Iliac Tuberosity

anterior vertebrae

Extension

Intrinsic muscles of the back, sacrospinalis

Rotation

Abdominal muscles, intrinsic muscles of the back

Lateral bending

Abdominal muscles, intrinsic muscles of the back

H The Hip_

Overview. The hip joint is deeply embedded in the pelvis, and is notable for its strength, stability, and wide range of motion. The stability of the hip joint, so essential for weight bearing, arises from the deep fit of the head of the femur into the acetabulum, its strong fibrous articular capsule, and the powerful muscles crossing the joint and inserting below the femoral head, providing leverage for movement of the femur.

Bony Structures and Joints. The hip joint lies below the middle third of the inguinal ligament but in a deeper plane. It is a ball-and-socket joint— note how the rounded head of the femur articulates with the cuplike cavity of the acetabulum. Because of its overlying muscles and depth, it is not readily palpable. Review the bones of the pelvis—the acetabulum, the ilium, and the ischium—and the connection inferiorly at the symphysis pubis and posteriorly with the sacroiliac bone.

On the anterior aspect of the hip, identify the iliac crest at the upper margin of the pelvis at the level of L4. Follow the downward anterior curve and locate the iliac tubercle, marking the widest point of the crest, and continue tracking downward to the anterior superior iliac spine. Place your thumbs on the anterior superior spines and move your fingers downward from the iliac tubercles to the greater trochanter of the femur. Then move your thumbs medially and obliquely to the pubic symphysis, which lies at the same level as the greater trochanter.

On the posterior aspect of the hip, locate the posterior superior iliac spine directly underneath the visible dimples just above the buttocks. Placing your left thumb and index finger over the posterior superior iliac spine, next locate the greater trochanter laterally with your fingers at the level of the gluteal fold and place your thumb medially on the ischial tuberosity. The sacroiliac joint is not palpable. Note that an imaginary line between the posterior superior iliac spines crosses the joint at S2.

Iliac Tuberosity

Spinous process .

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