Cd

Pitting

Pitting

Swollen foot

Pitting

Pigment

Pitting

Pigment

No pitting

Skin thick.

Swollen foot

Advanced

Foot swollen

Nature of Edema

Skin Thickening

Ulceration

Pigmentation

Edema of Foot

Bilaterality

Examples/ Mechanisms

Soft, pits on pressure

Absent

Absent Absent Present Always

T Interstitial fluid from: legs dependent from prolonged standing or sitting — hydrostatic pressure in veins, capillaries; congestive heart failure —>4- cardiac output, T hydrostatic pressure in veins, capillaries; nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, malnutrition —> low albumin, -l intravascular colloid oncotic pressure; drugs

Soft, pits on pressure; later may become brawny (hard)

May be present, especially near ankle

Common

Common

Often present

Occasionally

Chronic obstruction or valvular incompetence of the deep veins

Soft in early stages, then becomes indurated, hard, nonpitting

Becomes marked

Rare

Absent

Present, including toes Often

Lymph channels obstructed by tumor, fibrosis, inflammation; also from axillary node dissection, radiation

The Musculoskeletal System

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