds): The Wills Eye Hospital Atlas of Clinical Ophthalmology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001.)

Conjunctivitis r r

Corneal Injury or Infection

Acute Iritis

Glaucoma

Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

Pattern of Redness

Pain Vision

Ocular Discharge

Pupil

Cornea Significance

Conjunctival injection: diffuse dilatation of conjunctival vessels with redness that tends to be maximal peripherally

Mild discomfort rather than pain

Not affected except for temporary mild blurring due to discharge

Watery, mucoid, or mucopurulent

Not affected Clear

Bacterial, viral, and other infections; allergy; irritation

Ciliary infection: dilation of deeper vessels that are visible as radiating vessels or a reddish violet flush around the limbus. Ciliary infection is an important sign of these three conditions but may not be apparent. The eye may be diffusely red instead. Other clues of these more serious disorders are pain, decreased vision, unequal pupils, and a less than perfectly clear cornea.

Moderate to severe, superficial

Usually decreased

Watery or purulent

Not affected unless iritis develops

Changes depending on cause

Abrasions, and other injuries; viral and bacterial infections

Moderate, aching, deep Decreased

Absent

May be small and, with time, irregular

Clear or slightly clouded

Associated with many ocular and systemic disorders

Severe, aching, deep Decreased

Absent

Dilated, fixed

Steamy, cloudy

Acute increase in intraocular pressure— an emergency

Leakage of blood outside of the vessels, producing a homogeneous, sharply demarcated, red area that fades over days to yellow and then disappears

Absent Not affected

Absent Not affected Clear

Often none. May result from trauma, bleeding disorders, or a sudden increase in venous pressure, as from cough

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